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FOR THE PEOPLE 

FOR EDVCATION 

FOR SCIENCE 



LIBRARY 

OF 

THE AMERICAN MUSEUM 

OF 

NATURAL HISTORY 



r HE IBIS, 

A 

QDAliTERLY JOURNAL OF ORNITHOLOGY 



KDITED BY 



WILLIAM LUTLEY SCLATER, M.A., F.Z.S. 




VOL. ]IL 1921. 
ELEVENTH SERIES. 

He prayeth well, who lovefh well 
Both man and bird and beast. 

PUBLL^HED BY TEE 
BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION 

AND SOLD BY 

WHELDON & WESLEY, LTD., 28 ESSEX STREET, STRAND, 
LONDON, W.C.2. 

1921. 







PUTNTED BY TAYLOR AXD FKANCIS, 
K.ED LION COURT, FLEET STREET. 



DATES OF ISSUE OF THE PARTS OF 
'THE IBIS' FOR 1921. 

ELEVENTH SERIES. 
VOLUME III. 



Number 1. issued January 1st. 

2. „ April 4th. 

3. „ July 4th. 

4. ,, October 4th. 



Officers of the Britisli Ornitliologists' Union, 
Past and Present. 



Presidents. 



1859-1867. Col. Hexby Maurice Drummoxd-Hat. 

1807-1896. Thomas Lyttleton Powys, Lord Lilfobd. 

1897-1913, Frederick DuCane Godman, F.E.S. 

1913-1918. Col. Robert George Wardlaw-Ramsat. 

1918-1921. William Eagle Clarke, I.S.O., LL.D. 

1921- Henry John Elwes, F.R.S. 

Secretaries and Treasurers. 

1858-1864. Prof. Alfred Newtox, M.A., F.R.S. 

1864-1870. OsBERT Salvin, M.A., F.R.S. 

1870-1882. Frederick Du Cane Godman, F.R.S. 

1882-1889. Henry Feles Dresser. 

1889-1897. Frederick Du Cane Godman, F.R.S. 

1897-1898. OsBERT Saltin, M.A., F.R.S. 

1898-1901. Eugene William Gates. 

1901-1913. John Lewis Bonhote, M.A. 

1913- Edward Charles Stuart Baker, J.P., O.B.E. 

Editors. 

1859-1864. Philip Lutlet Sclater, M.A., F.R.S. 
1865-1870. Prof. Alfred Newton, M.A., F.R.S. 
1871-1876. OsBERT Salyin, M.A., F.R.S. 
1877-1882. OsBERT Salyin, M.A., F.R.S., and Philip Lutley 

Sclater, M.A., F.R.S. 
1883-1888. Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F.R.S., and 

Howard Saunders. 
1889-1894. Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., F.R.S. 
1895-1900. Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., and 

Howard Saunders. 
1901-1912. Philip Lutley Sclater, M.A., Ph.D., F.R.S., and 

Arthur Humble Ev^ans, M.A. 
1913- William Lutley Sclater, M.A. 

SER. XI. VOL. III. ^ 



. LIST OE THE MEMBERS 

OF THE 

BRITISH ORNITHOLOGISTS' UNION. 
1921. 



[An asterisk indicates an Original Member. It is particularly requested that 
Members sliould give notice to tlie Secretary of the Union of any error in their 
addresses or descriptions in this List, in oi-der tliat it may be corrected.] 



Date of 
Election. 

1916. Adams, Ernest Edward ; Lloyd's, Royal E.xchango, E.G. 3. 

1914. Aldworth, Ca|)t. Thomas Preston, D.S.O., 3rd Battn., 

West, Kent Hegt., Mesopotamia. 
1911. Alexander, Horace Gundry; 7S Gibbins Road, Selby Oak, 

Rirminglia-m. 
1920. Andrews, William Henry Makens ; Hethersetfc, Norwich, 
1888. Aplin, Oliver Vernon; Stonehill House, Bloxham, Oxoii. 
1919. Archer, Sir Geoffrey Frances, K.C.M.G. ; Government 

House, Berbera, Somaliland. 
189G. Archibald. Charles E. ; 2 Darnley Road, West Park, 

Leeds, Yorks. 
1919. Arnold, Edwin Carleton ; The College, Eastbourne. 
1896. Arrigoni degli Oddi, Count Ettore, Professor of Zoology, 

University, Padua; and Ca'oddo, Monselice, Padua, Italy. 
1901. Arundel. Major Walter B., F.Z.S. ; High Ackworth, Ponte- 

fract, Yorks. 

1915. Ashby, Edwin ; Wittunga, Blackwood, Adelaide, S. Australia. 
1901. Ashby, Herbert; Broadway House, Brookvale Road. 

Southampton. 
1908. Ashworth, John Wallwork, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P.. F.R.G.S., 

E.G.R. : Thorne Bank, Heaton Moor, near Stockport, 

Cheshire, 
1918. A STLEY, Arthur ; Freshficld, Ambleside, Westmoreland. 

SER. XI. — VOL. III. h 



VIU 



Date of 
Election. 



^5 1897. AsTLET, Hubert DELiVAi, M.A,, F.Z.S, ; Brinsop Court, 

Hereford. 
1919. Backhotise, Thomas Porter; Trinity College, Cambridge; 

and 24 Green Street, Cambridge. 
1921. Bailey, Major Feedeetck Marshman, C.I.E. ; 7 Drummond 

Place, Edinburgh. 
1921. Baker, Captain Cyprian Thurlow ; Kaduna, Northern 

Province, Kigeria. 
1802. Baker, Edward Ciiaeles Stuart, J.P., O.B.E., F.Z.S., F.L.S., 

H.F.A.O.U. ; 6 Harold Road, Upper Norwood, S.E. 19. 

{Hon. Secretary and Treasurer.) 
2o 1001. Baker, Joun C, M.B., B.A. ; Ceely House, Aylesbury, 

Bucks, 
1906. Bannerman, David Armitage, M.B.E., B.A., F.R.G.S. ; 

6 Palace Gardens Terrace, Kensington, W. 8 ; and British 

Museum (Nat. Hist.), Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. 
1890. Bakclat, Francis Hubert, F.Z.S. ; The Warren, Cromer, 

Norfolk. 
1885. Baeclat, Hugh Gurney, F.Z.S. ; Colney Hall, Norwich, 

Norfolk. 
1903. Bartels, Max. ; Pasir Datar, Halte Tjisaiit (Preanger), Java, 

Dutch East Indies. 
25 190G. Bates, GeorctE L., C.M.Z.S. ; Bitye, vu2 Ebolowa, Cameroon, 

West Africa. 
1913. Baynks, George Kenneth; 120 Warwick Street, S.W. 1. 
1912. Brebi^ William, C.M.Z.S. ; Tropical Research Station of 

the New York Zoological Society, Katabo, Bartica 

District, British Guiana. 
1910. Beeston, Harry ; Sunnymead, South Street, Havaiit, Hants. 

1920. Belcher, Charles F. ; Zoraba, Nyasaland. 

3c 1897. Benson, John, P.O. Box 2G2, Vancouver, B, Columbia. 

1897. Berey, William, B.A. , LL.B.; Tayfield, Newport, Fifeshire. 
1917. Beetram-Jones, John William ; Kelvcdon Hall, Brentwood, 
Essex. 

1921. Best, Miss Mary G. S. ; 32 Dover Street, W, 1. 

1914. Betham, Brigadier-Goneral Robert M. ; Fiveways, Church 
Plill, Camberley. 
35 1907. Bethell, The Hon. Richard, F.Z.S. (Scots Guards); 12 Man- 
cli(;.ster Square, W. 1. 
1921, Bkttington, John Brindley; New College, Oxford. 



IX 



Date of 
Election. 



1921. Bdven, John Osmund, M.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; The 
Portland Hotel, Great Portland Street, W. 1. 

1920. Beveridge, Frederick Spencer ; St. Leonards Hill, Dun- 
fermline. 

1907. Bickerton, William, F.Z.S. ; Kingsmuir, 21 Oxhey E,oad, 

Watford, Herts. 
40 18S0. BiDWELL, Edward; 1 Trig Lane, Upper Thames Street, 
E.G. 4. 

1919. Bigger, Dr. William Kenneth, M.G. ; P. ^1.0., Nazareth, 

Galilee, Palestine. 
1892. Bird, The Rev. Maurice C. H., M.A. ; Brunstead Rectory, 

Stalham, S.O., Norfolk. 
1891. Blaauw, Frans Ernst, C.M.Z.S. : Gooilust, 'sGravelaud, 

Hilversum, Noord-Holland. 

1913. Blackwood, Lt. George Glendinning, M.C. (Seaforth High- 

landers) ; 1 Blackness Crest, Dundee, N.B. 
45 1903. Blathwayt, I'he Rev. Francis Linley, M.A. ; Melbury 
Rectory, Dorchester, Dorset. 

1914. Blyth, Robert Oswald, M.A. ; 35 St. Vincent Place, 

Glasgow. 

1897. BoNAR, Tlie Rev. Horatius Ninian, F.Z.S. ; 22 Blackford 

Road, Edinburgh. 
1905. Bone, Henry Peters. 

1894. Bonhote, John Lewis, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Park Hill 

House, Carshalton. 
50 190G. Bookman, Staines; Heath Farm, Send, Woking, Surrey. 

1898. Booth, George Albert; The Hermitage, Kirkham, Lan- 

cashire. 
1904. Booth, Harry B., F.Z.S. ; Rybill, Ben Rhydding, via Leeds, 
Yorks. 

1920. HoRMAN, Major Frank William; 43 « Bow Lane, E.G. 4 ; 

and M.G.C. (1), The Residency, Cairo. 

1908. BoRRER, Cliefohi) Dalison; 6 Durham Place, Chelsea, 

S.W. 3. (Committee.) 
55 1918. Boyd, Capt. Arnold Whitwoeth, M.C. (Lancashire Fusiliers); 
Frandloy House, Northwich. 

1915. Bradford, Arthur Danby, F.Z.S. ; Upton Lodge, Watford, 

Herts. 

1895. Braueord, Sir John Rose, K.C.M.G., C.B., M.D., D.Sc, 

F.R.S., F.Z.S ; 8 Manchester Square, W. 1. 

h2 



Date of 
Election. 

1*J09. Eriggs, Thomas Henrt, M.A., F.E.S. ; Sefton, Dawlish, 

South Devon. 
1902. Bristowe, Bertram Arthur ; Ashford Farm, Stoke 

])'Abernon, Cobbam, Surrey. 
60 1919. Brockelbank, Lt.-Col. Eichard Hugh Rotds, D.S.O., 

9th Lancers ; Watergate House, Bulford, Wilts. 
1908. Brook, Edward Jonas, F.Z.S. ; Hoddani Castle, Ecclefechan, 

Dumfriesshire. 
1920. Brooks, Major Allan, D.S.O. ; Okanagau Landing, British 

Columbia. 
1912. Brown, Thomas Edward ; c/o Messrs. G. Beyts & Co., 11 Port 

Tewfik, Suez, Egypt. 
1900. Bruce, William Speirs, LL.D., F.B.S.E. ; Scottish Ooeano- 

graphical Laboratory, Surgeon's Hall. Edinburgh. 
65 1911. Buchanan, Captain Edavard Mackenzie Murray; Leny, 

Callandar. 

1907. Buckley, Charles Mars : 4 Hans Crescent, S.W. 1. 

1906. BucKNiLL, Sir John Alexander Strachey, K.C, M.A., 

F.Z.S. ; Supreme Court, Patna, India ; and Athenaeum 
Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 1. 

1908. BuNYARD, Percy Frederick, F.Z.S. : 57 Kidderminster lload, 

Croydon, Surrey. 

1907. Butler, Author Gardiner, Ph.D., F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; 124 Beck- 

enham Boad, Beckenhara, Kent. 
70 1899. Butler, Arthur Lennox, F.Z.S. : St. Leonard's Park, 
Horsham, Sussex. 
1905. Buxton, Anthony ; Knighton, Buckhurst Hill, Essex. 
1912. Buxton, Dr. Patrick Alfred ; Department of Health, 

Government House, Jerusalem. 
1896. Cameron, Major James S. (2nd hn. lloyal Sussex llegt.); 

Low Wood, Bethersden, Ashford, Kent, 
1888. Cameron, John Duncan; Low Wood, ]5othersden, Ashford, 
Kent. 
75 1909. Carroll, Clement Joseph ; Bocklow, Felhard, Co. Tipperary, 
Ireland. 
1904. Carruthers, Alexander Douglas ; Barmer Hall, King's 

Lynn, Norfolk. 
1908. Carter, Thomas; Wensleydale, Mulgravelld., Sutton, Surrey. 
1890. Cave, Capt. Charles John Philip, M. A., F.Z.S.; Ditcham 
Park, Petersfield, Hants. 



Date ol 
Election. 

1919. Chance, Edgar P.; 9 Hay Hill, Berkeley Square, W. 1. 
So 1919. Chartf.ris, The Hon. Guy Lawrence ; 26 Catherine Street, 

Buckingham Palace Poad, S.W.I. 
1882. Chase, Pobekt William ; Heme's Nest, Bewdley, 

Worcestershire. 
1921. Chasen, Frederick Ndtten; Paffles Museum. Singapore. 
1908. Cheesman, Major Robert E. ; c/o The High Commissioner, 

Baghdad, Mesopotamia. 
1910. Chubb, Charles, F.Z.S. ; British Museum (Natural 

History), Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. 
^S 1918. Chubb, Capt. Patrick Arthur; c/o London Joint City & 

Midland Bank, 8 New Coventry Street, W. 1. 

1912. Clark, George WixNgeield, M.A., P.Z.S. ; "Homeland," 

Lode, Cambridge. 
1904. Clarke, Major Goland van Holt, D.S.0.,E.Z.S. ; Chilwbrth 

Court, Pomsey, Hants. 
1916. Clarke, John Philip Stephenson; Borde Hill, Cuckfield, 

Sussex. 
1889. Clarke, Col. Stei'henson Robert, C.B., F.Z.S. ; IJorde Hill, 

Cuckfield, Sussex. 
90 1880. Clarke, William Eagle, I.S.O., LL.D., F.L.S,, F.R.S.E. ; 

53 North Castle Street, Edinburgh. 
1901. Cochrane, Capt. Hexrv Lake, R.N. ; The Chase, Whaddon, 

Bletchley, Bucks. 
1898. Cocks, Alfred Heneage, M.A., F.Z.S. ; Poynetts, Skirmett, 

near Henley-on-Thames, Oxon. 
1895. Coles, Richard Edward; Rosebank, New Milton, S.O., 

Hants. 
1911. CoLLETT, Anthony Keeling; 5 Stone Buildings, Lincoln's 

Inn, W.C. 2. 
95 1904. Collier, Chakles, F.Z.S. ; Bridge House, Culmstock, 

Devon ; and Windham Club, St. James' Square, S.W. 1. 
1919. CoLLiNGE, Dr. Walter Edward, D.Sc, M.Sc, F.L.S. 

F.E.S. ; The Museum, York. 
191G. Cor.TART, Dr. Henry Neville; " Makum." Alexander Road, 

Epsom, Surrey. 
r.)09. CoNGREVE, Capt. William Maitland, M.C. ; The Forest, 

Kerry, Montgomeryshire. 

1913. Cook, James Pembbrton ; Kiora, Kjambu, British East 

Africa. 



I)iitu of 
Election. 

loo 1!)14. CouRTOis, The llev. li. L., S.J. ; Director of the Sikawei 

Museum, near Shanghai, China. 
1913. Cowan, Francis; Wester Lea, Murrayfield, Midlotliian. 
1920. Coward, Thomas Alfued, F.Z.S., F.E.S. ; Brentwood, Eow- 

dou, Cheshire, 
1894. Crewe, Sir Vaxjncey Harpur, Bt. ; Calke Ahhey, Derliy. 
1917. Cunningham, JosiAs, II. N.V.E. ; Eernhill. Belfast. 
105 191G. CuRRiE, Algernon James ; Chief Audit Officer, S.P.R., 

Shiraz, vici Bushire, S. Persia. 
1915. Currie, lloRERT Ale.xander (Chinese Customs); The 

Custom House, Hankow, China. 
1899. Curtis, Frederick, F.li.C.S. ; Alton House, lledhill, 

Surrey. 
189G. Danfoed, Lt.-Col. Bertram W,Y., li.E. ; c/o Messrs. Cox & 

Co., 16 Cliaring Cross, S.W. 1. 
1883. Davidson, James, F.Z.S.; 32 Drumsheugli Gardens, Edin- 

hurgh. 
1 10 1921. Davies, Capt. Eichard IIees ; Carreg-yr-Halen, Mcuai 

Bridge, Anglesey. 
1905. Davis, K. J. Acton, M.C, F.R.C.S., F.Z.S. ; 24 Upper 

Berlveley Street, W. 1. 
1921. Deane, Robert Heward ; " Bariken," 23 Grange lload, 

Ealing, W. 5. 

1920. Delacour, Jean; Chateau de Cleres, Seine Inferieure, 

France. 
1909. Delme-Eadcuffe, Capt. Alfred (105th Maratha Light 
Infantry); c/o Messrs. Cox & Co., Bombay, India. 
1 15 1920. Delme-IIadcliffe, Lt.-Col. Henry; c/o Cox & Co., 
16 Charing Cross, S.W. 1. 

1921. Dempster, George Edward William ; 224 Tufnell Park 

Eoad, N. 19. 
1902. Dent, Charles Henry ; Snow Hall, Darlington, Durham. 
1916. Despoit, Giuseppe, Curator of the Natural History Museum, 

The University, Malta. 
1921. Dewhurst, Capt. Frederick Wynford ; " Elmwood," Xorth- 

end Eoad, Hampstead, N. 3. 
120 1893. De AVinton, William Edward, F.Z.S. ; 19 Eunisniore 
Gardens, S.W. 7. 
1896. DoBBiE, James Bell, F.E.S. E., F.Z.S. ; 12 Soutli Inverleith 

Terrace, Edinburgli. 



xlii 

Jjate of 
Election, 

1889. DoBiE, William Henky, M.K.C.S. ; 2 Hunter Street, 

Chester. 
1920. Donald, Chakles Hilliard ; Director of Fisheries, Dharra- 

sala, Panjah, India. 
1904. Drake-Brockman, Lt.-Col. lULPn Evelyn, D.S.O., M.ll.C.S., 

L.E.C.P., F.Z.S.; "Eldama," Salvington, Worthing. 
125 1890. Drtjmmond-Hay, Col, James A. G. 11.- (Coldstream Guards); 

Seggieden, by Perth, 

1878. DuRNFOKD, W. Arthur, J.P. ; Elsecar, Barnsley, Yorks. 
1903. Earle, Edward Vavasour ; " Riverside," South Dareiith, 

Kent. 
1914. Edwards, Laurence Albert Curtis, M.A.; 61 Elphinstone 

Road, Hastings. 
1895. Elliot, Edmund A. S., M.R.C.S. ; Woodville, Kingsbridge, 

South Devon. 
130 1884. Elliott, Algernon, C.I.E. ; 41 Stanley Gardens, Hamp- 

stead, N.W. 3. 
1866. Elwes, Henry John, F.R.S., F.Z.S.; Colesborne, Cheltenham, 

Gloucestershire, (President.) 

1920. Evans, Lt. -Commander Arthur, K.N. ; H.M.S. ' Vimeria,' 

c/o G.P.O., London. 

1879, Evans, Arthur Humble, M.A., F.Z.S. ; 9 Harvey Road, 

Cambridge. 

1888. Evans, William, F.R.S.E. ; 38 Morningside Park, Edin- 
burgh. 
^35 1916. Ezra, Alfred, F.Z.S. ; Foxwarren Park, Cobham, Surrey. 

1892. Fairbridge, William George ; 141 Long Market Street, 
Capetown, South Africa. 

1916. Falkiner, Capt. John McIntire, I, M.S., F.R.C.S. ; 22 St. 
Stephen's Green, Dublin. 

1909. Fanshawe, Capt. Richard D. (late Scots Guards) ; The 
Cottage, Rrimpton, Berks. 

1921. Faruuhar, Arthur McNeill; 55 Hans Road, S.W. 3. 

140 1894. FARauHAR, Admiral Sir Arthur Murray, K.C.B., C.V.O.; 

Acheron, Aboyne, N.B. 
1898. Farquhar, Rear-Admiral Stuart St, J,, R.N, ; Naval & 

Military Club, Piccadilly, W, 1. 
1921. Feasey, Gilbkrt George; 3 Oakdalo Road, Streathanu 

S.W. 16 ; and Abinsi, via Ljkoja, Northern Nigeria. 
1921. Field, Frank James Richard; Gonda, Oudh, India. 



iiV 



Date of 
Election. 



1921. Finch, Lieut. Harold Bingley, M.C. ; "Arundel," Prospect 
lload, Shaiiklin, Isle of Wight. 
145 lyOl. FiNLiNsoN, Horace W., F.Z.S. ; 5 Eosamond Road, Bedford, 
1921. Fisher, Kenneth; The Briary, Eton College, Windsor. 

1885. Fitzherbert-Brockholes, William Joseph ; Claughton Hall, 

Garstang, Lancashire. 

1902. Flower. Major Staxlex Smyth, F.Z.S. ; Kedah House, 

Zoological Gardens, Giza, Egypt. 
1912. Floyd, James Francis Mlrray, B.A. ; The University, 
Glasgow. 
150 1912. Foster, Arthur H., M.E.C.S., L.R.CP. ; Sussex House, 
8S Tilehouse Street, Hitchin, Herts. 

1903. Foster, Nevin Harkness, F.L.S., M.K.I.A. ; Hillsborough, 

Co. DoAvn, Ireland. 

1880. Foster, William ; 39 Colville Gardens, Bayswater, W. 11. 
1921. Francis, Richard Taunton, F.Z.S. ; "Fairhaven," Peak's 

Hill, Purley, Surrey. 

1881. Freke, Percy Evans ; South Point, Limes Pioad, Folkestone. 
155 1895. Frohawk, Frederick William, F.E.S. ; Uplands, Thunders- 
ley, Essex. 

1909. Frost, William Edward, J. P. ; Ardvreck, Crieff, Perth- 
shire. 

1881. Gadow, Hans, Ph.D., F.P.S., F.Z.S. ; Cleramendi, Great 
Shelford, near Cambridge. 

1886. Gainsborough, Charles William Francis, Earl of ; Exton 

Park, Oakham, Rutland. 
1 907. Gandolfi, Alfonso Otho Gandolfi-Hornyold, Duke, Ph.D. ; 

Blackmore Park, Hanley Swan, Worcestershire. 
160 1921. GiBB, David Eric Wilsok ; Bridgehouse, Gerrard's Cross, 

Bucks. 
1902. GiBBiNS, William Bevington, F.Z.S. ; Ettington, Stratford- 

on-Avon, Warwickshire. 
1921. Gilbert, Capt. Humphrey Adam; New University Club, 

St. James's Street, S.W. 1. 
1921. Gill, Edwin Leonard, M.Sc, Curator of the Hancock 

Museum, Barras Bridge, Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
1919. GiLLON, Mrs. Nina; 1-1 Carlton Terrace, Edinburgh, 
165 1903. Gladstone, Capt. Hugh Steuart, M.A., F.Z.S., F.R.S.E., 

F. S.A.Scot.; Capenoch, Thornhill, Dumfriesshire; and 

40 Lunnox Gardens, S.W. 1. {Committee.) 



xV 



Diitf of 
Election. 



1021. Glegg, William Edwin ; Tlie House, Albion Brewery, 

AVhitechapel Eoad, E. 1. 
1021. GoDMAN, Miss Eva M. ; Soutli Lodge, Horsliam. 
1908. GouMAN, Lt.-Col. Edwakd Shiklky (2iid Dorset Eegimeiit) ; 

Hampsteel, Cowfold, Sussex. 
*1858. GoDMAN, Percy Sanden, 13. A., C.M.Z.S. ; Hampsteel, 

Cowfold, Sussex. {Gold Medallist.) 
170 1006. Goodall, Jeremiah Matthews; The Kest, Bembridge, Isle of 

Wight. 
1900. Goodfellow, Walter, F.Z.S. ; The Poi^ars, Kettering, 

T^orthants. 

1920. Gordon, Mrs. Addeey ; Otterburn Tower, Utterburn, 

Is'orthumberland. 

1921. Gordon, John G. M. ; Corsemalzic, Whauphill, Wigtown- 

shire, N.B. 
1906. Gordon, Seton Paul, F.Z.S. ; Aucliintoul, Aboj'ue, 

Aberdeenshire. 
175 1012. GossE, Major Philip, M.R.C.S., L.ll.C.P., R.A.M.C. ; Savile 

Club, Piccadilly, W. 1 ; and 25 Argyle Road, Kensington, 

W.8. 
1899. Gould, Francis Herbert Carkuthers, F.Z.S.; Matham 

Manor House, East Molesey, Surrey. 
• 1895. Gkabham, Oxley, M.A. ; The Museum, York. 
1920. Graham, Major Claude ; IS'orthampton Regt., Army and 

Navy Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 1 ; and Talodi, Nuba Mts. 

Province, Sudan. 
1909. Grant, Capt. Claude Henry Baxter, F.Z.S. ; c/o The Chief 

Secretary to the Government, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika 

Territorj^ ; and Sports Club, St. James's Square, S.W. 1. 
180 1918. Grant, Francis ; 22 Bushmead Avenue, Bedford. 

1913. Greening, Linnaeus, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Faiiiight, Grappenhall, 

near Warrington, Cheshire. 
1909. Grey of Falloden, The Rt. Hon. Edward, The Viscount, 

K.G., P.C., F.Z.S. ; Falloden, Christon Bank, R.S.O., 

Northumberland. 
1906. Griffith, Arthur Foster ; 59 Montpellier Road, Brighton, 

Sussex. 
1920. Gkiscom, Ludlow, 37 Fifth Avenue, New York, U.S.A. 
185 1885. Guillemard, Francis Henry Hill, M.A., M.D., F.Z.S. ; Old 

Mill House, Trumpington. Cambridge. 



Date of 
Election. 

1908. GtJKNKV, Gerard Hudson, F.Z.S., F.E.S. ; Keswick Hall, 

Norwich, Norfolk. 
J 870. GuRNEY, John Henry, F.Z.S. ; Keswick Hall, Norwich ; and 

Atheiifeum Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 1. 
1896. Gurney, lloBERT, F.Z.8. ; Ingham Old Hall, Stalham, 

Norfolk. 
1891. Haigh, George Henry Caton, F.Z.S. ; Graiusby Hall, Great 

Grimsby, Lincolnshire. 
190 1887. Haines, John Pleydell Wilton ; 17 King Street, 

Gloucester. 
1898. Hale, The llev. James Kashleigh, M.A. ; Boxley Vicarage, 

Maidstone, Kent. 
1913. Hardy, Rear Admiral Ernest Clifford, H.N. ; Wolwich 

House, Wymyngswold, nr. Canterbury, Kent. 
1900. Harper, Edmund William, F.Z.S. ; 6 Ashburnham Road, 

Bedford. 
1900. Harris, Henry Edward; " Sunnycote," 53 Christchurch 

Road, Bournemouth. 
195 1921. Harrison, .Dr. James M., D.Sc, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; 

St. Anne's, 1 Tubs Hill, Sevenoaks. 
1893. Hartert, Ernst J. 0., Ph.D., F.Z.S. ; The Zoological Museum, 

Tring, Herts. 
1921. Harvey, Robert Elliott; 46 Lewin Road, Streatham, 

S.W. 16. 
1900. Hasluck, Percy Pedley Harford ; The Wilderness, South- 
gate, N. 1-4. 
1 898. Hawker, Richard Macdonnell, F.Z.S. ; Bath Club, Dover 

Street, W. 1 ; and c/o Messrs. Dalgety & Co., 96 Bishops- 
gate, E.C. 2. 
200 1918. Heudert, Capt. Edward Grevile, R.A.F. ; c/o Messrs. Cox 

& Co., R.A.F. Branch, 111 St. Martin's Lane, W.C. 2 ; 

and Bangkok, Siam. 
1902. Hett, Geoffrey Sbccombe, M.B., F.Z.S. ; 8 Wimpole 

Street, W. 1. 
1913. Hewitt, John, M.A. ; Director of the Albany Museum, 

Grahamstown, South Africa. 
1900. Hills, Lt.-Col. John Waller ; 98 Mount Street, 

W. 1. 
1884. HoLDBWoBTH, Charlbs Jambs, J. p. ; Fernliill, Alderley Edge, 

Cheshire. 



Date of 

Election. 

205 1920. HoLLAXD, Eaedlijy, F.R.C.S. ; 55 Queen Anne Street, Caven- 
dish Square, W. 1. 

1905. HoPKiNSox, Emilius, M.B., D.S.O., F.Z.S. ; 45 Sussex Square, 
Brighton, Sussex; and Bathurst, Gambia, West Africa. 

191(5. HoPwooD, CvRiL (Indian Forests) ; c/o Messrs. Thos. Cook 
& Son, Rangoon, Burma. 

1888. HoRSFiELU, Hbhkert Knight ; Crescent Hill, Filej-, Yorks. 

1895. Howard, HEifRr Eliot, F.Z.S. ; Clarelands, near Stourport, 

Worcestershire. 
210 1881. Howard, Robert James ; Shearbank, Blackburn, Lanca- 
shire. 
1911. Hudson, Reginald; 16 Warwick Road, Stratford-on- 

Avon. 
1920. Humphreys, George Rayner; Ivy Lodge, Drumcondra, 

Dublin. 
1920. HuxHAM, Engr.-Lt.-Commdr. Harold Hugh, D.S.O., R.N. ; 

H.M.S. 'Dartmuth,' South American Station, c/o G.P.O. 

London ; and "The Firs," Valloy Road, Chandlers Ford, 

Hants. 
1918. Inglis, Charles McFarlane; Baghownie Factory, Laheria, 

Serai P.O. Behar, India. 
215 1901. Ingram, Capt. Collingwood, F.Z.S.; "The Grange," 

Benenden, Cranbrook, Kent. 
1902. Innes Bey, Dr. Walter Francis ; 6 Square Halim Pasha, 

Cairo, Egypt. 
1913. Iredale, Tom ; 39 Northcote Avenue, Ealing, W. 5. 

{Committee). 
1888. Jackson, Sir Frederick John, K.C.M.G., C.B.. F.L.S., 

F.Z.S. 
1892. James, Henry Ashworth, F.Z.S. ; Hurstmonceux Place, 

Hailsham, Sussex. 
220 1920. Janson, Charles Wilfrid ; 6 Hyde Park Square, W. 2. 

1896. Jesse, William, B.A., F.Z.S. ; Meerut College, Meerut, 

India. 
1891. Johnston, Sir Harry Hamilton, G.C.M.G., K.C.B., F.Z.S. 

St. John's Priory, Poling, near Arundel, Sussex. 
1920. Jones, Alexander Edward ; Tattersall House, Ambala, 

India. 
1909. Jones, Surgeon-Commander Kenneth Hurlstone, M.B., 

Ch.B., F.Z.S., R.N. ; H.M.S. 'Fisgurd,' Portsmouth. 



XVIII 

Date of 
Election. 

225 1899. JouKDAiN, The Eev. Francis Chahles lloBKKT, M.A. ; Apple- 
ton Rectoiy, Abingdon, Berks. 

1902. Joy, Norman Humbkkt, M.H.C.S., L.R.C.P. : Thcale, Berks. 

1880. Keluam, Brigadier-General Henky Robert, C.B. (late High- 
land J.ight Infantry); Arm}' and Navy Club, Pall Mall 
S.W. 1. 

1894. Kelsall, Lt. Col. Harry Joseph, B.A.: c/o Messrs. Cox & 

Co., 16 Charing Cross, S.W. 1. 
1897- Kelsall, The Rev. John Edward, M.A. ; Milton Rectory, 

New Milton, Hants. 
230 1904. Kelso, John Edward Harry, M.D. ; Braeside, Edgewood, 

Lower Arrow Lake, British Columbia. 
1914. Kennedy, Cnpt. John Noble, M.C, R.G.A. ; The Manse, 

Port Patrick, Wigtownshire, Scotland ; and United 

Service Club, S.W. 1. 

1891. Kerr, John Gbaham, P\R.S., E.Z.S,, Regius Professor of 

Zoology; 9 The University, Glasgow. 

1895. KiNGSKORD, "William Edwakd : Cairo, Egypt. 

1902. KiNNEAR, Norman Boyd, C.M.Z.S. ; British Museum (Natural 
History), Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. 
235 1910. Kloss, Cecil Boden, E.Z.S., F.R.A.I. ; Assistant Director 
of Museums, Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States. 
1921. Knight, Capt. Charles William Robert, M.C. ; Jessons, 
Sevenoaks. 

1892. Laidlaw, Thomas Geddes ; Bank of Scotland House, 

Duns, Berwickshire. 
1913. Lambert, Godfrey Charles ; Woodcote, Esher, Surrey. 
1917. Lampard-VachelL; Benjamin Garnet; Pembroke College, 

Cambridge. 
240 1884. Langton, Dr. Herbert; St. Moritz, 01 Dyke Road, Brighton, 

Sussex. {Committee.) 
1881. Lascelles, The Hon. Gerald William, F.Z.S. ; Tillington 

House, Petworth, Sussex. 
1892. La Toucue, John David DiauES, C.M.Z.S. ; c/o Custom 

House, Mengtze, Yunnan, China. 
1898. Learoyd, a. Ernest; G Lowndes Street, S.W. 1. 
1910. Lemon, Mrs. Margaretta Louisa, F.Z.S. ; Hillcrest, Redhill, 

Surrey. 
245 1898. Le Souef, Dudley, C.M.Z.S. ; Director of the Zoological 

Gardens, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. 



XIX 



Date of 
B lection. 



J 921. Lewis, Stanley ; Highfield House, Hillfield, Cheddar, 

Somerset. 
1921. Lewis, Thomas, F.E.S., C.B.E. ; 10 Chesterford Gardens, 

Hampstead, N.W. 3. 
1897. LiLFOKD, John, Lord, F.Z.S.; Lilford Hall, Oundle, 

Northants, 
1909. Lings, George Herbert ; Richmond Hill, Cheadle, Cheshire. 
150 1897. Lodge, George Edward, F.Z.S. ; Hawkhouse, Park Road, 

Camberlej', Surrej-. 
1908. Long, Sydney Hiirbert, :\r.D., F.Z.S. ; 31 Surrey Street, 

Norwich, Norfolk. 

1919. Longstaff, Capt. Tom George, M.A., M.D., F.Z.S. ; Picket 

Hill, Ringwood, Hants. 
1921. Low, Dr. George Carmichael, M.I)., M.R.C.P. ; 6 Bentinck 

Street, W. 1 . 
1904. Lowe, Percy Roycroft, B.A., M.B., B.C. ; British Museum 

(Nat. Hist.), Cromwell Road, S.W. 7. (Committee.) 
255 1914. Lowe, Wieloughby Pkescott : Gorsemoor, Throwleigh, 

Okehampton, Devon; and c/o Postmaster, Khartoum, 

Sudan. 

1920. Loyd, Captain Lewis Richard William ; The Lookout, 

Branscombe, Beer S.O., S. Devon. 

1921. Lucas, Nathaniel Sampson, M.B. ; 19 Westbourne Terrace, 

Hyde Park, W, 2. 
1920. Ludlow, Frank, M.A.; Club of Western India, Poona, 

India ; and Priory Gate, Dunster, Somerset. 
1920. Luke, Leonard Percival ; 9 Piggott Street, Brighouse, 
Yorks. 
260 1904. Lynes, Captain Hubert, C.B., C.M.G., R.N. ; 23 Onslow 
Gardens, South Isensington, S.W. 7. 
1920. Mackenzie, Colonel Alexander Francis, C.M.G., M.V.O. 
(late Argyle & Sutherland Highlanders) ; Old House, 
\[uir of Ord, N.B. 
1917. Mackenzie, John Mitchell Douglas, B.A., C.M.Z.S., Indian 
Forest Service ; c/o Thos. Cook & Son, Rangoon, Burma, 
India ; and 6 Tlie Circus, Bath. 
191G. Mackworth-Praed, Cyril W. ; Dalton Hill, Albury, Surrey; 

and 51 Onslow Gardens, S.W. 7. 
1906. Macmillan, William Edward Frank; 42 Onslow Square, 
S.W. 7. 



Patp of 
Elertion. 

265 1920. Madoc, Lieut. -Colonel Henry William ; Ashfield, Douglas, 

Isle of Man. 
190G. Magrath, Lt.-Col. Henry Augustus Frederick, Indian 

Army (retired) : Junior Constitutional Club, Piccadilly, 

W. 1. 
1921. Maidstone, Viscount; 23 Manchester Square, W. 1. 
1917. Malcomson, Herbert Thomas; Glenorehy, Knock, Belfast. 
1917. Mann, Capt. Edward Hamilton, M.C, K.H.A. ; Junior 

United Service Club, Charles Street, S.W. 1. 
270 1907. Mann, Thomas Hugh, F.Z.S. ; Trulls Hatch, Rotherfield, 

Sussex. 
1904. Manson-Bahr, Brevet-Major Philip Henry, D.S.O., M.D., 

M.R.C.P., R.A.M.C. ; 32 Weymouth Street, W. 1. 
1904. Mapleton-Bree, Harvey AYilliam, M.A. ; Gable End, 

Allesley, Coventry. 
1894. Marshall, Archibald McLean, F.Z.S. ; Great Chitcombe, 

Brede, Sussex. 
1894. Marshall, James McLean, F.Z.S.; Bleaton Hallet, Blair- 
gowrie, Perthshire. 
275 1898. Massey, Herbert; Ivy Lea, Burnage, Didsbury, Manchester. 
1921. Mathews, Allister William; Foulis Court, Fair Oaks, 

Hants. 
1907. Mathews, Gregory Macalister, F.L.S., F.R.S.E., F.Z.S. ; 

Foulis Court, Fair Oak, Hants. 
1915. May, William Norman, M.D. ; The White House, Sonning, 

Berks. 
1921. McCoNNELL, Arthur Frederick ; Camfield Place, Hatfield, 

Herts. 
2S0 1921. McNeile, John Henry ; 11 Embankment Gardens, S.W. 3. 
1883. Meade-Waldo, Edmund Gustavus Bloomeield, F.Z.S. ; 

Hever Warren, Hever, Kent. 
1912. Meiklejohn, Lt. -Colonel Eonald Forbes, D.S.O. (1st Bn. 

Itoyal Warwickshire llegiment) ; 147 Victoria Street, 

S.W. 1. 
1899. Meinertzhagen, Colonel Richard, D.S.O. , F.Z.S. (Royal 

Fusiliers) ; 63 Bedford Gardens, Kensington, W. 8. 
1880. Millais, John Guille, F.Z.S. ; Compton's Brow, Horsham, 

Sussex. 
285 1910. Millard, Walter Samuel, F.Z.S.: 22 Boyne Park, Tun- 
bridge Wells. 



ZZl 



Date of 
Election. 



3 903. Mills, Canon Heney Holroyd, M.A., F.Z.S. : The Rectory, 

St. Stophen-in-Erannel, Grampound Road, Cornwall. 
1879. Mitchell, Fredekick 8nA,w ; Hornshaws, Millstream, 

B.C., Canada. 
1901. Mitcoell, p. Chalmers, M.A., D.Sc, LL.D., P.R.S., F.L.S., 

r.Z.8. ; Secretary to the Zoological Society of London, 

Regent's Park, N.W. 8. 

1919. Montagu, The Right Hon. Ebwin Samuel ; 24 Queen 

Anne's Gate, S.W. 1. 
290 1920. Moon, Dr. Haeolp Joseph, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; Go South 

Drive, St. Anne's-on-the-Sea, Lancashire. 
1914. MouLTON, Major John Coney, M.A., B.Sc, F.L.S., F.R.G.S., 

F.E.S. ; Fort Canning, Singapore ; The Hall, Pradford- 

on-Avon, Wilts. 
, 1886. ]V[tjiehead, George, F.R.S.E. ; Speybank, Fochabers, 

Morayshire. 
1893. Mullens, Major William Herbert, M.A., LL.M., F.Z.S. ; 

Westfield Place, Pattlc, Sussex. 
1892. MuNN, Capt. Philip Winchester, F.Z.S. ; Puerto Alcudia, 

Majorca, Balearic Isles, Spain. 
295 1918, MuNT, Harry Raymond ; 10 Ashburn Place, South Kensing- 
ton, S.W. 7. 
1897. MuNT, Henry, F.Z.S,; 10 Ashburn Place, South Kensington, 

S.W. 7. 
1910. Murray, Capt. Herbert Willaume, F.Z.S.; The Old House, 

Epsom, Surrey. 

1920. MussELAVHiTE, DoNALD WooDAVARD ; 7 Jcssica Road, Wands- 

worth Common, S.W. 18. 
1907- Neave, Sheffield Airey, M.A., D.Sc, F.Z.S., F.E.S. ; 

Bishop's House, Beaconsfield. 
300 1895. Nesham, Robert, F.Z.S., F.E.S.; Utrecht House, Poynder's 

Road, Clapham Park, S.W. 4. 
1920, Nevill, Captain Tuomas jN'evill Carlton ; Bramall Hall, 

Cheshire. 
1920. Newman, John ; Oare House, Oare, Brendon, North 

Devon. 
1904. Newman, Thomas Henry, F.Z.S. ; Verulam, Forty Lane, 

Wemblej' Park, Middlesex. 
1917. NiCHOLL, Archibald M, C. ; Royal Naval College, Osborne, 

Isle of Wiirht. 



XXll 

Date of 

Election. 

305 1902. Nichols, John Bruce, F.Z.S. ; Parliament Mansions, Victoria 

Street, S.W. 1. 
1900. Nichols, Walter Buchanan ; Stour Lodge, Bradfield, 

Manningtree, Essex, 
1870. Nicholson, Francis, F.Z.S.; Kavenscroft, Windermere, 

Westmoreland. 
1902. NicoLL, Michael John, F.Z.S. ; Valhalla House, Zoological 

Gardens, Giza, Egypt. 
1921. O'CoNNELL, John Henry, L.R.C.P. & S.l. ; 38 Heathfield 

Eoad, Liverpool. 
310 1920. O'DoNEL, Harry Victor; Hasimara T.E., Hasimara P.O., 

E.B. Railwaj', Duars, India. 

1907. Oldham, Charles, F.Z.S. ; The Bollin, Shrublands Road, 

Berkhamsted, Herts. 
1906. OsMASTON, Bertram Beresford (Imperial Forest Service); 

Pachmarhi, C.P., India. 
1913. Owen, John Hugh ; Old School House, Felsted, Essex. 
1921. Owen, Owen Rodenhurst ; Bank House, Knighton, Radnor- 
shire. 
315 1919. Page, Wesley Theodore, F.Z.S. ; Langstone, Lingfield, 

Surrey. 
1921. Paget-Wilkes, Arthur Hamilton ; 16 Holywell, Oxford, 

and Lincoln College, Oxon. 
1883. Parker, Hknry, C.E. ; 26 St. George's Road, St. Anne's-on- 

the-Sea, Laiics. 
1880. Parkin, Thomas, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S.; Fairseat, High 

Wickham, Hastings, Sussex. 

1908. Paton, Edward Richmond, F.Z.S. ; Hareshawrauir, By 

Kilmarnock, Ayrsliire, Scotland. 
320 1921. Patten, Charles Joseph, M.A., M.I)., Sc.D. ; University, 

and 18 Broomhall Road, Sheffield. 
1911. Patterson, William Harry; 25 Queen's Gate Gardens, 

S.W. 7. 
1904. Pbarse, Theed ; Courtenay, British Cokimbia. 
1894. Pearson, Charles Edward, F.L.S. ; llillcrest, Lowdham, 

Notts. 
1902. Pease, Sir Alfred Edward, Bt., F.Z.S. ; Pinchinthorpe 

House, Guisborough, Yorkshire ; and Brooks's Club, 

St. James's Street, S.W. 1. 



Date of 
Election. 

325 1891. Penrose, Francis George, M.D., F.Z.S. ; llathkeale, 

51 (Surrey Koad, Bournemouth. 
1900. Percival, Arthur Blayney, F.Z.S,; Game Eanger, JSTairobi, 

British East Africa ; Sports Club, St, James' Square, S.W. 1. 
1912. Pershouse, Major Stanley; c/o Messrs. Cox & Co., 16 Charing 

Cross, S.W. 1. 
1886. Phillips, Ethelbert Lort, F.Z,S. ; 79 Cadogan Square, 

S.W. 1. 
1920. Phillips, Montague Austin, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Devonshire 

House, Reigatc, Surrey. 
330 1920. Phillips, Captain William Watt Addison ; Anasigalla, 

Matugama, Ceylon ; and Bowden Lodge, Russell Terrace, 

Leamington. 
1914. Pitman, Capt. Charles Robert Senhouse (27th Punjabis) ; 

P.O. Box 39, Nakuru, Kenya Colony, East Africa. 
1908. Player, W. -J. Percy ; Wernfadog, Clydach P.S.O., Glamor- 
ganshire. 
1907. Pocock,ReginaldInnks,F.R.S.,F.L.S.,F.Z.S.: Superintendent 

of the Zoological Gardens, Regent's Park, N.W. 8. 
1917. PoLiAKOV, Gregory T. (Editor ' Messager Oi'nithologique') ; 

Moskva-Nijiiinovgorod Railsvay, Station Obiralovka, 

Savvino, Russia. 
335 1896. Popham, Hugh Leyborne, M.A, ; Houndstreet House, Pens- 
ford, Somerset, 
1920. Pratt, Herbert ; 62 Lyford Road, Wandsworth Common, 

S.W^ 18. 
1898. Price, Athelstan Elder, F.Z.S. ; Salisbury Hall, St. Albans. 
1903. Ralfe, Pilcher George; The Parade, Castletown, Isle 

of Man. 
190)3. Ratcliee, Frederick Roavlinson ; 29 Connaught Square, W.2. 
340 1917. R.vttray, Col. RuLLioN Hare (retired); 68 Dry Hill Park 

Road, Tonbridge. 
1917. Raw, AViLLiAM ; 170 Newbridge Street, Newcastle-on-Tyue. 
1894. Read, Richard Henry, M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. ; Church Street, 

Hanley, Staffordshire. 
1888. Re.ad, Robert H.; 8rt South Parade, Bedford Park, W. 4. 
1917. Reeve, Capt. John Sherard, F.Z.S.; Leadenham House, 

near Lincoln. 
345 1903. Renaut, William E. ; Royal Academy of Music, York Gate, 

Marylebone Road, N.W. 1. 

SER. XI. VOL. III. C 



XXIV 



Date of 
Election. 



iyu8. RjcHARDsoN, NoBMAN Peederic, F.R.G.S. ; " Lynton," 

Brigstock Koad, Thornton Heath, Surrey. 
1907. IticiiMOND, Herbert William, M. A., F.R.S. ; King's College, 

Cambridge. 
1895. lliCKETT, Charles Boughet, F.Z.S. ; 27 Kendrick Road, 

Heading, Berks. 
1920. IliNGRosE, Bernard John ; Wilford Rise, Bromeswell Heath, 

Woodbridge, SufFold. 
350 1896. Bippoi^, Lt.-Col. George, F.Z.S. ; The Clump, Buekland, 

Lymington, Hants ; and United Service Club, Pall Mall, 

S.W. 1. 
1907. Ritchie, Captain Archibald Thomas Ayres ; c/o British 

East African Corps, Mombassa, B.E. Africa; and 16 

Wilton Street, S.W. 1 . 
1902. RivijjRE, Bernard Beryl, F.R.C S. ; St. Giles's Plain, 

Norwicli, Norfolk. 
1898. Robinson, Herbert C, C.M.Z.S. ; Selangor State Museum, 

Kuala Lumpur, Federated Malay States. 

1912. Robinson, Herbert William, F.Z.S.Scot. ; Patchctts, Caton, 

near Lancaster. 
355 1917. Robinson, Sydney Maddock ; c/o Col. J. H. Evans, Fraser 

Road, Rangoon, Burma. 
1019. Robinson, Thioodore Richard; Brunswick Lodge, Dunton 

Green, Kent. 
1896. Rogers, Lt.-Col. John Middleton, D.S.O., F.Z.S. (late 

1st Dragoons); Riverhill, Sevenoaks, Kent. 

1913. Rogers, Reginald jSTankivell ; Carwinion, near Falmouth, 

Cornwall. 
1893. Rothschild, Lionel Walter, Lord, D.Sc, Ph.D., F.R.S., 
F.Z.S. ; Zoological Museum, Tring, Herts. 
360 1894. Rothschild, The Hon. Nathaniel Charles, M.A., F.Z.S. ; 
Arundel House, Kensington Palace Gardens, W. 8. 
1918. Rowan, William, The Dept. of Biology, University of 

Alberta, Edmonton, Alta, Canada. 
1910. Russell, Harold, F.Z.S.; 16 Beaufort Gardens, Chelsea, 

S.W. 3. 
1883. S'l'. QuiNTiN, William Herhert, F.Z.S. ; Scampston Hall, 
Rillington, Yorkshire. 
. 1903. Sandeman, Lt.-Col. Robert Preston (R. Gloucester Hussars) ; 
Dan-y P'uc. Crickhowell, S. Wales. 



XXV 



Date of 
Election. 



3^5 1889. Sapswortii, Aknolb DuEK, F.Z.S. ; 30 Sussex Place, llegeiiL's 

Park, N.W. 1. 
1914. Satter, Dr. Hans, F.Z.S. ; Bath Club, Dover Street, 

W. 1 ; and Pinners Hall, Austin Friars, E.G. 2. 
1909. Savage, The Rev. Ernest Urmson; Eaughton Head Vicarage, 

Dalston, R.S.O., Cumberland. 
1921. ScHAANNiNG, Hans Thomas Lange ; Konservator, Stavanger 

Museum, Norway. 
1891. ScLATER, William Lutley, M.A., F.Z.S. 10 Sloaue Court, 

Chelsea, S.W. 1. (Editor.) 
370 1908. Seppings, Lt.-Col. John William Hamilton, A.P.D. ; The 

Castle. Cape Town, South Africa. 
1899. Serle, The Rev. William, M.A., B.D. ; The Manse, Dudding- 

ston, Edinburgh. 
1901. Seth-Smith, David, F.Z.S.; 34 Elsworthy Road, South 

Hampstead, N.W. 3. 
1904. Seth-Smith, Leslie Mofeat, B.A., F.Z.S. ; Tangley, 

Caterham Valley, Surrey ; and Kampala, Uganda. 
1909. Seton, Sir Malcolm Cotter Cakiston, K.C.B. : 13 Clarendon 

Road, Holland Park, W. 11 ; and Union Club, Trafalgar 

Square, S.W. 1. 
375 1917. Shipton, William, B.A., M.D. ; 2 The Square, Buxton, 

Derbyshire. 
1921. Shoktridge, Guy Chestkrton, M.B.E. ; The Ivaffrarian 

Museum, King Williamstown, Cape Colony. 
1921. SiBouR, The Vicomte Lodis de, F.Z.S., F.L.S., F.R.M.S. ; 

Albert Villa, Shanklin, I. of Wight. 
1920. Skea, Ernest Marcellus ; Chief Assayor of Gold Alining 

States, Ltd., P.O. Box, 46 Pilgrims Rest, Transvaal. 
1918. Sladbn, Major Alexander George Lambart ; Kingswood 

House, The Lee, Bucks ; and Junior Carlton Club, 

S.W. 1. {Committee.) 
380 1908. Smalley, Frederic William, F.Z.S. ; Windermere, 4 Black- 
heath Park, S.E. 3. 
1918. S.MEKD, Major Cecil William, R.F.A.; Miland, West- 
bourne, West Sussex. 
1920. Sjiith, Desmond Abel ; Longhills, near Lincoln. 
1914. Smith, Major John Lindsay (Indian Army) ; Supply & 

Transport Corps, Commdt. Camel Corps, Multan, Punjab, 

India. 



xivl 



Bate of 
Election. 



1918. Smith, Thomas ; Whiston Eaves, Froghall, Stoke-on-Trent. 
385 1906. Snouckaekt van Schaubukg, Baron IIen^ Charles : Doom, 

Holland. 
1921. SowEUBY, Arthur de Carle ; c/o H. K. Lewis & Co., Ltd., 

136 Gower Street, W.C. 1. 
1903. Sparrow, Colonel Hichaed, C.M.G., D.S.O., F.Z.S., F.ll.G.S. 

(late 7th Dragoon Guards); llookwoods, Sible Hedingham, 

Essex. 
1906. Stanford, Surgeon-Coramdr. Charles Edward Cortis, B.Sc, 

M.B., B.N. ; 94 Jerinyn Street, S.W. 1. 
1910. Stanford, Edward Eraser; 12 a Maddox Street, Kegent 

Street, W. 1. 
390 1913. Stanford, Major Henry Morrant, M.C, R.F, A., 115 Batterj*. 

B.E.F., France ; c/o Messrs. Edward Stanford, Ltd., 

12-14 Long Acre, W.C. 2. 

1913. Stanford, Capt. John Keith, M.C. ; c/o Messrs. Edward 

Stanford, Ltd.. 12-14 Long Acre, W.C. 2. 
1915. Staples-Browne, Capt. Richard Charles, B.A., F.Z.S. 

(^ew Zealand Med. Corps) ; Brashfield House, Bicester, 

Oxon. 
1900. Stares, John William Chester ; Portchester, Hants. 
1921. Stendall, Jesse Austin Sydney; 12 Rossmore Avenue, 

Bally nafeigh, Belfast. 
395 1902. Stenhouse, Surgeon -Capt. John Hutton, M.B., R.N. ; 

Caledonian United Service Club, Edinburgh. 
1910. Stevens, Herbert; Gopaldhara, Mirik P.O., Kurseong, 

Darjiling Himalayan Rly., India. 
1906. Steward, Edward Simmons, F.R.C.S. ; 30 Victoria Avenue, 

Harrogate, Yorks. 

1914. Stewart, John; Mainshill, Beith, Ayrshire. 

1921. Stocks, Andrew Denys ; 8 Old Square, Lincoln's Inn, 

W.C. 2 ; and Union Club. 
400 1917. Stoneham, Capt. Hugh Frederic, O.B.E., F.E.S., 1st Battn. 

East Surrey Eegt. & Asst. Chief Signal Officer, Northern 

Command ; " Stoneleigh," Reigate, Surrey ; and Army & 

Navy Club, Pall Mall, S.W. 1. 
1 921. Stoney, Cecil Vesey, J. P., 1).L. ; Oakfield Park, Raphoe 

Co. Donegal. 
1881. Studdy, Col. Robert Wright (late Manchester Regiment); 

Westbury, Paignton, Devon. 



iXVll 



Date of 
Election. 



1887. Sti'an, Frederick William, F.Z.S. : Stone Street, near 
Sevenoaks, Kent. 

1914. Sutherland, Lewis IIobertson, M.B., CM., Afedical School. 
Dundee, N.B. ; Wellgate House, West Newport, Fife- 
shire. 
405 ]n05. SwANN, Harold, F.Z.S. ; The Lordship, Standon, Herts. 

1920. Savann, Harry Kirke, F.Z.S. ; Thoracombe, Lyonsdown 

Itoud, New Barnet, Herts. 
1882. Swinhoe, Col. Charles, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S.; 4 Guuterstone 

Eoad, West Kensington, W. 14. 
1884. Tait, William Chaster, F.Z.S.; Entre Quintas J5.5, Oporto, 

Portugal. 
1911. Talbot-Ponsonby, Charles Grorge ; 5 Crown Office Row, 

Temple, E.C. 4. 
410 lyll. Tatton, Reginald Arthur; Cuerden Hall, Bamber Bridge, 

Preston, Lanes. 
1014. Tavistock, Hastings William Sackville, Marquis of, F.Z.S.; 

Warblington House, Havant. 
1905. Taylor, Lionel Edward, F.Z.S.; Bankhead, Kelowna, 

British Columbia. 
1886. Terry, Major Horace A. (late Oxfordshire Light Infantry); 

Compton Grange, Compton, Guildford, Surrey. 

1921. Thomas, Mrs. Rose Haig ; 13 Arlington Street, S.W. 1. 
415 1916. Thomasset, Bernard Charles, F.Z.S.; The Manor House, 

Ashmansworth, near Newbury, Berks. 
1904. Thompson, Major William R., R.G.A. ; R.A. Mess, Sierra 

Leone. 
1911, Thomson, A. Landsborough, O.B.E., D.Sc, F.Z.S. ; 9 Addison 

Gardens, Kensington, W. 14. 
1900. Thorburn, Archibald, F.Z.S. ; Hascombe, Godalming, 

Surrey. 
1920. Thornhill, Lt.-Colonel Cudbert John Massy, C.M.G., D.S.O., 

Indian Army, Bath Club, Dover Street, W. 1. 
420 1893. Thorpe, Dixon L. ; Loshville, Etterby Scaur, Carlisle, 

Cumberland. 
1903. Ticehurst, Claud Buchanan, M.A., M.D., M.R.C.S. ; 

121 London Road North, Lowestoft. 
1894. Ticehurst, Norman Frederic, M.A., M.B., F.R.C.S., 

F.Z.S. ; 24 Pevensey Road, St. Leonards-on-Sea, 

Sussex. 



XXVIU 
Date of 

Election. 

1902. TowNsuND, Reginald Gilliat, M.A. ; Critchells, Lokerle}*, 

Komscy, Hants. 
1893. Tkevor-Battve, Aubyn, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Ashford 

Chace, Pefcerstield, Hanta : and Royal Societies Club, 

St. James's Street, S.W. 1. 
425 1913. TdCKWELL, Edwaed Hk:n^ey, F.Z.S. ; Bertliope, Compton, 

near Guildford, Surrey. 
1921. TuTi, JouN Francis Donald, M.R.C.V.S., F.L.S., F.E.S., 

F.R.M.S., F.Z.S. ; 1 St. Cross Road, AYinchcster, 

Hants. 

1911. TrKWHiTi-DKAKE, Hugh Garrard, F.Z.S. ; Cobtree, Sandling, 

Maidstone, Kent. 
1918. Vaizey, George db Horne ; 53 The Pryors, Hampstead, 

N.W. 3. 
1918. Vaizest, Ker George Russell ; 26 Cornwall Gardens, 

S.W. 7. 
430 1910. Van Someren, Dr. Robert Abraham Logan ; Jinja, Uganda, 

British East Africa. 

1912. Van Sojieren, Dr. Victor Gurnet Logan; c/o Medical Dept., 

P.O. Box 1-10, Nairobi, B.E. Africa. 

1913. Lt.-Col. Venning, Francis Esmond Wingate ; The Croft, 

Yateley, Hants. 
1881. Verner, Col. William Willoughby Cole (late Rifle Brigade) ; 
Hartford Bridge, Winchfield, Hants ; and United Service 
Club, S.W. 1. 
1886, Wade-Dalton, Col. H. D. ; Hauxwell Hall, Finghall R.S.O., 
Yorkshire. 
435 1916. Wait, Walter Ernest, Deputy Collector of Customs, 
Colombo, Ceylon. 
1918. Walker, ALE.XANDKR Hope, M.D., L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. ; The 

Commoji, Cranleigb, Surrey. 
1914. Wall-Row, John ; 51 Courtfield Gardens, S.W. 5. 
1895. Wallis, Henry Marriage; Ashton Lodge, Christchurch 

Road, Reading, Berks. 
1920. Ward, Major Edward Hugh : R.M.A, ; H.M. Wireless 
Station, Horsea Island, Portchester, Hants. 
440 1903. Watt, Hugh Boyd, F.Z.S. ; 12 Great James Street, Bedford 
Row, W.C. 1. 
1920. Waydelin, Frederick John ; Haverhill, Whitchurch, 
Hants. 



XXIX 



Pate of 
Election. 



1920. Webbee, Captain William Beakk Incledon ; Buckland 

House, Branton, N. Devon. 

1912. Wells, Charles Henky ; Broomfield, 80 Brookhouse Hill, 

Fulwood, Sheffield. 

1921. Wells, Thomas ; N"atiiral History Museum, South Kensing- 

ton, S.W. 7. 
445 1912. Wenner, Max Victor ; Lake House, Sutton, near Maccles- 
field, Cheshire. 

1913. Whistler, Httgh, F.Z.S. (Indian Police) ; Caldbee House, 

Battle. Sussex; and c/o Messrs. King, King & Co., Bombaj-, 

India. 
1918. Whitaker, Capt. John Albert Charles (Coldstream Guards); 

Babworth Hall, Retford, Notts. 
1891. Whitaker, Joseph I. S., F.Z.S. ; Malfitano, Palermo, 

Sicily. 
1909. AVhite, Henrt Luke; Belltrees, Scone, New South Wales, 

Australia. 
450 1903. White, Stephen JosKPH, F.Z.S. 

1912. Whymper, Sawtjel Leigh ; Oxford ]\ransions, Oxford Street, 

W. 1 ; and Oriental Club, Hanover Square, W. 1. 

1914. Wickham, Percy Frederic ; c/o Messrs. Thos. Cook & Son, 

Rangoon, Burma. 

1915. Wild, Oliver Hilton ; Ariel Lodge, Cheltenham, Gloucester- 

shire. 
1894. Wilkinson, Johnson; Vermont, Huddersfield, Yorkshire. 
455 1912. Wilkinson, William Arthur, F.L.S., F.Z.S. ; Lindum House, 
Anchorage Road, Sutton Coldfield, nr. Birmingham. 
1910. Williamson, Walter James Franklin, C.M.G., F.Z.S. 
(Financial Adviser to the Government of Siam); Bangkok, 
Siam. 
1920. Wilson, Commander Alec Thomas Lee, J. P., R.N. ; Garth 

House, Garth, Brecknocksliire. 
1897. Wilson, Allan Read, B.A., M.I)., B.Ch. (Oxon.) ; Eagle 

House, Blandford, Dorset. 
1888. Wilson, Charles Joseph, F.Z.S.; 14 Suffolk Street, Pull 
Mall, S.W. 1. 
460 1897. WiTHERBY, Harry Forbes, M.B.E., F.Z.S. ; 12 Chesterford 
Gardens, Hampstead, N.W. 3. 
1908. WiTHERiNGTON, GwYNNE ; 19 Sumucr Place, South Ken- 
sington, S.W. 7. 



XXX 

Date of 

Election. 

1899. WoLLASTON, Alexandee Feederick Richmond, B.A.; 20 

Moore Street, S.W. 3. 
1912. Wood, Martin Stanlky, M.D., E.A.M.C. ; Cheadle Royal, 

Cheadle, Cheshire. 
1917. Woodford, Capt. Charles Edward Montgomekie (1st Battn. 

Sherwood Foresters) ; 8 Dry Hill Park Road, Tonbridge, 

Kent. 
465 1912. WooDHOusE, Cecil, 11.]). ; Coaxdon Hall, Axmiiister, South 

Devon. 
1921. WoEDiE, Major William, O.B.E., M.A. ; 52 Moutgomerie 

Drive, Glasgow. 

1902. Workman, William Hughes, F.Z.S. ; Lismore, Windsor, 

Belfast, Ireland. 
1908. Wynne, Richard Owen ; Foulis Court, Fair Oak, Hants. 
469 1916. Zambra, Rag. Cav. Vittorio ; Corso Umberto, I. 49, Rome, 
Italy. 

Extra- Ordinary Member. 

1899. Godwin-Austen, Lt.-Col. Henry Haversuam, F.R.S., F.Z.S. ; 
Nore, Hascombe, Godalming, Surrey. 

Honorary Members. 

1907. xIllen, Joel Asaph, Ph.D., F.M.Z.S. ; American Museum of 

Natural History, Central Park, New York, U.S.A. 
19 L7. Chapman, Frank Michler ; American Museum of Natural 

History, Central Park, New York, U.S.A. 
1919. Menegaux, Henri August; Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, 

Paris. 
1905. Oberholser, Harry Church ; United States National 

Museum, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
5 1915. Richmond, Charles Wallace ; United States National 

Museum, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 

1903. Ridgway, Robert, C.M.Z.S. ; Smithsonian Institution, Wash- 

ington, D.C., U.S.A. 
1890. Salvadori, Count Tommaso, M.D., F.M.Z.S. ; Royal Zoological 

Museum, Turin, Italy. 
1919. Stejneger, Leonhaed, C.M.Z.S.; Smithsonian Institution, 

Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
1921. Van Oort, Dr. Eduard Daniel; Museum of Natural History, 

Leyden, Holland. 



Date of Honorary Lady Members. 

1910. Bate, Miss Dorothea M. A. ; Bassendean House, Gordon, 

Berwicksliire. 

1911. Baxter, Miss Evelyn Vida ; The Grove, Kirkton of Largo, 

Fifeshire. 

1910. Bedford, Mary, Duchess of, F.Z.S. ; Wol)urn Abbe}-, Beds, 
1916. Haviland, Miss Mattd D. ; Old Hall, Newnham College, 

Cambridge. 
5 1915. Meinertzhagen, Mrs. Annie C. ; Swordale, Evanton, Eoss- 
shire. 

1911. Riktoul, Miss Leonora Jeffrey ; Lahill, Largo, Fifeshire. 
1915. Snethlage, Dr. Ejiilte : Goeldi Museum, Para, Brazil. 
1910. Turner, Miss Emma Louisa, F.Z.S. ; Langton Close, Girton, 

Cambridge. 



Colonial Members. 

1904. Campbell, Archibald James ; Bulgaroo, Broughton Eoad, 

Surrey Hills, Victoria, Australia. 

1908. Faruuhar, John Henry Joseph, B.Sc, N.D.A. ; Assistant 

Conservator of Forests, Calabar, Southern Nigeria, 
West Africa. 
1910. Fleming, James H., C.M.Z.S^ ; 267 Rusholme Iload, Toronto, 
Canada. 

1909. Haagner, Alwin Karl, F.Z.S. ; Director of the Zoological 

Gardens, Box 754, Pretoria, South Africa. 
5 1908. Hall, Uobert, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S. ; c/o Tasmanian Museum, 
Hobart, Tasmania. 
1914. Leach, John Albert, M.A., D.Sc. ; c/o Education Depart- 
ment, Melbourne, Australia. 

1905. Macoun, John, M.A., F.B.S.C. ; Naturalist to the Geological 

Survey of Canada, Ottawa, Canada. 
1907. Swynnerton, Charles Francis Massy, F.L.S. ; Poste Ees- 

tante, Dar-es-Salaam, Tanganyika Territory. 
1919. Taverner, Percy A.; Victoria Memorial Museum, Ottawa, 

Canada. 
lo 1912. White, Capt. Samuel Albert; Wetunga, Fulham, South 

Australia. 

SEK. XI. VOi.. III. d 



XXXll 



Date of Foreign Members. 

Election. "^ 

1919. Bangs, Otjtram ; Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., U.S.A. 

1880. BuEEAtr, Dr. Louis ; Ecole de Medecine, Nantes, .France. 

1906. BiJTTiKOFEK, Dr. Johannes, C.M.Z.S. ; Director of the 
Zoological Garden, Rotterdam, Holland. 
• 1906. BuTURLiN, Sergius a. ; Alotyri, Gouv. Simbirsk, East 

Russia. 
5 1921. Cory, Charles Barney ; Field Museum of Natural History, 
Chicago. 

1919. Dabbene, Dr. Roberto; Museo Nacional, Buenos Aires, 
Argentina. 

1919. Grinnell, Dr. Joseph ; Museum of Vertebrate Zoology, 
Berkeley, California, U.S.A. 

1919. Gtldenstolpe, Count Nils ; Royal Zoological Museum, 
Stockholm, Sweden. 

1902. Ihering, Dr. Heemapt von, C.M.Z.S. ; Director, State 
Museum of Catarina, Florianopolis, Brazil. 
TO 1918. KuRODA, Nagamachi ; Fukuyoshi Cho, Akasaka, Tokyo, 
Japan. 

1914. Lonnbeeg, Prof. Dr. A. J. Einar, F.M.Z.S. ; Director of the 
Zoological Museum, Stockholm, Sweden. 

1921. McGregor, Richard C. ; Bureau of Science, Manila, 
Philippine Islands. 

1894. Menzbier, Prof. Dr. Michael, C.M.Z.S. ; Moscow, Russia. 

1921. Reiser, Dr. Okiar ; Ober Pickern, b. Marburg, A.D. Yugo- 
slavia. 
jc 1914. Stone, Dr. Witmer ; Academy of Natural Sciences, Phila- 
delphia, Pa., U.S.A. 

1902. SusHKiN, Dr. Peter, C.M.Z.S. ; Petrograd, Russia. 

1896 WiNGE, Herluf, C.M.Z.S.; University Zoological Museum, 
Copenhagen, Denmark. 



CONTENTS OP VOL. III.— ELEVENTH SERIES. 

(1921.) 



Number 1, January, 

Page 

I. On a recentlj' described Woodpecker from Siam. B3' 
E.G. Stuart Baker, M.B.O.U. (Plate I.) 1 

II. Notes on the Birds of North-East Chihli, in North 
China. Part III. By J. D. D. La Todcoe, CM Z.S., 
M.B.O.U 3 

III. On some Western Australian Birds collected between 
the North-West Cape and Albanj^ (950 miles a])art). By 
Thomas Cartce, M.B.O.U., M.K.A.O.U. Witli Noraenclatiire 
and Remarks by Crkgory M. :Mathews, :M.B.0.U., M.B.A.O.U. 
(Text-figure 1.) 48 

IV. Remarks on rare and otherwise interesting Birds con- 
tained in Collections made by j\fr. G. L. Bates in Southern 
Cameroon. By David A. Bannerman, ]\r.B.E., B.A., il.B.O.U. 81 

V. On the Genus Macros plienns Cassin, with special 
reference to the races of JllacrosjJie^iiis favicans. By David 

A. Bannerman,M.B.E., B.A., M.B.O.U 121 

VI. A Note on the Breeding Birds of Crete. r>y Col. R. 
Mrinertzhagex, D.8.O., M.B.O.U., F.Z.S 120 

VII. The Economic Status of the Kingfisher, Alcedo isphJa 
Linn. By Walter E. Collinge, D.Sc, F.L.S., M.B.O.U. 
(Text-figure 2.) 139 

VIII. Obituary: Sir John Arthur Brooke, Bt. ; George 
Wtman Bury ; William Dutcher ; Robert Etheridge ; John 
Geerard; Charles William Sheppard ; Herbert Hux- 
tington Smith • 153 

SER. XI. — VOL. III. e 



CONTENTS. 



IX. Notices of recent Ornitholoj^ical Publications 



Page 



Cory's Catalop-iie of American Birds ; Cory on the Genns 
Rhynchocyclus ; Hellmayr's recent papers ; Kingston's Hima- 
layan observations : Howard ou Bird Territories ; Laubmann 
on the Kingfisher ; Lonnberg on the Birds of Juan Fernandez 
and Easter Islands ; McClymont's Ornithological Essays ; 
Mathews on Australian Birds; Mullens, Swann, and Jour- 
dain's Bibliography ; Ogilvie on British Birds ; Ritchie on 
the Influence of Man on Animals ; Robinson and Kloss on 
Simiatran Birds ; Stresemann on the Birds of Macedonia ; 
Taverner's recent papers on Canadian Ornithology ; Todd on 
new Colombian Birds; Townsend and Wetmore on Pacific 
Island Birds ; Wetmore on lead-poisoning in Ducks ; Wood 
on the eye of the Buri'owing Owl ; Aquila ; The Auk ; 
El Hornero; List of other Ornithological Publications received. 156 

X. Letters, Extracts, and Notes : — 

Letters from A. L. Butler on the Birds of the Sudan, 
from the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain on the Breeding-places of 
the Black-headed Gull, and from Capt. Collingwood Ingram 
on Nestling Birds ; Meeting of the American Ornithologists' 
Union; Wild Bird* Protection Acts ; Rnssinn Ornithologists; 
Personalia 180 



NuMBKR 2, April. 

XI. Field Notes on the Birds of Macedonia. With special 
reference to the Struma Plain. By F. N. Chaskn, Castle 
Museum, Norwich 185 

XII. Some preliminary remarks on the Velocity of Migra- 
tory Flight among Birds, with special reference to the 
Palaearctic Region. By Colonel E. Meinretzhagen, D.S.O., 
M.B.O.U., F.Z.S. . . ' 228 

XIII. Field Notes on the Birds of Lower Egypt. By 
W. Raw, M.B.O.U. With contributions by Colonel R. 
Sparrow, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.B.O.U., and the Rev. F. C. 

R. Jourdain, M.A., M.B.O.U. . . , 238 



C0NTENX3. XXXV 

Page 

XIV. The Birds of Tasso and adjoiuiug Islands of the 
Rokelle River, Sierra Leone. Hy Willoughby P. Lowe, 
M.B.O.U. With notes by David A. Banneuman, B.A., 
M.B.O.U. (Text-figure 3.) 2G5 

XV. A Systematic List of the Birds of Sierra J^eoiie. By 
David A. Bannerman, M.B.E., B.A., M.B.O.U 283 

XVI. J. F. Miller's Icones. By C. Davies SHERnoKJS and. 
Tom Iredalb 302 

XVII. Report of the Sub-Committee, consisting of Dr. E. 
Hartert, Messrs. T. Iredale, and W. L. Sciater, on Amend- 
ments and proposed Alterations to tlie Names in the B. 0. U. 
List of British Birds, as accepted by the Committee of the 

B. 0. U. on the British Bird List 310 

XVIII. Obituary : Robert Bxkkbeck ; Charles Edward 
Pagan, C.B.E., I.S.O. ; Henry Jones 317 

XIX. Notices of recent Ornithological rublicatioiis : — 
Bartscli on the Birds of the Tortugas ; Cliapmau on variation 

in Ostinops decumaruis ; Christiaiii on a new lluck-Pipit ; 
Coward on Bi'itish Birds ; Howard on Territory in Bird- 
Life ; Hellmayr's recent papers on Neotropical Birds ; 
Laubmauu on Lesson's Types; Lavauden on Tunisian Birds; 
McGregor on PhiUppiue Birds ; Mathews on Australian 
Birds; Mathews on the dates of Ornithological Publications; 
Murphy on the Sea-buds of Peru ; Peters on a new Jay ; 
Ridgway on new Genera of Birds; liiley on new Malayan 
Birds ; Robinsou and Kloss on the names of the Jungle-Fowls ; 
Skovgaard on Danish Birds ; Stresemaun on the races of 
Long-tailed Tits aud Bullhuches ; Bird-Lore ; The Condor ; 
Eauua ocli Flora ; Le Gerfaut ; Irish Naturalist ; Scottish 
Naturalist ; and List of other Ornithological Publications 
received 319 

XX. Letters, Extracts, aud Notes : — 

Letters from P. R. Lowe and C. Mackworth-Praed on the 
Last Phase of the Subspecies, from J. L. Bouhote on the 
Nomenclature of Plumages, from E. G. B. Meade-Waldo 
on NestUug Owls, and from II. C. Robinson on the Status of 
Ficus rubricollaris Baker; The Annual General Meeting of 
the British Ornithologists' Union; The Oxford University 
Spitsbergen Expedition ; Personalia 314 



CONTENTS. 



XtrilBER '3, Jul)/. 

Page 

XXI. Field Xotes on the liiids of Lower Egypt. By 
W. Kaw, M.B.O.U. With contributions by Colonel 11. Spap.kow, 
C.M.G., D.iS.O., M.B.O.U., and the Hcv. E. C. B. Joijrdain, 
M.A., M.B.O.U 359 

XXII. First Impressions ot" Tunisia and Algeria. By 
David A. Bannerman, M.B.E., B.A., M.B.O.U., E.B.G.S. 
(Blates II.-V.) 387 

XXIII. Xotes on the Birds of Alderiiey. By Major W. It. 
Thompson, Il.A., M.B.O.U 415 

XXIV. Xotes on Birds in South llussia. By Capt. J. X. 
Kennedy, M.C, Il.A., E.Il.a.8., M.B.O.U 453 

XXV. On the correct jiame of D'Aubenton's "• Manucode a 
Bouquets." By Lord Hothscuild 465 

XXVI. Ilesults of a Study of Bird-Migration by the 
Marking Method. By A. Lanusborough Thomson, O.B.E., 
M.A., D.Sc, M.B.O.U 466 

XXVII. iSome Thoughts on Subspecies and Evolution. By 
Colonel K. Meineiuzhaoen, D.S.O., M.B.O.U 528 

XXVIII. Obituary : Bobert George Wardlaw-Kamsay 
(ITateVI.); Henry Morris Uvcher ; John Burroughs . . 538 

XXIX. Xotices of recent Ornithological Publications; — 

Baugs and I'enard on American Birds : Beebe ou the 
I'lieasants ; Boubier on Migration Itoutes ; Chapman on 
South American Birds; Courtois on the Birds of China; 
Griscom and iS'ichols on the Seaside Sparrows; Guruey on 
Nurl'olk Ornithologists ; Gurnej ou the Annals of Orni- 
thohigy ; llankin on Soaring Flight ; Ilartert on the 
Palaearctic Birds; Ilartert on the Types at Tring; Kuroda 
ou new Japanese and Formosau birds; Mathews and Ire- 
dale's Manual of Australian Birds ; Mathews on Australian 
Birds ; Saunders ou the lilixh of Montana ; Soderberg ou 



COKTENTS. XXXVil 

Page 
Austmliau Birds; Swartli on the genus Fasserella; Swarth 
on the Birds of Arizona ; Todd on new South American 
Birds ; To-\vnsend on the Birds of Massaclinsetts ; Bird 
Notes; Bulletin of the Essex Count}' Ornithological Club; 
Journal fiir Ornithologie ; I/Oiseau ; Oologists' Kecord ; 
8outli African Journal of Natural History ; Yearbook of 
the Dutch Bird-Club ; and List of other Ornithological 
Publications received o-i-k 

XXX. Letters, Extracts, and Notes : — 

Letters from IL F. Witherby on the i'lumages of Nestling 
Owls and Ironi W. IJaw on the corrections to his " Birds of 
Lower Egypt" ; News from Capt. Lyuus and Mr, Willoughby 
Lowe ; The Plumage Bill ; Personalia 667 



Number 4, October. 

XXXI. Bird Notes from Southern Spain. By J. H. Sxen- 
HousE, M.B.O.U 573 

XXXIL Some Notes on the Winter Avifauna of the 
Caraargue. JJy Ludlow Gkiscom, M.A.O.U., M.B.O.U. . . 595 

XXXllL A note on the genus Lauipylbis in East and 
Central Africa. By James V. Chapin, M.A.O.U 6U9 

XXXIV. An account of the birds met with during a two 
months' shooting trip in Nortliern Kliodesia. By Colonel 
Stephenson li. Clakke, C.B., M.B.O.U. (Plate ^il.) . . . (311 

XXXV. Notes on some Birds from the Near East and from 
Tropical East Africa. By Colonel II. Meinertzhagen, D.S.O., 
F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. (Text-ligurc 4.) 621 

XXXVI. Notes on the Birds of Alcudia, Majorca. By 
Captain P. W. Munn, F.Z.S., M.B.O.U. (Plate VIII.). . . 672 

XXX^^1I. Subspecies and their part in Evolution. By 
J. Lewis Bokhote, M.A., M.B.O.U 720 



XXXVIU CONTENTS. 

Page 

XXXVIII. Obituary: Henry AVemyss Feilden ; William 
Wakbe Fowler ; Alphonse Dubois ; Max Furbringer . . . 726 

XXXIX. Notices of recent Ornithological Publications : — 

Arrigoni degli Oddi's list of papers ; Bretsclier on Bird- 
migration in Middle Europe; Cbapin on new African Birds ; 
Foster on tbe Birds of llillsborougb ; Guruey's Ornitbological 
Report for Norfolk ; Hartert on the Birds of tbe Soutbern 
Sahara ; liellmayr on d'Orbiguy's South American Collec- 
tions ; Lavauden on tbe Mediterranean Peregrines ; Mathews 
on Australian Birds ; Riley on new Celebes Birds ; Rothschild 
on the Birds of Y'unnan ; Schiller on Danitib Birds: Shufeldt 
on pictures of the Passenger Pigeon ; Stresemann on Sumatran 
Wuodpeckers ; Wollaston's Lile of Newton ; Aquila ; British 
Birds ; The Emu ; El Hornero ; South Australian Orni- 
thologist ; Tori ; List of other Ornitbological Publications 
received i • • 732 

XL. Letters, Extracts, and Notes :^ 

Letters from Mr. II. W. Robinson on Bird-migration and 
the Marking Method, from Mr. H. G. Alexander on Birds of 
Alderney, from Miss Maud B. Ilaviland on Subspecies and 
Evolution, and from Mr. J. L. Bonhote on Nestling Plumages 
of Owls ; The Ornitbological Society of France ; The Oxford 
University Expedition to Spitsbergen, 1921 ; News of Capt. 
Lynes ; The Godman-Salvin Medal (Plate IX.) ; The Plumage 
Act; Notice to Members of tbe B. O. 0. ; Russian Ornitho- 
logists ; The late Lieut. G. Wyman Bury 7'jO 

Index of Scientific Names 761 

Index of Contents 795 

Titlepage; Dates of Issue of ' The Ibis ' for l!i21 ; Officers of 
the IJ.O.U., ])ast and present : List of Members ; Contents ; 
List of Plates ; and List of Text-figures. 



LIST OF PLATES. 



LIST OF PLATES IN VOL. III. 

ELEVENTH SERIES. 



Page 

I, Picits rnhricoUaris 1 

II. 1. A t;3'pical landscape, Hamraam - ]\Ieskoiitine. 

2. Tlio Oued bou Hamflane,IIaramaiii-^reskoutine. 40l' 

III. The Gorge of the lUimmel, Constantiiie .... 405 

IV. Wl)ite Storks on their nests in the Arab Town, 

Constantino 407 

V. 1. The Desert, nearing Temaein. 2. The Oasis of 

Temacin, Algerian Sahara 412 

VI. Robert George Wardlaw-Ramsay • 538 

VII. 1. Lyhius lencocepalns. 2. Lyhius 'mhrifanes. 

3. Lyhius clwplini 620 

VIII. Map of the North-East part of Majorca 672 

IX. Godman-Salvin Medal, obverse and reverse . . . 75ii 



LIST OF TEXT-FIGUEKS. 



List of Text- Figures. 



1. Map of part of ^''estern Australia to show ^fr. Carter's 

localities and route 50 

2. Food-chart of the Common Kingfisher 147 

3. Sketch-map of the Itokelle Kiver and its Islands, Sierra 

Leone 269 

4. Sketch-map of Egypt to show llie distribution of tlie races 

oi Ammomaves desert i 632 



rl^ 



THE IBIS. 



ELEVENTH SERIES. 



Vol. III. No. 1. JANUARY 1921. 



T. — On a recently described Woodpecker (Picus rubricollaris) 
from Siam. By E. C. Stuart Baker, jNI .B.O.U. 

(Plate I.) 

Among tlie numerous new species and subspecies of birds 
recently found by Messrs. Herbert, Gairdner, Williamson, 
and others in 8iam, there are few more handsome or 
conspicuous than the subject of the frontispiece of this 
number of ' Tlie Ibis,' obtained by Mr. E. G. Herbert's 
collectors. 

Descriptions of both male and female of this fine 
Woodpecker were given by me in the Bulletin of the 
B. O. C. vol. xli. p. 10 (October 1920), where it was 
named Picus rubricollaris, and are here reprinted. 

Adult male. Whole crown brilliant crimson-scarlet changing 
to pure scarlet on the nape, the feathers of the crown with 
black bases whicli show through in places; sides of tlie head 

SER. XI. VOL, 111. B 



2 On a recently described Woodpecker from Siam. [Ibis, 

dull olive-green ; a line of red running from above the gape 
to the neck and a tiny line of reddish above the lores ; chin 
and throat greenish-white ; back to end of tail-coverts bright, 
but dark, yellowish-green ; tail black, greenish at the base 
and with broken white bars on the central rectrices ; lesser 
and median wing-coverts and inner secondaries like the back, 
but with a bronze sheen and inner webs blackish; greater 
coverts, primaries, and outer secondaries blackish-brown 
barred with white ; upper breast dull crimson-red, forming 
with the scarlet nape a complete red collar^ the two 
colours blending on the sides of the neck ; lower breast 
dark green, abdomen, flanks, and under tail-coverts lighter, 
more yellowish -green Avith white and pale yellowish 
markings. 

"Eyes reddish-brown ; bill black ; legs and claws yellow " 
[Herbert). 

Wing 136 mm., bill from front 36 mm., tarsus 30 mm. 

The female is like the male, but has the crown dark green ; 
the collar is less strongl}' developed on the upper breast, but 
is equally intense scarlet on the nape. 

" Eyes reddish-brown ; bill black ; legs green, claws 
brown " (Herbert). 

Wing 139 mm., bill from front 34'5 mm., tarsus 29*5 mm. 

Types. (^ , no. 262, l?an Hoi Mak, Camp no. 39, Siam, 
29. ii.20; ? , INl nong Lep, Camp no. 15, Sianj, 16. i. 20. 

Mr. Herbert is now unfortunately absent in America, 
and I am therefore unable to add any field- notes to the 
description. The plate shows well the more conspicuous 
features, especially the wholly scarlet crown of the male, 
the equally brilliant nape of the female, and the strongly 
marked collar on the breast of both. The green of both 
sexes is also noticeably darker, yet brighter, than it is in 
the other species of the same genus. 



1 92 1.] On the Birds of North-East Chihli. 3 

II. — Notes on the Birds of North-East Chihli, in North 
China. Part III.* By J. D. D. La Touche, C.M.Z.S., 
M.B.O.U. 

182. Cohimba livia intermedia (Strirkl.). 
Cohimba intermedia D. & O. p. 384. 

I shot a Pigeon out of a .flock of (\ rnpestris on 21 May, 
1911. It was without any white on the tail or rnmp, and 
was })rohahly an Indian Blue Rock-Pigeoii. 

183. Cohimba rupestris Pall. 
Colionba rupestris D. & O. p. 385. 

The Bar-tailed Rock-Pioeon is a common resident in the 
mountains near Chinwangtao, and ju'obably all over north- 
east Chihli. 

This Pigeon was common in the mountains of the Liautung 
Peninsula in February, 1890. 

184. Turtur risorius (L.). 
Turtur risorius D. & O. p. 387. 

The Indian Ring-Dove is a very common resident a few 
miles inland of the port, frequenting the large trees round 
about the country houses and villages and the willow, 
poplar, and pine groves on the plains. A winged bird 
obtained in the spring of 1911 soon became very tame, and 
after keeping it for seven years, I gave it to a friend in 
Shanghai witii my other birds. 

185. Turtur orientalis Lath. 
Turtur rapicola D. & 0. p. 385. 
Turtur orientalis La T. p. 578. 

The Eastern Turtle-Dove is a very common migrant in 
north-east Chihli and appears to nest in this district. It 
passes Chinwangtao from the end of March to well on into 
June and thronghout September until at least the 15th of 
October and probably later. 

* For Parts I. and II. ride Ibis, 19L'0, pp. 0:29-671, and pp. 880-920. 

B 2 



4 Mr. J. D. D. La Touclie on the [Ibis, 

Two A'oung l)ircls were brought to me from the momi tains 
on the IGth of July, 1917. Tliey were still in the first 
nestling plumage and were unable to feed by tliemselves. 
The head, neck, wing-coverts, and mantle were of a rich deep 
brown, the feathers of the wing-coverts and mantle being 
edged with chestnut; the back was slate coloured and the 
breast chestnut-brown. The bill was of a very dark brownish 
horn. They retained this plumage until about September, 
when they changed gradually into adult plumage. They 
were fed without difficulty by hand with crushed kaoliang 
and small millet moistened with warm water, and remained 
very tame until they could feed by themselves, after which 
they would not allow one to handle them so freely. One of 
these birds developed an abnormal liking for raw^ beef, and I 
had to hide carefully the minced beef prepared for the other 
'hirds, as this dove w^ould pounce on it and devour it all up. 
Sometimes, if it saw me distributing this food, it noidd fly 
down to i^natch it from my hands. It would pursue the 
Cuckoo to get his meat from him. The other young dove 
Avas almost equally fond of bread and milk, and both birds 
would eagerly devour this when I gave them any. The meat 
appeared to disagree with the dove, and 1 prevented it from 
eating this as much as possible. On my leaving Chinwangtao 
I gave them liberty and had at first some difficulty in i;etting 
tiiem to go out. The native wlio sold me these birds told 
me that one of the villagers had one which he had reared 
at liberty and which remained perfectly tame. 

The Eastern Turtle-Dove is very common in southern 
Manchuria and breeds at Newchwang. 

186. Syrrhaptes paradoxus (Pall.), 

Syrr/taptes paradoxus D. & 0, p. 389. 

Pallas^s Sand-Grouse is of very irregular occurrence at 
Chinwangtao. In the very cold year of 1905, I believe, 
it was seen in great numbers, but since then it does not 
appear to have occurred until tlie autumn of 1912. That 
year, on the 10th of November, I met several flocks flying 
very swiftly towards the uortheabt. They flew low as a rule^ 



1 92 1.] Birds of North-East Chihii. 5 

twittering continuously. Some packs ke])t wheeling round, 
but none settled that day. During that mouth a great number 
appeared to have passed, some from west to east, others in 
an opposite direction. They jrrohably came from the interior 
via the Chihii Plain. Many flocks must have settled on the 
plain in this vicinity and farther north, as the market during 
tlie winter was stocked with both live and dead birds. The 
former were kept in baskets like chickens or quail and 
seemed quite tame. They were fed on kaoliang (sorghum). 
I saw birds flying also during December^ but all passed at a 
considerable distance, and I had to fall back on the market 
for specimens. The immigration must have ceased early in 
the winter as no fresh specimens were to be seen in the 
market after December or maybe January, and the birds 
must have returned inland during the latter month. After 
this, I did not see any more, neither were any exposed for 
sale in the Chinwangtao market. 1 was much astonished to 
hear from Mr. A. L. Hall, to whom I am indebted for much 
information and for specimens from the extreme north of 
the province, that this Sand-Grouse is unknown in the 
Chihfeng district. Mr. C. B. Rickett wrote to me in the 
spring of 1913 that o;reat numbers of Sand-Grouse were 
imported that season into England from Russia, so that 
1912-13 must have been a great Sand-Grouse year. 

Pallas's Sand-Grouse is also of irregular occurrence at 
Newchwang and is occasionally very abundant there. During 
the winter 1889-90 I saw but one flock and none were 
brought to market. 

187. Phasianus colchicus karpowi Buturlin. 

Phasianus torquatus, var. «, D. & O. p. 409. . 

The North China Ring-necked Pheasant is very abundant 
in the mountainous country north of Chinwangtao, but does 
not occur commonly within twelve miles of the port. From 
the beginning of November to the beginning of March the 
market is stocked with these pheasants brought down from 
localities twenty to sixty miles distant from the coast. 

The characteristic features of the North China Pheasant 



6 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche on the [Ibis, 

are said to be a wide and complete white collar and dark 
flanks, to which Pere David adds a white spot, often present, 
below the ear. The examination of, I may say^ hundreds of 
these pheasants, during seven. winters at Chinwangtao, has 
convinced me that, whereas the more or less broad white collar 
is a constant feature, the depth of colouring of the flanks, 
as also the development of the eyebrow, the green of the 
lower back and rumj), and the ear-spot are variable features. 
The last-mentioned character may be put aside as of no 
distinctive value ; some birds have it, others not. A few 
birds obtained in the market have the white on the neck so 
extended that the base of all the green feathers from the 
ring to the ear is white. The Avidth of the ring is also 
extremely variable and the hinder part of it is often very 
narrow, the feathers being edged with black or green. Some 
birds procured in the market have the flanks and the base of 
the hind neck of a very rich and dark orange colour, and 
these have also generally the ridge of the back and rump of 
a deep olive colour with a bright emerald sheen. Very 
occasionally one comes across a specimen which is no darker 
than Lower Yangtse birds. Again, the edging of the copper- 
red breast-feathers is variable and cannot be taken into con- 
sideration ; some birds have this edging broad and complete, 
others have but a mer^ apical speck. On the other hand, 
the scapulars show very little variation, such as is not 
uncommon in Lower Yangtse birds. 

Several examples, shot at twenty to twenty-flve miles north 
of the port, may be specially inentioned. These have all 
dark flanks and the green on the back and rump is brilliant; 
but one bird (not purchased), whicii was evidently a bird of 
the year, had very little green on the back. The eyebrow 
is very white and broad in thiee examples, dull or of medium 
development in six others. Tiie ear-spot is present in five 
and absent in four. The width of the white ring varies: in 
front from about 2 in. to 1 in. ; on the sides from l:^in. to 
2 in. ; behind, from about half an inch to 0'20 in. 

In comparing the north-east Chihli Pheasant with the 
Lower Yangtse Pheasant, there is only one constant feature 



1 92 1.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 7 

by which the two birds may be always distinguislied from 
one another^ and that is the colouring of the sides of the 
neck above the white ring. In P. turquatus this is violet, 
except just next to the liiig; in the north-east Chihli bird 
it is green , 

The Pheasant of north-east Chihli may therefore be 
characterized as follows : — 

1. Eyebrow more or less broad. 

2. Sides of the neck above the white ring shot with green. 

3. White ring, generally broad and always complete. 

4. Flanks and base of hind neck more oi' less deep orange. 

5. Ridge of back and rump olive with a more or less 

brilliant emerald-green sheen. 

Of the above characters, only Nos. 2 and 3 are absolutely 
constant. 

Among the series of Ring-necked Pheasants procured 
here, three may be specially mentioned. One, apparently 
hermaphrodite, purchased in the market on the 23rd of 
January, 1916 ; and a female^ also obtained in the local 
market, which has the black markings of the upper parts 
replaced by a delicate lavender-grey. The former bird has 
the general colouring of the male P. karpowi, the coppery- 
red upper breast-feathers are not edged with black, having 
only a black apical speck, the webs on either side of this 
have a straw-coloured spot at their extremity. The flank- 
spots are very small, the white collar has just below it on 
the hind neck a broad edge of coppery chestnut and is edged 
with straw-colour in front. The wing-coverts are marked 
with chestnut. The colouring of the back resembles neither 
that of the male nor that of the female : the feathers are 
black in the centre with a brownish-buff spot towards the 
base, the shaft of the same light colouring, the rest of the 
feathers is chestnut waved with black and with a broad 
border of dull olive-grey. The rump feathers are dark 
brown, barred with brownish buff and with a metallic green 
apical fringe. The upper tail-coverts are huffish grey with 
broad oval-shaped bars encircled with chestnut. The tail 
(central rectrices missing) is of the usual golden olive with 



8 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche 07i the [Tbis, 

violet fringes and has rather narrow bar.-*. The bird weighed 
only If Ib.^ but was in good condition. Dissection showed 
one testis and wliat looks like a diseased ovary. The parts 
have been preserved in spirit. Culmen ()"90in., wing 
8"60in;^ tarsus 285 in. Tlierc are no spurs. 

The tliiid bird, which was sent to nie by my collector 
after I had left Chinvvangtao, is labelled a male, but it is 
of the size of a female, without spurs. There are traces of 
female plumage on the head and upper parts and the deep 
yellow tiank-feathers are plain. 

188. Phasianus colchiciis pallasi Rothschild. 

An example from Chihfeug in north Chihli, a locality 
adjoining the Gobi desert and about 190 miles as the crow 
flies noi'th of Chinwangtao, has pale bufiish-red scapulars, 
the back very blue-grey, the collar moderately broad, a white 
ear-spot, the central and the next two pairs of rectrices with 
a small terminal white spot, and the tail nnich washed with 
grc\-. Two other examples from tlje same place, however, 
are much the same as Chinwangtao birds except that they 
have the eyebrow much more developed. A female is much 
paler than that of P. karpoivi. The Chihfeug country is 
probably on the southern limit of P. c. pallasi. I am much 
indebted for these specimens to JNlr. A. L. Hall, who kindly 
sent me some by post and brought down others himself. 

189. Pucrasia xanthospila Gray. 

Pucrasia .canthospila D. & O. p. 407, pi. 104. 

The North Ciiina Pueras Pheasant is occasionally found 
in the Shanhaikuan and (Jhinwangtao markets. I have 
seen one or two males nearly every winter in the latter 
market and two females; one of the females was said to 
have been brought from a locality which is about sixty miles 
to tiie north of Chinwangtao. This Pheasant ajiparently is 
not found in the near vicinity of Chinwangtao, but only in 
the wooded country at least thirty miles north of the port. 

Reevess IMieusant {Sijrntaticus reevcsii) occurs in the 
mountains surrounding the Imperial Tombs (Tung Ling) 



1921.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 9 

ai)cl in the nortli-western [)arts of the province. Swinhoe^s 
Eared Pheas^ant [Crossopt'don muncliuricum) is also supposed 
to occur in the Tung Ling and appears to be not uncommon 
in the province of Sliansi. Neither of, these pheasants is 
known in the mountains of this district. 

IDO. Coturnix coturnix (L,). 

CoturnioD communis 1). & O. j). 346 (part); La T. p. 579. 

The Common Quail passes Chinwangtao in March and 
Aprilj and is very abundant during October and in the early 
part of November. Some remain all the winter. 

19L Coturnix coturnix japonica T. & S. 

Coturnix communis 1). & O. p. 346 (part). 

Coturnix japonica La 'V. p. 579. 

The Japanese Quail is usually very abundant towards the 
middle of May and some are to be found until the l)eginning 
of June. It is again met with in August and September 
and most probably breeds here. A live male example, 
brought from Chilifeng in north Chihli by Mr. A. L. Hall 
in October, had the characteristic red sides of head and 
throat. This colour disappeared during the winter leaving 
the bird with a streaked face and throat. Owing probably 
to uniavourable food conditions, the red colouring was not 
fully assumed until July following, and on the 14th of June 
the sides of the head and throat liad still a good deal of 
white. The red of the head and throat was again lost in the 
autumn : the cheeks and throat became streaked with pale 
red, a reddish-brown streak and a malar stripe of the same 
colour remaining, 

192. Caccabis chukar pubescens Swinhoe. 

Caccabis chukar D. & O. p. 395. 

The Chukor is common in the mountainous parts of 
north-eastern Chihli. Four eggs, taken in the Shanhaikuan 
Mountains on the 4th of May, 1915, were brought to me 
together with the hen bird. These eggs are highly glossy, buff, 
speckled with dull pinkish led. One egg is thickly speckled 
all over and has a slight cap, and large pink-red spots on the 



10 Mr. J. D. D. La Touclic on the [Ibis, 

apex. The others are very sparsely marked. They measure 
1-52X 1-21, 1-58 X 1-20, 160x1-22, and 1-66 x 1-20 in. Tlie 
man who brought me these eggs said that sometimes as 
many as twenty eggs were found in one nest. 

193. Perdix daurica Pall. 
I'erdix barbata D. & 0. p. 392. 

The Mongolian or Bearded Partridge is very common on 
the hills of north-eastern Chihli. It occurs also in good 
numbers on the hills, near Chinwangtao, and the market is 
fairly well supplied with them during the season. 

I found this Partridge common in February 1890 in the 
mountains of the Liautung Peninsula. 

194. Tiirnix blanfordi Blyth. 
Turnix macula f us D. &. O. p. 398. 
Turnix blanfordi La V. p. 579. 

Blanfoid^s Button Quail is a very common migrant in 
north-east Chihli. It passes Chinwangtao from about the 
middle of May to about the 7th of June, and from the last 
week in August to well on into October. I have no doubt 
that it breeds here. A live female example given to me by 
Mr. A. L. Hall in October 1915 constantly uttered a cry 
which might be syllabled as " krek.'' During March it 
began to utter what is presumably the breeding call. The 
bird began by making a low sound which exactly resembled 
the deep, but veiy distant hoot of a steamer's whistle. 
After this there was a short pause, then another low hoot 
with the same ventriloquistic effect, but a little louder, 
after which another pause, and the same sound was uttered 
again ; after the filth call or so it developed into a weird 
moan. The calls were repeated at short intervals, the three 
or four last being heartrending, very humanlike moans ; 
these increased in intensity, and were altogether about 
eight or nine in number; the bird as it made these sounds 
bowed its head and slightly depressed its wings. The calling 
of tliis bird became very frequent during the first half of 
May, and on the 1-lth, noticing that it was calling more 
than usual, I went to find out what was the matter, and I 



1921.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 11 

found the bird crouching in a corner of tlie cage as if it 
waiited to la}^ or incubate. I thereupon put a quantity of 
dry grass into the cage^ which the Quail took immediate 
possession of, hollowing out a depression and taking tlie 
grass and throwing it over its back so as to form a dome to 
the nest. Next day the Heraipode appeared to have given 
up the idea of laying, but on the 16th I discovered hidden 
among the grass a miniature egg, apparently laid the previous 
day, as that same day at noon I found a second egg, this 
one about one-third the usual size, also hidden away among ' 
the grass. None was laid on the 17th, but on the 18th 
I found a third egg, resembling the second one in size. No 
others were laid, and the calling became less frequent and 
intense. I was unfortunately unable to procure a male. 
The Hemipode, on being shown a skin of one of its own 
species, became greatly excited, puffed out its feathers, 
bowed and " kreked " as if pleased. On the 31st of the 
month, I happened to pick up another female, slightly 
wounded in the wing, which, when healed, I placed in the 
cage, together with the other Turnix and two male Coturnix 
japonica. The Turnix, beyond giving the newcomer a 
gentle peck now and then during the first day, did not 
attempt to molest it, and the four birds lived in harmony 
until the 16th of July, when one of the Japanese Quail, a 
young bird of the previous year, was found killed (by the 
other male probably). The new Turnix showed signs of 
wanting to lay soon after it had been placed with the others, 
and on the 21st of June I found three eggs laid by it. On 
the 22nd, 26th, 27th and 28th, four more eggs were found, 
presumably laid by the same bird. On the 6th of July I 
found another. All these were very small eggs, much under 
half size ; but on the 17th, a much larger egg, about half 
size, was found, and on the 20th and 21st two more minia- 
ture eggs. On the 23rd of July I had to take the new 
Turnix out of the cage as it was badly pecked about the 
head, evidently by the old bird. When the Japanese Quail 
remained alone with the latter, it made violent love to it 
and attempted to pair, but without any encouragement from 



12 Mr. J. D. D. La Touclie on the [Ibis, 

tlie rienii[)ode, which invariably tried to escape from it. 
The foUowiiip; year only one egg was hiid by the new (^)uail. 
The otlier bird Iiad unfortunately been attacked by a rat and 
was so injured that 1 had to chloroform it. Tliis bird at 
the time of its death iiad assumed an extraordinary melanistic 
pluuuige, probably due to insufficient insect-food. I fed 
these Quail on kaoliang and small millet, and gave them 
besides bread and milk and insects when in season. 

195. Ealliis indicus Blyth. 
HaUus iudicus D. & O. p. 489. 

I have an adult male of the Indian Kail which was 
brought down to me alive from Chilifeng in northern 
C^hihli by Mr. A. L. Hall, who had obtained it at the begin- 
ning of May. I shot an immature bird in the crops here 
on the 21st of September and a half-grown bird on the 28th 
of September^ so that this Kail evidently breeds here. The 
soft parts of the adult male are : iris orange-red, culmeu 
brownish, the edge of the upper mandible and lower man- 
dible orange-vermilion, legs rosy grey. 

I shot out of a ditch on the plains near Newchwang in 
southern Manchuria on the '^Gth of May, 1889, an example 
of Amaurornis pai/kulU (Ljuugh). 

196. Porzana pusilla (Pall.). 
Porzana pyynuea D. & O. j). 487. 
Porzana pusilla La T. p. 579. 

Pallas's Crake passes during the latter half of May to the 
beginning of June, and is met with again in wet fields and 
marshes from the beginning of August to the last week in 
October. It is extremely abundant during the autumn 
passage. It is said by David to summer near Peking, and 
probably also breeds near Chiuwangtao. 

1 saw this Crake in summer near Newchwang. 

197. Gallinula chloropus parvifrons Blyth. 
Gallinula cliloroims D. & O. p. 485. 

The Indian Common Moorhen summers in the marshes. 
I have three eggs taken at the end of June. 



1 92 1.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 13 

198. Gallicrex cinerea (Grin.). 

Gallicrex cinerea D, & O. p. 484 ; La T, p. 579. 

A single male example was taken by my local collector at 
Shanliaikuan in April 1913. I believe that I saw one on 
the 27th of August, 1912. This is probably the northernmost 
breeding-limit of the Water-Oock. 

199. Fulica atra L. 

Fulica atra D. & O. p. 489 ; La T. p. 579. 

Coots are extremely abundant in the marshes during most 
years in September and October. They are uncommon in 
spring. 

The Coot is a common migrant at Newchwang. 

200. Grus grus lilfordi Sharpe. 
Grus cinerea D. & O. p. 434. 
Grus sp. (part), La T. p. 579. 

I have examples of the Eastern Grey Crane, shot in the 
vicinity of Chinwangtao in December and January. A few 
of these winter here. Immense flocks of Cranes pass over 
Chinwangtao in spring during March and early in April, and 
again in October. These are mainly, I believe, composed of 
birds of this species. As a rule, they fly so high that it is not 
easy to identify them except by the call. On the 12th of 
October, 1915, I counted some 28 flocks passing from 
4.30 P.M. to dark — there were from 40 to 70 birds in each 
flock. At 8 P.M. they were still passing. Thousands must 
have gone over that day. 

201. Grus leucaiichen Temminck. 
Grus vipio D. & O. p. 435. 

I have a handsome adult male obtained at (Jhiuwangtao 
on 10 October, 1918 — wing 22i in., culmen 5*8 in., tarsus 
9'5 in. Legs crimson-lake; bill (dried) dull greyish. The 
under tail-coverts are grey. 

202. Grus japonensis Miiller. 
,Grus viridirostris D. & O. p. 435. 

An adult example of the Manchurian Crane was 
liaMked round in November 1916. It had been shot 



14 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche on the [Ibis, 

near Shanliaikuan. I believe tbat examples of this Crane 
are occasionally obtained in tlie neiglibonrhood, but during 
six years' residence at Chinwangtao, I know of two only 
having been captured. Among the flocks of Crane Avhich pass 
over I have seen white Cranes with black wings which 
were either of this or the next species. The following- 
dates may he particularly mentioned : 12 October, 2 Nov- 
ember, 1913, 30 March, 1915. The birds seen on this 
last-mentioned date are noted in my diary as follows: — 
"At 3.15 P.M. two very large flocks of (*ranes flew over 
accompanied by a couple of small parties: some were white 
with black primaries so far as I could make out, others 
were grey birds. All were flying together, a patch of white 
birds and then a lot of grey ones. The eff'ect of the 
variegated V^s was very curious. There must have been 
300 of the birds.'' These white Cranes have a rather 
shrill call : '^ coo-kee." 

203. Grus leucogeranus Pall. 

Grus lecucogeranus D. & O. p. 436. 

I have an example of the Great White Crane, shot at 
Hsieh Chia Ying in the spring of 1915. With the exception 
of the bastard wing and primaries Avhich are black, the bird 
is entirely white. The colouring of the soft parts in tlie 
dried skin are : — bill dull livid purple, apical part pale 
horn ; skin of crown and face dusky reddish yellow ; legs 
dull reddish pink. The bill is serrated at its extremity for 
about 2*20 in. Measurements : — Culnien 7'20, wing 24.*00, 
tail 8*20, tarsus 9*50 inches. 

204. Otis dybowskii Tacz. 
Otis tarda D. & O. p. 421. 
Otis dyhowskii La T. p. 579. 

The Eastern Great Bustard passes Chinwangtao from early 
in March to the end of April or beginning of May. On tiie 
]Oth of May, 1916, two of these birds flew over the port, but 
these were doubtless belated travellers. In autumn, from 
October until about the 10th of November is the time of 



1921.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 15 

passage. These birds proljubly begin to pass in September or 
possibly at the end of Augnst, but I have no positive records. 
As tlie kaoliang (sorghum) is not down much before the 
beginning of October — and the birds, as a rule, fly very 
low, — observations at that season are difficult imtil the plain 
is more or less cleared of the liigh crops. My predecessor 
at this port once shot eight in the course of an afternoon at 
the beginning of October, out of a laige number which flew 
over the port that day. These Bustards fly in flocks which 
occasionally contain from 40 to 50 birds ; but, as a rule, 
10 to 20 individuals is the usual number. Very wary, they 
seldom alight while migrating, except in the vicinity of decoys 
and in very open places. After the middle of November 
and during winter, the Great Bustard may be found on the 
bare high ground inland and on the plains. The natives 
shoot the Eastern Great Bustard on passage, by means of 
decoys, both in spring and in autumn after the crops have 
been cut *. Large circular pits are dug on the plain in the 
line of flight of the Bustards. These are furnished witli a 
flat roof of kaoliang stalks, the roof being a very few 
inches above the level of the ground. The edge of the roof 
is hung with grass so as to conceal the interior. A few 
paces from the pit, Bustard skins stuffed so as to represent 
the birds in an expectant attitude are planted all I'ound. 
These Bustard skins have the orbits stufl'ed with cotton 
painted black, the legs are cut off and replaced by a stout 
stick, the tail is spread in the characteristic manner, and 
the skins, in which the wing-quills have been pulled out, 
are stuffed in such a way as to show a great deal of white 
on the flanks, the wings being tightly bound to the body. 
The professional shooting-men come daily to these decoys 
during the times of passage and remain thei'C throughout 
the day. On the approach of the Bustards thev conceal 
themselves in the pits. The Bustards, on sighting the decoy, 
generally fly straight to it and after wheeling round once 

* Since the above was written, I have been informed by my collector 
that the birds are also taken with nets. 



16 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche on the flbis, 

or twice settle in its vicinity — as a rule, within easy range 
of the men's guns. The guns used are single-barrelled, and 
as the occupants of the ])it are two in number one or 
tM'o birds remain as the result of a successful shot. These 
are instantly deprived of the flight- and sometimes even of 
the tail-feathers, which are made up into bundles for sale 
to feather merchants, and the mutilated body is sent to 
market. The Chinwangtao market is stocked witli Bustards 
in spring and autumn, and in winter many birds are brought 
from inland. The price varies according to size from $0.50 
to '^1.00, the latter price being asked for birds which 
have perfect wings and tail ; otherwise a large mutilated 
bird may be had for a couple of dollars. Young birds are 
not bad eating, but old males are very rank in flavour. 

The Eastern Great Bustard takes at least three or 
perhaps four years to develop to its full size and j)lumage. 
Young males of the } ear have the liead, neck^ and breast 
of a somewhat darkish grey, the primaries are spotted at 
their extremity, the side-rectrices are doubh-barred, and 
the weight varies from 6 to 10 lbs. In the following 
spring a short beard is assumed, but no other change takes 
place beyond the moulting of the primaries and secondaries. 
In the second spring (third year of the bird) the bird has 
a clear grey crown with an inconspicuous central dark 
stripe, a fair-sized beard, the neck and breast remain as 
in autumn (clear pale grey with a trace of lengthening 
and disintegrating of the fore-neck feathers). The wing- 
coverts have some of the immature markings, but the outer 
rectrices have the single subterminal black bar of the adult 
plumage. The male evidently assumes in the second 
autumn the clearer grey head, neck, and breast of the 
adult bird. 

The male when three or more years old has in spring the 
head, nape, and upper hind-neck of a very pale grey ; the 
dark coronal stripe has almost disappeared ; the chin, throat, 
and upper lower neck arc white, tinged with buff on the 
neck. The beard is four or more inches long, and the 
leathers of the fore-neck are disintegrated and almost as 



1921.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 17 

long as the beard, and grade into chestnut at the base of 
the lower fore-neck. The breast has become chestnut by 
the moulting of the feathers, which are now lanceolate, 
slightly disintegrated, and of considerable lengtli. The 
lesser wing-coverts are pure pale grey, spotted with white. 
The wing measures from 'l^h to 244 inches. 

The adult bird in autumn and winter has the throat 
whitish, the head, fore-neck, and breast of a clear light grey, 
the feathers of the breast being rounded, with occasionally 
a few dashes of chestnut. There is a well-developed narrow 
crest which in spring is almost as light-coloured as the rest 
of the head. 

The female plumage undergoes apparently much the same 
development as the male with regard to the wing-quills and 
rectrices. The breast has in spring a slight admixture of 
tawny chestnut. 

The foregoing description of the male in spring plumage 
is taken from four males shot in spring at Chinwangtao or 
Shanhaikuan : — one adult in full breeding dress, one adult 
moulting into the full breeding dress, a male in its third 
year, and a young male ot the previous year. Besides these, 
I have seen another adult spring male and, on the 4th 
of February, 1912, in the market, an adult male with disin- 
tegrated neck-feathers and a quantity of fulvous on the 
sides of tlie lower neck, so that probably the breeding- 
plumage is assumed very early in the year. 

Adult males generally weigh from J 5 to 19 lbs. and over. 
I have been told l)y foreign sportsmen that they had seen 
birds of 30 lbs. in weight, but these are not commonly met 
with. Females weigh from 7 to probably 9 lbs. 

1 may mention here that the Chinese shooting-men in 
north-eastern Chihli have three separate popular names for 
the Bustard. Adult males are called Yang Pu (Sheep 
Bustard), younger males are called Ch'hig Pu (Dark Bustard), 
and very small males and females are called Chi Pu 
(Chicken Bustard). The last are undoubtedly the " Ki 
Pou" of Pere David (Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris, Bulletin, 
1867, p. 38), quoted by Swinhoe (P. Z. S. 1871, p. 402) as 

SER. XI. VOL. III. C 



18 Mr. J. D. D. La Tonche on the [Ibis, 

" Kepoo." So far as is known, there is but one Bustard in 
China. 

Bustards pass the port of Newchwang on migration, and 
winter on the neighbouring plains. 

205. Glareola orientalis Leach. 

Glareola orientalis D. & O. p. 431 ; La T. p. 579. 

The Eastern Pratincole passes from the middle of April 
to the bef^inning of j\Iay. It is very abundant on the 
return passage from the end of August to the end of 
September. The birds oenerally fly in very scattered order 
and in large flocks. Solitary specimens as well as flocks 
may be seen settled on the plain and in the marshes during 
the migration season. 

This bird summers on the plains about Newchwang. 

206. Arenaria interpres (L.). 
Strepsilas interpres D. & O. p. 433. 

The Turnstone was obtained by the Rev. Geo. D. Wilder 
at Peitaiho, the well-known summer resort situated about 
10 miles west of Chinwangtao, in August. 

I observed this bird near Newchwang in May 1889. 

207. Van^lliis cristatus Wolf & Meyer. 
Vanellus cristatus D. & O. p. 422 ; La T. p. 580. 

The Lapwing passes from early in March until the last 
ten days in April. In autumn I have seen it as early as 
the 21st of September and as late as the 9th of November. 

208. Microsarcops cinereus (Blyth). 
Chettusia cinerea D. & O. p. 422. 
Microsarcops cinereus La T. p. 580. 

The (Jrey Lapwing is apparently not common in sprino-. 
At this season I have seen it on the 26th jNlarch and in 
April. On the return passage it is extremely abundant 
from the middle of August and throughout September. In 
1913, 1 saw one as late as the 10th of October. Large flocks 
follow one another on suitable days, many of these settling 
for a time on the marshes or on the plain. 



1921.] Birds of Nortk-East Chihti. 19 

'209. Charadrius dominicus fiilvus Gm. 

Charadrius falvus D. & O. p. 424. 

The Eastern Golden Plover is rare at Chinwaiigtao. I 
shot one on the 1st of October, 1911, and iiave not identified 
any others since. I believe, liowever, that I have seen 
flocks passing at the end of August. 

I found this Plover common at Newchwang at the end of 
August and in September, 

210. Squatarola helvetica (L.). 

Squat aro/a helvetica D. & O. p. 424 -, La T. p. 580. 

The collectors shot on the 24th of May 1913, an example 
in full breeding plumage of the Grey Plover and saw a few 
others on the 20th and 23rd of April and on the 8th and 24th 
of Mav of that year. One was seen on the 19th of October, 
1911. 

211. Ochthodromus veredus (Gould). 
yEgialitia veredus D. & O. p. 425 ; La T. p. 580. 

I saw a flock of the Eastern Dotterel on the 14th of April, 
1911, on the plain, but iiave seen none since. 

212. Ochthodromus geofFroyi (Wagler). 
JE(jialitis geoffroyi D. & O. p. 426; La T. p. 580. 

An example of the Large Sand-Plover was shot by the 
collectors on the 22nd of May, 1913, One was obtained by 
Mr. A. de C. Sowerby at Peitaiho on the 20th of July, 1916. 

213. Ochthodromus mongolicus (Pall.), 

j^gialiiis niongulicus D, & O, p, 427 ; La T, p. 580. 

Two examples of tlie Mongolian Plover were shot by the 
collectors on the 16th of May, 1913, and three others were 
seen on the same day. 

214. ^gialitis placida (Gray). 

^gialitis placidus D. & 0. p. 428; La T. p. 580, 
yEgialitis placida Dresser, Ibis, 1908, p. 488, pi. x. (egg). 
Hodgson's Ringed Plover summers in the district. I saw 
two at the end of May, 1911, which were apparently paired, 



20 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche on the [This, 

and in 1915 a number of eggs were brought to me by my 
collector, avIio bad taken them on the stony beaches of the 
Shanhaikuau River (Shih Ho) in April and May. On the 
2nd of May of that year, 1 went out to search for the eggs 
myself with the collector, and during the course of a day's 
hunt saw a number of empty nests. One containing four 
eggs was found. The old bird sneaked away at once, hut 
ou our lying down a few yards from the nest, it was soon 
seen running cautiously among the stones and it settled 
down again on the eggs. An attempt to photograph the 
bird on its nest having failed, I took the eggs, which were 
incubated, but not too far advanced to preserve. This nest, 
like all the others seen that day, was a rounded depression 
among the shingle and had a thin lining of scraps of twigs 
or grass. The nests were placed among the stones some 
distance from the water. The birds lay from about the 
middle of April to the first week in May. There are four 
eggs in a clutch. These vary in shape from an ovate with 
a much pointed apex to a pyriform shape, occasionally 
much pinched in at the apex. There is a moderate gloss. 
The ground-colour is a pale greyish green, sometimes a dull 
reddish clay. The eggs are finely speckled with light or 
dark reddish brown and lilac. The latter colour is on the 
surface as well as within the shell. The speckling is often 
thicker on the large end, but few have it so dense as to 
form a cap. Thirty eggs average ]'4I x 1"04 in., and 
measure from 1'37 to 1*51 in. in length and from 0'99 x 
1-07 in breadth. The plate in 'The Ibis' represents a very 
dull and red type which only a few of my specimens 
resemble. 

215. .ffigialitis dnbia (Scop.). 

^^il(jialitis dubius D. & O. p. 429. 

^gialitis minor La T. p. 580. 

The Lesser Ringed Plover arrives early in April and is 
common during that month in the marshes. It breeds 
commonly on the stony reaches of the Shih Ho, from which 



1921.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 2l 

locality I have clutches dated 12th and 80th April, 14th, 
15th, 18th, and 29th May, aud June. May is, however, the 
month when eggs are most commonly found. While search- 
ing for eggs on the 2nd of May, 1915, I saw only empty nests. 
Tiie birds were numerous that day and were noticed pursuing 
one another and calling loudly as they flew. The nests are 
merely depressions among the shingle and contain no lining, 
a few small pebbles only being found in them. The eggs 
are buff, rarely pale buff, avid are marked all over with 
specks aiul short lines of very dark and light brown over 
underlying grey spots. A few eggs are, in addition, scantily 
marked with large spots of blackish brown. One egg out 
of a series of 39 has the ground-colour white with a tinge of 
grey. Another from the same series has a cap of uniform 
dull brown, overlaid with the usual markings, and the apical 
half has a coat of dark buff, only a ring of the true buff 
ground-colour showing between the two. The eggs are 
without gloss. The most general shape is a pyriform-ovate, 
but pyriform eggs are common, an ovate sometimes occurs, 
and the apex is often much pinched in. Thirty-nine eggs 
range from 1"25 in. to I'lO in. in length and from 0'92 in. 
to 0"83 in. in width, the largest being 1*25 x 0*89 in. and 
the smallest 1-12 x 0-83 in. They average 1-17 x 0*87 in. 

216. ^gialitis alexandrina (L.). 

j^gialitis cantianus D. & O. p. 430; La T. p. 580. 

The Kentish Plover is common in spring on the mud 
flats and shores of tidal creeks. It passes again in 
September. 

217. HsBmatopus osculans Swinhoe. 

Hcematojnis osculans D. & O. p. 432 ; La T. p. 580. 

The Chinese Oystercatcher is not commonly seen in the 
vicinity of Chinwangtao. I saw one flying over on the 
20th of May, 1911, another was reported as having been 
shot in March 1912, and two were seen by the collectors 
on the 22nd of May, 1913. 



22 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche on the [Ibis, 

218. Himantopus candidus Bonuat. 

HimantopHs candidus D, & O. p. 462 ; La T. p. 580. 

I liave an example of the Black-winged Stilt, which was 
shot in May 1911 at Lanchow. In 1913 Stilts were seen 
several times at Chinwangtao between the 12th of April 
and the 16th of May. 

219. Recurvirostra avocetta (L.). 
Recur virostra avocetta D. & O. p. 461. 

I saw two Avocets in the Chinwangtao market one late 
autumn. 

I noticed this bird on the banks of the river Liao near 
Newchwatig in April 1889. 

220. Ibidorhynchus struthersi Vigors. 
Ibidorhynchus struthersii D. & O. p. 456, pi. 118. 

Pere David states that the Ibis-Bill is a resident in the 
mountains of Chihli and that it nests among the shingle 
on the banks of the mountain streams. It was only in the 
spring of 1915 that I was first made aware of the occurrence 
of this bird in this vicinity by my collector bringing me two 
eggs taken by him on the 23rd of Aprils which he said belonged 
to a Curlew-like bird of grey plumage with red bill and legs. 
On the 2nd of May following, I set out with my man to try 
to find the bird and secure more eggs. We worked up the 
stony bed of the Shih Ho (Shanhaikuan River) to the place 
where the eggs mentioned above had been taken^ and the 
empty nest was shown to me. It was a saucer-shaped 
depression among the stones of a shingly beach, not far 
from the banks of the main stream some two or three miles 
from the mountains. This depression Avas lined, as described 
by Mr. Uresser (Ibis, 1907, p. 323], with small stones, all 
of much the same size, and it was about eight inches in 
diameter. A few paces further on we came on another 
empty nest resembling the first nest, and on our way back 
to the river-bank we found a third nest — this one with an 
adiiled egg in it. During the afternoon, as I was searching 



1921.] Birds of North-East Chihli, 23 

the neighbourhood of this reach, I saw au Ibis-Bill feeding 
in the shallows a couple of huudred yards from me, which 
my man identified as the kind of bird to which the eggs he 
had brought me belonged. This one flew oft' at long range, 
and my collector told me the birds were extremely wild 
during the nesting-season. In winter they are more easily 
approached, and at that season they are to be found among 
the mountains. Owing to its protective colouring this bird 
is, hardly visible against a background of water and shingle. 
The flight is low, not rapid, and reminds one of that of 
certain Sandpipers. My collector subsequently brought me 
two more eggs taken on the 22nd of May following ; in 191G 
a clutch of four were taken on the 9th of April, and subse- 
quently a clutch of four were taken by him in the same 
locality on the 14th of April, 1918; these last were sent 
to the British Museum without being measured. He also 
shot on the 20tli of September, 1915, a bird of the year in 
immature dress. The bill of this bird was dark red, the 
legs pale pinkisli-mauve. 

The eggs taken on the 23rd of April and 22nd May, 
1915, and 9th April, 1916, bear a general resemblance to 
those figured by Mr. Dresser (Ibis, 1907, pi, vi.), but are 
perhaps rather greener. The ground-colour is, when fresh, 
of a greyish-green, which turns somewhat red after a time. 
The spots are reddish-brown and reddish-purple. The 
addled egg found on the 2iid of May is greyer and the 
markings, which are large, are faint — possibly washed out. 
It is of a somewhat broad-ovate, while the other eggs are of 
a truer ovate. These nine eggs measure as follows : — 

23 April, 1915, two eggs 1*99 x TSO, 2-06 x 1*48 inch. 

2 May, „ one egg l*88x 1"50 inch. 

22 „ „ two eggs 1-88 X 1-42 „ 

9 April, 1916, four „ 1-97 X 1*47 „ 

1-97 X 1-49 „ 

207x1-42 „ 

2-05 X 1-45 „ 



24 Mr. J. D. B. La Touche on the [Ibis, 

221. Numenius arquatus (L.). 
Numenius li neat us D. & O. p. 457. 
Numenius arquatus La T. p. 58L 

Curlew are met with in spring from the last decade in 
JNIai'ch to the end of May, and pass again very early in July. 
I have heard tliem calling at niglit as early as the end of 
June, but it may be that birds heard so early in the season 
were wanderers from neighbouring breeding-grounds. I saw 
tbree nndoubtcd Common Curlew on the 21st of April, 1912, 
and the collectors recorded seeing them from the 31st of 
Marcb to the 28th of May, and shot one out of three on the 
28th of August, 1917 ; but, as a rule, the Curlew in this 
vicinity keep to the inaccessible mud-flats, and it is difficult 
to ascertain with certainty whether the birds belong to this 
or the following species. 

The Curlew passes Newchwang on migration. 

222. Numenius cyanopus Vieillot. 
Numenius tahitiensis D. & O. p. 458. 
Numenius cyanopus La T. ]). 581. 

The Eastern Curlew was noted in 1913 from the 12th of 
April to the 3rd of May. It is very probable that the birds 
heard at night in summer are of this species. I have seen 
them in Septeiiiber. 

This Curlew breeds, I believe, on the plains near 
Newchwang. 

223. Numenius phaeopus variegatus Scop. 
Numenius jihaopus D. & O. p. 457. 
Numenius variegatus La T. p. 581. 

Tlie collectors recorded the Eastern Whinibrel througliout 
May 1913. I have seen it passing on the 27th of August 
and on other dates. It is quite a common migrant both in 
spring and in early autumn. 

I noticed this bird on migration at NewchAvang. 

224. Mesoscolopax minutus (Gould). 
Numenius minutus D. & O. p. 458. 
Mesuscolopax minutus La T. p. 581. 

The Little Curlew passes in spring during the latter half 



1921,] Birds of North- East Chrhli. 25 

of April and the first week in May. It is extremely 
abundant on passage during September. 

1 noted this bird as a migrant at Nevvchwang in 1889. 

225. Limosa limosa melanuroides Gould. 
Limosa brevipes D. & O. p. 460. 

The Eastern Black-tailed Godwit passes in August. 
I shot a young bird out of a party of three on the 25th of 
August, 1912, and was shown another a couple of years 
afterwards on the 9th of August. 

This Godwit was very abundant at Newchwang in April 
1889, and was observed again at the end of August and in 
Se^jtember of that year. 

226. Terekia cinerea (Giildenst.). 

Terekia cinerea D. & 0. p. 460; La T. p. 581. 

The Terek Sandpiper was observed and shot by the 
collectors from the 1st to the 16th of Mny, 1913. 
Mr. Sowerby procured an example in breeding plumage at 
Peitaiho in July 1916. 

This Sandpiper was observed by me at Newchwang in 
April. 

227. Tringoides hypoleucus (L.). 
Trinyoides hypoleucus D. & O. p. 467. 
Tetanus hypoleucus La T. p. 581. 

The Common Sandpiper passes in May, August, and 
September. 

228. Totanus glareola (L.). 

Totanus glareola D. & O. p. 464 ; La T. p. 581. 

The Wood-Sandpiper appears to be the commonest Sand- 
piper at Chinwangtao. It passes towards the beginning of 
May and from the beginning of August to the first week in 
September. 

229. Totanus ochropus (L.). 

Totanus ochropus D. & O. p. 465 ; La T. p. 581. 
The Green Sandpiper passes from the end of April to 
probably the end of May. A pair seen inland on the l)anks 



26 Mr. J, D. D. La Touche on the [This. 

of a stream were very possibly preparing to breed. It no 
doubt passes with the other Waders in August and September, 
but I liave no recorded observations for those months. 
I have, however, observed it on the 11th of October. 

230. Totanus calidris (L.). 

Totanus calidris D. & O. p. 464 ; La T. p. 581. 

The Redshank passes at tlie end of March and was also 
recorded during the first half of May 1913 by the collectors. 
I believe I have seen it in August. 

This Sandpiper and the preceding three species were 
observed on migration at Newchwang in the late summer 
and early autumn of the year 1889. The Green Sandpiper 
was the first to appear, and was to be seen singly or in small 
parties on the banks of pools and in marshy spots. 

231. Totanus fuscus (L.). 

Totanus fuscus D. & 0. p. 463; La T. p. 581. 

The Dusky Redshank has been observed at the end of 
March and beginning of April, in Septembei', and early in 
October. 

232. Totanus incanus brevipes Vieillot. 
Totanus incanus D. & O. p. 466. 

On the 13th of September, 1915, I saw on the shores of 
the Junk Harbour at Chinwangtao two grey Sandpipers 
which appeared to me to be the Eastern Grey Sandpiper, 
The Rev. Geo, D. Wilder shot an example in summer 
plumage at Peitaiho in August 1916, and I have seen 
two others shot in the same locality in September by 
Mr. Hubbard of Paoting-fu. 

233. Totanus glottis (L.). 
Totanus glottis D. & O. p. 462. 

The Greenshank passes in September and October. It 
doubtless passes also in spring, but I have no records. 
Mr. Sowerby obtained one in summer plumage at Peitaiho 
on the 15th of July, 1916. • 

This Sandpiper was seen by me at Newchwang in 1889 in 
spring and on the return passage. 



1921.] Birds of North- East Chihii. 27 

234. Calidris arenaria (L.)- 

Calidris areauria D. & O. p. 467; La T. p. 581. 

Tringa acuminata La T. p. 58L 

On the 22nd of May, J 911 I shot on the seashore at 
Chinwatigtao two Sandpipers in breeding-dress which I noted 
down as Sharp-tailed Stints and put away without comparing 
tliein. On examining one ot" these birds lately, I found it 
was a Sanderling. I unfortunately recorded the i)arty of 
Sandpipers out of which I shot these examples in my paper 
on Chinwangtao migrants (Ibis^ 1914, p. 581) as Tringa 
acuminata. This species, although there is no doubt that 
it passes there, must for the present be eliminated from 
my list. 

A second party of Sanderlings was met with by me at the 
same place on the 18th of May, 1913, out of which I shot 
three examples which formed part of the collection made 
that year for the Migration Committee of the B. 0. C. 

Mr. Sowerby obtained an example in summer plumage at 
Peitaiho on the 17th of July, 1916. 

235. Tringa minuta ruficoUis Pall. 
Tringa ruficoUis D. & O. p. 472 (part). 

Mr. A. de C. Sowerby obtained the Eastern Little Stint 
in summer plumage at Peitaiho on the 16th of July, 
1916. 

This bird was abundant on the marshy plain near 
Newchwang in September 1889. 

236. Tringa damacensis Horsf. 
Tringa 7'uficollis D. & 0. p. 472 (part). 

The Long-toed Stint was obtained by Mr. Sowerby in 
worn summer plumage at Peitaiho on the 14tli of July, 1916. 
I shot this bird at the marshes near Chinwangtao on the 
22nd of August and 3rd of September following. 

237. Tringa temminckii Leisl. 
Tringa temminckii D. & O. p. 473. 

I shot a Temminck's Stint on the 25th of August, 
1912. 



28 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche on the [Ibis, 

238. Tringa crassirostris T. & S. 
Tringa crassirostris D. & O. p. 468. 

The Eastern Knot was obtained by Mr. Sowerby in 
summer dress at Peitaiho on the 17th of July, 1916. 

239. Tringa caniitiis (L.), 
Tringa canutus D. & O. p. 469. 

The Knot was also obtained by Mr. Sowerby at Peitaiho 
on the 17th of July, 1916. The specimen submitted to me 
was in full summer dress. 

240. Tringa subarquata ((iiildenst.). 
Tringa subarquata D. & O. p. 472. 

A specimen of the Curlew-JStint in part summer plumage 
(worn above and mixed with winter plumage on the under- 
parts) obtained by jNlr. Sowerby at Peitaiho on the 18th of 
July, 1916, was sent to me for investigation together with 
the other Waders mentioned above. 

241. Tringa cinclus americana Cass. 
Tringa cinclus J). & O. p. 471. 
Tringa americana La T. p. 581. 

The collectors shot on the 3rd of May, 1913, a Pacific 
Dunlin \n summer plumage out of a party of five. I shot 
one of two birds on the 12th of October following. This 
bird is a young bird putting on winter plumage. Mr. Sowerby 
procured at Peitaiho on the 14th, 16th, and 18th of July, 
1916, three examples in summer plumage. 

Dunlins were abundant on the Newchwang plain in 
September 1889. 

242. Tringa platyrhyncha Temm. 
Tringa platyrhyncha D. & O. p. 470. 

A Broad-billed Stint in summer plumage, shot on the 
14th of July^ 1916, was among the Waders sent to me by 
Mr. Sowerl)y from Peitaiho. 

243. Scolopax rusticola L. 

Scolopax rusticola D. &■ O. p. 475 ; La T. p. 582. 

The Woodcock is found at Chinwangtao during April and 



1921.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 29 

May and again in Scpleniber. It is not at all nncommon 
during the latter month. 

Woodcock were not rare on passage at Newchwang during 
September in the 'eighties of last century. 

244. Gallinago solitaria (Modgs.). 
GalUnago solitaria D. & O. p. 476, pi. 122. 

I have a handsome example of the Himalayan Solitary 
Snipe bought in the Chinwangtao market on the 20th of 
December, 1914. It was in perfect condition and must have 
been shot only a few days previously. It is evidently a 
Avinter resident in the mountains of Chihli, as on the 
Yangtse. 

245. Gallinago megala Swinhoe. 

GaUinago megala D. & O. p. 477; La T. p. 582. 

Swinhoe's Snipe passes in May and during the last ten 
days o£ August. It is much less common about Chinwangtao 
than the Pintail and Common Snipe. 

246. Gallinago stenura IIorsF. 

GaUinago stenura D. & 0. p. 478 ; La T. p. 582. 

The Pin-tailed Snipe passes in May and again throughout 
August and during the first few days of September. It is 
more or less abundant, according to the state of tiie ground. 

247. GaUinago ccelestis Frenz. 
GaUinago scolopacina Y). & 0. p. 478. 
GaUinago ccelestis La T. p. 581. 

The Common Snipe ai'rives towards the end of March or 
early in April, according to the season, and remains during 
the first half of May. I shot a belated bird on the 16th of 
June, 1913. It begins to pass again during the last half of 
August, and in suitable spots remains throughout September. 
Laggards may be found in October and even in IMovember, 
I put up one from a stream iu the uplands north of the port 
on the 26th of November, 1911. The temperature that dav 
was so coM that the water we had with us for drinkius:- 
purposes froze solid in the bottle. 



30 Mr. J. D. T). La Toiiclie on the [Tbis, 

In September 1913, owing probably to the favourable 
condition of the marshes in this vicinity, Snipe of this 
species swarmed there during the first half of the month. 
As a rule, April, May, and September are the months during 
which the birds are most abundant. 

248. Limnocryptes gallinula (L.). 
Gallinago yallinula D. & O. p. 479. 

Sir Francis Aglen, K.B.E., Inspector-General of the 
Chinese Maritime Customs, informed me that he had shot a 
Jack-Snipe near Peitaiho, the well-known seaside resort 
near Chinwangtao, towards the end of August 1915. 
Pere David states that foreign sportsmen assured him that 
they had shot this bird near Peking. I have the wings, legs, 
and head of a plucked bird which had been purchased in the 
Shanghai market, and also a skin of a bird shot at Foochow 
on the 12th of October, 1910, for which I am indebted to 
Mr. C. B. Rickett. 

249. Rostratiila capensis (L.). 
Rliynch(Ea capensis 1). & O. p. 480. 

I have a single male example of the Painted Snipe shot 
by Sir Francis Aglen, K.CE., at the marshes near Chin- 
wangtao on the 11th of September, 1916. It is the only 
bird of this species seen by me from that locality, 

250. Larus ridibundus L. 
Chroicocephalus ridibundus D. & O. p. 520. 
Larus ridibundus La T. p. 582. 

jNIigrating parties of the Laughing Gull appear towards 
the middle of March and the birds are abundant until the 
first week in May, after which they disappear, to begin 
passing again early in July. Birds seen travelling in July 
appeared to still have the hood. They may be seen in July 
and August flying along the coast, going south-west. I have 
seen them until very late in November on the tidal creeks, 
but I do not think that any winter here. 

The Laughing Gull was common at Newchwang during 
my stay there in 1889. 



1 92 1.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 31 

251. Lams canus L. 

Larus canus D. & O. p. 517. 

I have seen one Common Gall hanging in tlie market, 
and noticed medium-sized Galls about the harbour and coast 
which were doubtless of this species. 

This Gull was common at Newchwang in 1889. 

25.2. Larus argeiitatus vegae Stejn. 

Larus occidentalis D. & O. p. 520. 

Larus vega vel cachinnans La T. p. 519. 

Large Herring-Gulls pass at much the same seasons as 
the Laughing Gull, and are to be seen often during the 
winter about the harbour or passing over the plain. Those 
seen at fairly close quarters appeared to be the Pink-legged 
Herring-Gull. A few specimens are to be seen hanging in 
the game-shops in winter. 

Larus crussirostris was common at Newchwang in 1889, 
but T have no certain note of its occurrence at Chinwang-tao. 
If it does occur, it is very rare. 

253. Larus cachinnans Pall. 
Larus cachinnaas D. & O. p. 520. 

On the 29th of November, 1914, I saw an immature 
example of the Mediterranean Herring-Gull hanging in a 
game-shop in the village, 

254. Larus glaucus Briinn. 

On the 5th of February, 1917, I observed among a 
number of Gulls in the harbour two Glaucous Gulls, I had 
not noticed this species at Chinwangtao before, but it is quite 
possible that I had overlooked it. The winter 191G-1917 was 
exceedingly cold and the port was ice-bound for some time, 
so that the presence of these Gulls here was probably due to 
the severe weather-conditions prevailing at the time. 

255. Hydrochelidon hybrida (Pall.). 
Hydruchelidon hybrida D. & O. p. 524. 

The llev. Geo. D. Wilder shot a specimen of the Whiskered 
Tern between Peitaibo and Chinwangtao on the 31st of July, 



32 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche on the [Ibis, 

1916, and saw that day many flocks of tliis Tern passing 
down the coast. 

256. Hydrochelidon leucoptera (Schinz). 
HydrocheUdon leucoptera D. & O. p. 524 ; La T. p. 582. 
The White-winged Black Tern passes in spring and is 

very abundant during the latter half of August, when it 
travels along the coast in flocks. 

I noticed this Tern on the Nevvchwang plain in May and 
June, and on the River Liao on the 11th of August, 1889. 

257. Gelochelidou anglica (Mont.). 
Sterna anglica La T. p. 582. 

A single example of the Gull-billed Tern was seen at the 
port on the 4th of May, 1913. 

258. Sterna hirundo tibetana Saunders. 
Sterna fluviatitis D. & O. p. 525. 

I have seen numbers of medium-sized Tern passing in 
flocks during August and September which were probably 
tins species or S. longipennis, but none were collected. 
My collector, however, brought me at the beginning of July 
1915 ten eggs and an example of S. tibetana from the coast, 
about twenty miles W.S.W. of Chinwangtao, wheie he found 
this Tern breeding among the sand-dunes. These eggs are 
brownish olive^ deep buft", and yellowish-green, with spots 
and large blotches of dark brown over inky purplish-grey 
blotches, the latter being on the surface as well as within 
the shell. The shape varies from a somewhat oval-ovate to 
broad-ovate. The longest egg measures l'75x]*18 in., 
the shortest 1*53 x 1-17 in., the broadest 1-66 x 1*23 in., 
and the narrowest l-64xl'13in. The ten eggs average 
l-64xl-18in. 

259. Sterna sinensis Gm. 
Sternula sinensis D. & O. p. 527. 
Sterna sinensis La T. p. 582. 

The Chinese Tern arrives about the fourth week in May 
and breeds commonlv in the district. It lays three eggs in 



1 92 1.] Birds of Nurth-East Chihli. 33 

a depression in saiid-l)anks in the vicinity of water (rivers 
or sea). I have eggs dated 29th May, 2nd, 4th, 5th, and 
8th June, end of June, and July, taken on the Slianhaikuan 
River and down the coast. The eggs are huff", greenisli-buff, 
and pale yellowish-green, spotted with brown or reddish and 
purplish-grey, the latter in different shades and botli on the 
surface and witliin the shell. The spots are generally small 
and sometimes are partly concentrated in a rough zone. 
The general shape is ovate or oval-ovate. Thirty-two eggs 
average 1*29 x 0'96 in. The longest measures r37 x 0"9G in., 
the shortest l'19x 0-92 in., the broadest 1-28 x 0-98 in., 
and the narrowest diameter (three eggs) is 0'91 in. 

This Tern remains somewhat late, and may be seen fishing 
in the marshes until about the middle of October. 

I saw flocks of this Tern flying over the plain near 
Newchwang in May and June, and also on the River Liao 
on thp 11th of August, 1889. 

2G0. Phalacrocorax carbo (L.). 

Phalacrocorax curbo D. & O. p. 532 ; La T. p. 582. 

Cormorants pass in spring from the end of March to 
the end of April, and are not uncommonly seen during 
the autumn passage. One observed sitting on the rocks 
on the 11th of August, 1912, appeared from its size to 
be P. pelagicus. 

261. Fregata ariel (Gould). 

Attagen minor D. & O. p. 534. 

I saw on the 19th of August, 1915, circling over the 
clifl^s and harbour at Chiuwangtao, a large bird which must 
have been a Lesser Frigate-bird, On the 5th of October 
following, a friend saw circling over the harbour a large 
black bird with deeply forked tail, which was doubtless 
another example of this bird. The Smaller Frigate-bird 
occurs in summer on the coast of south-east China and 
has been seen or taken on the Lower Yangtse and at 
Shaweishan, but until 1915 it had not been noticed so far 
north on the China coast. 

SER. XI. VOL. III. D 



34 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche on the [Ibis 

Towards the end of July 1889, I saw on the river at 
Newchwaiig a brown Albatross. Tliis bird allowed a native 
to fire at it repeatedly at very close range without rising 
from the water. After several shots had been fired, it rose, 
apparently none the worse, and sailed away, passing a hundred 
yards or so from the boat I was in. 

262. Ibis melanocephala (Lath.). 
Ibis melanocephala D. & O. p. 452. 

A white Ibis with black head and neck seen at the 
marshes on the 5th of October, 1913, was without doubt an 
example of the White Ibis. 

When at Newchwang, in 1889, I was given a skin of the 
Japanese Crested Ibis {Nipponia nippon) by Mr. Farmer, 
then Constable of H.B.M.^s Consulate at the port, who 
told me that he liad seen a breeding-colony of these birds 
some way up the Hiver Liao. I saw a flock fly over the 
settlement towards the end of the autumn. 

263. Platalea leucorodia L. 
Plutalea major D. & O. p. 451 (part). 

I saw a Spoonbill passing on the 13th of October, 1912, 
and shot another on the 12th of October, 1913. The latter 
bird, a male, is in fresh immature plumage. The shafts of 
the wing-quills and the tips of these are black. Tlie colours 
of the soft parts were as follows: — Iris dull burnt-sienna; 
bill livid violet-black at the base, the greater part of the 
upper mandible yellow with black stripes ; skin of throat 
and lores yellow ; legs and feet black, the soles spotted with 
yellowish. Bill 9'35 in., wing 15"5 in. 

264. Ciconia ciconia boyciana Swinhoe ? 
Ciconia boyciana D. & O. p. 450. 

Four very large white birds with black wings seen passing 
on the 20th of November, 1910, were most probably White 
Storks. I have a male example purchased in the market at 
Chinwangtao. It is almost adult. 



1 92 1.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 35 

265. Ciconia nigra L. 
Ciconia nigra D. & O. p. 450. 

The Black Stork breeds^ I am informed, among the high 
rocks in the mountains about 30 miles nortli of Chinwangtao. 
I saw it soaring overhead on the 30tli and 31st of October, 
1911. It passes regularly in spring and autumn. I have 
two adult specimens shot in this neighbourhood : — 

? , 2nd Nov., 1915. Bill crimson, skin round the eye 
and chin vermilion ; legs crimson, the scales on the front of 
the tarsus and on feet black, soles of feet vermilion. Total 
length 41*20 in,, wing 22 in., tarsus 8 in., tail 9*30 in., 
culmen 7"30 in. 

$ , 4th March, 191G. Soft parts as above. Total length 
4375 in., wing 23-30 in., tail 10'-20 in., culmen 7-4 in., 
tarsus 8'40 in. 

I saw, while riding on the plain near Newchwang, in 
1889, two large birds, which were without doubt Black 
Storks. 

266. Ardea manillensis Meyen. 
Ardea purpurea D. & 0. p. 438. 
Ardea manillensis La T. p. 583, 

The Eastern Purple Heron is common on migration. It 
was specially abundant in 1911, when I saw numbers in the 
marshes on the 14th of April. On the 6th of October 
following, some 200 passed over the plain. It passes in 
April, JNlay, September, and October. 

267. M'dea cinerea L. 

Ardea cinerea D. & O. p. 437; La T. p. 582. 

The Grey Heron is an abundant migrant. It ))asses from 
the latter half of March to the end of May and from the 
last ten days of July to the end of October. A few must 
summer in the vicinity of Chinwangtao, as I have seen twice 
in the early summer a pair which were evidently settled for the 
breeding-season. Hard-sat eggs were brought to me on the 
26th of May, 1917, and two young birds tlie following June. 

I saw the Grey Heron at Newchwang in May 1889. 

'd2 



36 Mr. J. D. D. La Touclie on the [Ibis, 

268. Herodias alba L. 
Herodias alba D. & O. p. 439. 

A single Great Egret was seen at the marshes on the 5th 
of November, 1911. 

Large wliite Herons, seen near Newchwang on the 19th of 
May, 1889, were most probably of this species. 

269. Butorides javanicus amurensis Schrenck. 
Butorides macrorhynchus D. & O. p. 413. 
Butorides amurerisis La T. p. 583. 

The collectors saw an example of the Little Green Heron 
on the 31st of May, 1913 ; I saw another at the port on the 
22nd of May, 1914. A friend sent me a live adult bird on 
the 4th of June, 1914, which I released after taking measure- 
ments and noting the colour of the soft parts. These were 
as follows : — Iris yellow, lower mandible and sides of upper 
mandible and skin of lores greenish-yellow, legs yellowish- 
green. Wing 7*80 in., culmen 2"50 in. 

270. Botaurus stellaris (L.). 

Botaurus stellaris D. & O. p. 446 ; La T. p. 583. 

The Bittern is often seen on migration. It occurs from 
the end of March and during April, and during the latter 
half of September and the first few days of October. 

271. Nyctiardea nycticorax (L.). 

Nyctiardea nycticorax D. & 0. p. 444 ; La T. p. 583. 

The Night-Heron was shot by the collectors on the 29th 
of March, 1913, and seen by them on the 29th of April 
following. I believe that I saw one in the marshes on the 
28th of September, 1913. 

272. Ardetta eurythma Swinhoe. 

Ardetta eurythma D. & O. p. 447 ; La T. p. 583. 

Von Schrenck's Little Bittern summers in the district. 
I saw a specimen on the 28th of May, 1911, the collectors 
shot one on the 20th of May, 1913, and I have a specimen 
taken in autumn by a native hunter. 

I collected a male example at Newchwang on the 19th of 
May, 1889. 



1 92 1.] Birds uf North-East Chihli. 37 

273. Ardetta sinensis (Gm.). 
Ar delta sinensis D. & O. p. 448. 

I have not obtained any specimens of the Chinese Little 
Bittern in the vicinity of Chinwangtao, but I liave a number 
of the eggs of the bird, which were brought to me from the 
Hsien Chia Ying marshes and which had been taken in June 
and July. 

274. Cygnus cygnus (L.). 
Cygnus ferns D. & O. p. 493. 

An example of the Whooper was exposed for sale in the 
market during January 1912. 

A handsome adult Swan, which I originally took to be of 
this species but which I now think must be an adult male 
C.jankoivskyi, was brought to me alive on the 19th of March, 
1917. It had been snared and was quite uninjured. This 
bird lived in our yard throughout the summer and did not 
appear to suft'er from the summer heat. It was successfully 
taken to Shanghai when we left Chinwangtao in the follow- 
ing October and was given to Pere Courtois, the Curator of 
the Sikawei Museum, who has placed it, together with the 
other wild fowl presented to him by me that autumn, in a 
large ench^sure attached to the Museum. This Swan refused 
all food until the 22nd of March, when it ate some soaked 
bread. The next day it ate boiled green beans, and until 
late in the summer, when it began to eat the bran and 
kaoliang given to the other wild fowl in the yard, it would 
touch nothing but these boiled green beans. It became 
fairly tame after a few weeks, but never came up to ask for 
its food like the wild geese did. At the end of March it 
began to call, the sound being a gentle " cook cook.'' 
Later in the summer and in the autumn it occasionally 
uttered a loud call sounding something like " waw '' or 
"wow." Several times during the spring this bird and its 
companion in captivity (a (\ jankoivskyi) were seen to 
perform a curious wild dance round the yard, running 
madly with open wings and uttering love screams. I did not 
witness these performances myself, but they tcjok place in 
the presence of my children, who reported the facts to me. 



38 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche on the [Ibis, 

The somewhat orange-yellow patch on the bill and fore- 
head of this Swan does not extend beyond the nostril, 
reaching only to the posterior end of the aperture. It 
measured from the feathers on the forehead 1*4< in. in 
length. The culmen and bare forehead together measured 
■1'4 in. The shape of the head is rounded^ the featliering 
stopping at a line above the eye. 

275. Cygnus jankowskyi Alpheraky. 

Cygnus mitior D. & O. p. 494. 

Cygnus jankowskyi La T. p. 584. 

I saw Swans on five occasions during March 1911, and 
the collectors saw several large parties and flocks in March 
1913^ and on the 1st of April that year. Since then I have 
not noticed them passing, but most probably overlooked 
the passage. An example shot at the Hsieh Chia Ying 
mai'shes by the collectors was identified by Mr. Ogilvie- 
Grant as being a specimen of Jankowski^s Swan. I have 
two others : an adult bird shot here on the 19th of March, 
1911, and an immature bird from Shanhaikuan, shot at the 
end of March or beginning of April 1914. 

I purchased a winged adult bird on the 17th of March, 
1917, which I kept in our yard until the following October, 
when I took it to Shanghai with the other Swan mentioned 
above. This bird recovered from its wound after a few 
weeks, but it was several days before it would feed. 
Eventually it took to a diet of boiled green beans and, like 
its unwounded companion, ended by eating also the soaked 
bran and kaoliang given to the other wild fowl. Many weeks 
passed, however, before it would eat in the presence of 
anyone. The iris of this bird when it was in my possession 
was greyish, and the bird's facies was very different from 
that of its companion. The line of the forehead feather- 
ing was prolonged at an angle over the base of the upper 
mandible, the feathering reaching to a distance from which 
a line could be drawn through the centre of the eye, whereas 
in the other Swan, as noted above, this feathering stopped 



1 92 1.] Birds of North-East fJhihli. 39 

above the eye. Tlie shape of the head was also different, 
being angular, not rounded as in the other bird. 

Pere Courtois considers these two Swans to be both 
jankoivskyi (see Ois. du Musee de Sikawei, p. 120, 
Man. cone. PHist. Nat. de I'emp. Chinois, Tome v. 3™^ 
cahier, 1918). 

Swans were abundant on passage at Newcliwang during 
the spring of 1890, and the natives brought several, both 
alive and dead, for sale. 

Mr. A. L. Hall, who was for some years stationed in 
northern Chihli, on the borders of the Gobi desert, informed 
me that he had shot Snow-Geese there. These birds are 
said to occur near Tientsin. Cyytius davidi so far has not 
been re-discovered. The type has been apparently lost. 

276. Anser cygnoides (L.). 
Anser cygnoides D. & O. p. 493. 

The only Swan-Goose seen by me here is one which I 
shot at the marshes on the 10th of October, 1912. It was 
a wounded bird, a male in poor condition, probal)ly a bird 
of the year, as the bill showed no sign of a tubercle. Culmeu 
2*5 in., wing 16*7 in. 

This Goose used to be abundant at the mouth of the River 
Liao (near Newcliwang). 1 shot several there in 1889 from 
the beginning of September. 

277. Anser anser rubrirostris Hodgson. 
Aviser cinereus D. & O. p. 491. 

Anser rubrirostris La T. p. 583. 

The Eastern Grey Lag-Goose appears to be uncommon. 
Two specimens shot in March at the Hsieh Chia Ying 
marshes are in the British Museum. 

278. Anser segetum (Gm,). 

Anser segetum D. & O. p. 491 (part) ; La T. p. 583. 
The Bean-Goose is apparently very common during times 
of passage, judging from the proportion of these birds shot 



40 Mr. J. D. D. La Touclie on the [Ibis, 

as compared with the other Bean-Geese. S})ecimeiis col- 
lected in the spring of 1913 were all shot from the 19th 
to the 31st of March. 

Geese pass in spring from the end of February to the 
middle of April, and in autumn from the end of August or 
be<j;inning of September to the 5th or 6th of November. 

I kept at Chinwangtao live examples of the Common Bean- 
Goose. One which I had for two years was purchased from 
a hawker in the autumn of 1915. It was extremely tame 
fromthe very beginniug,aud has since become the inseparable 
companion of two domestic ganders, following them every- 
where and showing much distress when separated from 
them, honking loudly until re-united to them. During the 
winter it suftered much from the cold and at that season 
constantly uttered a plaintive squeak. During the hot 
weather it was almost equally incommoded, and then ran 
about the yard seeking shelter with a perpetual tremulous 
honk. It moulted the contour-feathers in the spring and 
the wing-quills in September. This Goose was very jealous 
of the other wild geese in the yard, and would attack them 
and chase them away. 

I have noticed that these birds ajjpeared to be fond of 
cooked meat. 

Bean-Geese were very abundant at Newchwang in the 
spring of 1890. 

279. Anser segetmn serrirostris Swinhoc. 

A/iser seyctuiii D. & O. p. 491 (j)art). 

Anser serrirostris La T. p. SSii. 

The Eastern Beau-Goose is about as common on passage 
as Anser segetmn. I have seen or shot examples in March 
and October. I purchased two live winged birds in March 
1917 — one escaped, but the other became suthciently domes- 
ticated and was also sent to Shanghai in October 1917. This 
bird had a deep honk very different from that of the Goose 
mentioned above. It had a trick of standing sentry on a 
low wall in the yai'd, Avhere it would renuun for a long time, 
and often, if disturbed, it would walk off' balancing itself 



1 92 1.] Birds of North- East Chifili, 41 

like a tiglit-rope dancer along the sharp -edged ridge or 
coping of the wall. 

280. Anser middendorffi Severtz. 
Anser segetum D. &: O. p. 491 (part). 
Anser middendorffi La T. p. 583. 

A specimen of the Great Bean-Goose Avas shot at Cliin- 
wangtao on the 29th of October, 1911, and two at the Hsieh 
Chia Ying marshes on the 29th of March, 1913, and in March 
1914. Besides these I have one from Shaweishan,at the mouth 
of the Yangtse, and there is another shot at ru-an,in north- 
eastern Fohkien, on tlie 3rd of January, 1914, which is in the 
British Museum (Natural History). This fine Goose, which 
may be distinguished at a glance from the other Bean-Geese 
found in the Far East l)y its very long and large bill, is not 
very rare on the coast, aVid it is strange that it should 
have been overlooked by Swiuhoe. It is, however, by far 
the least common of the Chinese Beau-Geese. Tang Wang- 
wang, my former collector at Foochow, wrote to me this last 
winter that this Goose was very abundant in January 1916 
in the Shanghai market. Two males in my collection from 
Shaweishan and Hsieh Chia Ying measure 19 in. in the wing. 
The bills in five specimens measure as follows : Culmen 
72 mm. to 86 mm. Number of teeth 24 to 29. 

Mr. Sowerby, in his ' Sportsman's Miscellany,' mentions 
the shooting of several of these Geese on the Yangtse, where 
he states they are numerous. The weight of one, shot by 
Mr. H. E. Gibson of Shanghai, is given in this work (p. 90) 
as having been 13^ lbs. 

281. Anser albifrons (Gm.). 

Anser albifrons U. & O. p. 492 ; La T. p. 583. 

The White-fronted Goose is quite common in spring. 
It passes in March and during the first half of April, 
I have no record of the autunni passage. 

The soft parts of birds shot are : — Bill pinkish-flesh, 
nail white; legs orange j the rim of the eyelid is brown. 



42 Mr. J. D. D. La Touclie on the [Ibis, 

The following are measurements of four birds in my 
collection : — 

Foochow, (^ Culmen l-75iu. Wing 16-25 in. 

S „ 1-97 „ „ 16-50 „ 

Chinkiang „ 1-75 ,, ,, 16-75 „ 

Chinwangtao, $ ... „ 1*50 „ ,, 15"75 ,, 

282. Anser erythropus (L.). 

Anser erythropus D. & O. p. 492 ; La T. p. 583. 

I shot a Lesser White-fronted Goose on the 14th of April, 
1911, out of a flock which was resting on the plain. 
A flock of small Geese, seen passing over on the 6th of 
April, 1913, was probably composed of this species. The 
soft parts of the bird shot were as follows : — Iris brown ; 
rim of eyelid yellow ; bill pink with a dark spot on the nail ; 
legs orange. The culmen measures 1*25 in. and the wing 
14-90 in. Sex ? . 

White- fronted Geese were very common at Newchwang 
in the spring of ] 890. I procured a specimen which, to the 
best of my recollection, was of the larger species. 

283. Tadorna cornuta (Gm.). 
Tadorna belonii D. & O. p. 497. 
Tadorna cornuta La T. p. 584. 

The Common Sheldrake passes in April and from mid- 
September to mid-October. 

284. Casarca rutila (L.). 

Casarca rutila D. & O. p. 497; La T. p. 584. 

The Ruddy Sheldrake winters on the plain. It passes 
throughout March to the beginning of May and in autumn 
from the latter half of October. 

285. Anas boscas L. 

Anas boschas D. & O. p. 495 ; La T. p. 584. 

The Mallard is one of the commonest Ducks. I have 
observed it from the beginning of March to the beginning 
of May, and from the 20th of September to the beginning of 



192 1.] Birds of North- East Chihli. 43 

November. A few winter in the mountains on unfrozen 
streams. 

A winged bird kept with the fowls and a tame duck became 
very friendly with the latter, and after a few months lost 
most of its natural shyness, feeding with the domestic bird 
and quacking witli it in concert when its food was brought 
to the chicken-yard. 

286. Anas zonorhyncha Swinhoe. 

Anas zonorhyncha D. & O. p. 496 ; La T. p. 584. 

Tiie Yellow-Nib Duck passes in March and April, and 
from the beginning of September to November. It probably 
breeds here as elsewhere in China. I have seen it hanging 
in the game-shops in the market during January. 

This Duck was observed by me near Newchwang in early 
summer. 

287. Eunetta falcata (Pallas). 

Euaettu falcata D. & 0, p. 504 ; La T. p. 585. 

The Falcated Teal is extremely abundant from the middle 
of March to the beginning of May and during the latter 
half of September, remaining until the end of October, and 
occasionally during November^ as four were noted on the 
13th of November, 1911. 

A winged bird, purchased in the spring of 1913, partly 
put on eclipse plumage late in the summer. The forehead, 
crown, lores, and sides of the head became brown, the fore- 
head and crown being barred with deep bufE. Scapulars 
brown, vermiculated or barred with dull light reddish- 
brown ; the flanks reddish-brown, evenly barred with pale 
rufons, ring round the neck deep brown; chin and sides of 
neck speckled with brown. 

288. Chaulelasmus streperus (L.). 

Chaulelasmus streperus D. & O. p. 499; La T. p. 585. 

1 shot a male Gadwall on the 12th of April, 1911, and a 
female on the 28th of September, 1913. This is one of the 
less common Ducks in China. 



44 Mr. J. D. D. La Touehe on the [Ibis, 

289. Nettion formosum (Georgi). 
Eunetta formosa D. & O. p. 503. 
Nettion formosum La T. p. 585. 

The Spectacled or Baikal Teal is extremely abundant on 
passage. It passes from about the 10th of March to the end 
o£ that mouthy and from the beginning of September to the 
end of October. 

290. Nettion crecca (L.). 
Querquedula crecca D. & 0. p. 503. 
Nettion crecca La T. p. 585. 

The Common Teal is very abundant in spring and autumn. 
It passes from about the 10th of March to about the 20th of 
April, and from the beginning of September to the end of 
October. As I have seen it in the winter in the game-stalls 
in the market, it is most probable that a few winter in the 
mountains. 

This Teal was one of the commonest Ducks at Newchwang 
in 1889-90. 

291. Mareca penelope (L.). 

Mareca penelope D. & O. p. 499 ; La T. p. 585. 

I saw and sliot AVigeou in April 1911 and April 1913, and 
saw one shot iu October 1912. It does not appear to be so 
common as most of the Ducks. 

292. Dafila acuta (L.). 

Bajila acuta D. & O. p. 498 ; La T. p. 584. 

The Pintail is perhaps the most abundant of the larger 
Ducks. I have seen it from the end of February to the 
middle of April, and from the middle of September to the 
end of October. 

The Pintail was with the Common Teal the most abundant 
Duck at Newchwang in 1889-90. 

293. Querquedula circia (L.). 

Querquedula circia D. & O. p. 502 ; La T. p. 585. 
The Garganey appears at the end of March and during 
September. In 1913 it was seen as late as the 31st of May. 



1 92 1.] Birds of North-East Chihli. 45 

294. iEx galericiilata (L.). 

Aix gnlericulata 1). & O. p. 501. 

jEx galericiilata La T. p. 584. 

A female Mandarin-Duck was shot by the collectors on 
the 17tli of Aprilj 1913. This is the only specimen of this 
species that I have seen here. 

The Mandarin-Duck was found breeding in Manchnrian 
forests by Mr. A. de C. Sowerby. 

295. Spatula clypeata (L.). 

Spatula clypeata D. & O. p. 500; La T. p. 585. 

The Shoveler is to be seen on passage from about the 
10th of March to the middle of May^ and again commonly 
during the first fifteen days of October. It doubtless occurs 
also in September. 

296. Fuligula ferriiginea (Gm.). 
Fulix iiyroca D. & O. p. 507. 

The White-eyed Duck is extremely abundant during the 
latter half of September and beginning of October. It 
remains until the end of the latter month. This Duck, 
which is said bv Pere David to abound near Peking: in 
spring, has never to my knowledge been recorded on the 
Lower Yangtse or in south-east China, but I believe that 
two or three White-eyed Ducks seen in the Shasi (Hupeh 
province) market on the 25th of February, 1918, were of 
this species. 

297. Fuligula mar ila (L.). 
Fulix inarila D. & O. p. 507. 

I saw several Scaup on the 16th of April, 1916, on the 
large pond at Chinwangtao. 

298. Fuligula cristata (L.). 

Fulix cristata D. & O. p. 508 ; La T. p. 585. 

The Tufted Duck is common in spring and in October. 



46 Mr. J. D. D. La Touche on the [Ibis, 

299. Clangula glaucion (L.). 
Bucephala clausula D. & O. p. 505. 
Clangula glaucion La T. p. 585. 

The Golden-Eye is common in spring during March and 
April, and from the beginning of October until the marshes 
freeze over. In winter it may be seen on the sea near the 
shore in open places, and it is the commonest Duck exposed 
for sale at that season. 

300. Harelda glacialis (L.). 
Harelda glacialis D. & O. p. 506. 

I procured an immature male of the Long-tailed Duck in 
the market on the 5th of April, 1916, and on the following 
day an adult fem.Tle. These would appear to be the second 
and third examples of this Duck to l)e recorded from northern 
China. The first known example, according to Pere David, 
was sliot at Taku (month of the Peiho). The measurements 
and colour of soft parts of the birds obtained at Chinwangtao 
were as follows : — 

(J. Iris hazel-brown; upper mandible black with orange- 
red band just before the nail, lower mandiljle dark pink 
along the edge and pale pink along the middle : legs very 
pale grey v\itli daik webs and joints. Culmen 1*15, wing 
870, tail (worn) 3-00, tarsus 1-50, total length 1730 in. 

$ . Iris hazel ; base of upper and lower mandible pale 
dull green, culmen and apical part of upper and lower 
mandible blackish ; legs as in the male. Wing 8'65, total 
length 17 in. 

301. Oidemia carl)o (Pallas). 
Oidemia fusca D. & O. p. 504. 
Oidemia carbu La T. p. 585. 

I obtained females and an adult male of the Eastern 
Velvet Scoter in the market during December 1912 and on 
the 6th and 21st of February following ; Captain Stewart, 
124th Baluchis, gave me two adult males, found hy him 
dead or dying on the seashore. These and the male obtained 



192 1.] Birds of North- East Chihli. 4)7 

in the market were greatly emaciated, merely skin and bone, 
and had evidently died of starvation. The stomach of all 
three birds was empty, containing but one broken bivalve. 
The same year (1913) the collectors met on the 14th of April 
a man with a number of netted birds, just caught. The soft 
parts of the birds obtained in winter were coloured as 
follows : — 

(^ . Bill, tubercle and base black, apical half yellow with 
triangular red patch on either side of the culnien ; legs and 
feet vermilion with blackish joints and webs. 

? . Bill black ; legs brownish black washed with reddish. 

302. Mergusalbellus (L.). 
^lergellus albeUus D. & O. p. 509. 
Mergus albeUus La T. p. 586. 

The Smew may be seen in October and at the beginning 
of November, and probably winters. It is commonly seen 
in the game-shops during winter. It passes also during 
March and April. 

303. Mergus merganser (L.). 

Mergus merganser D. & O. p. 510; La T. p. 585. 

Specimens of the Goosander are often seen in the market 
during the winter. I have noticed this bird in late autumn, 
and probably some winter on the mountain streams. 

304'. Colymbus septentrionalis (L,). 

Colymbus septentrionalis D. & O. p. 512. 

A Diver, seen in a game-shop at the end of November, was 
apparently a Red-throated Diver. I have seen at various 
times in spring and autumn Divers fishing in the harbour 
or its vicinity, but I did not ascertain to what species they 
belonged. 

305. Podiceps minor philippensis (Bonnat.). 
Fodiceps philippensis D. & O. p. 512. 

The Dabchick is common on ponds during October and in 
spring. I have an example from the Cbienan district. 



48 Mr. T. Carter on some [Ibis, 

306. Podiceps nigricollis (Rrehm). 
Podiceps nigricoUis D. & O. p. 513. 

A Grebe, seen on the pond at Cliinwangtao, on the IGtli of 
April, 191G, appeared to be the Eared Grebe. 

307. Podiceps cristatus (L.). 
Podiceps cristatus D. & O. p. 514. 

The Great Crested Grebe appeared in March and April, 
and in autumn is seen as late as the middle of November. 
I have seen this bird fishing in the harbour during the latter 
month, and shot one on a creek on the 17th of November, 
1910. 



III. — On some Western Australian Birds collected hetioeen 
the Nortli-West Cape and Albany (^)50 miles apart). 
By Thomas Carter, M.B.O.U., M.R.A.O.IJ. With 
Nomenclature and Remarks In/ Gregory M. Mathews, 
M.B.O.U., M.R.A.O.U. 

(Text-figure 1.) 

[Coutimied from Ibis, 1920, p. 719.] 

Hirundo neoxena carteri. 

Western Welcome Swallows were not commonly observed 
(except those at Dirk Hartog Island in May 191G, as 
already recorded in ' Ibis,' October 1917) until 1 April, 1919, 
when there were great numbers perched on the telegraph- 
wires near Busselton, and more of them in the town itself. 
A few were seen at Lake Muir on 17 March, and a good 
many on the telephone-wires between Augusta and Cape 
Leeuwin, 4 April, 1919, and also in the same position at 
Cape Naturaliste Lighthouse on 11 April. 

Cheramceca leiicosternum marngli. 

Western Black-and-White Swallows are not commonly 
seen in the south-west, but are always fairly plentiful about 
Carnarvon, where colonies of them breed in the perpen- 
dicular banks of the Gascoyne River about September ; 



1 92 1.] Western Australian Birds. 49 

here I saw many of them so engaged in that month in 
1913 and 191(3. Most of the nests seemed to contain young 
birds towards tlie end of September. On 19 August, 1916, 
several were seen at some sandy clitfs north of Maud's 
Landing, where they used to nest regularly in former 
years. 

Hylochelidon nigricans neglecta. 

Western Tree-Martins were constantly seen in all districts 
visited. When I was staying at the Point Cloates Light- 
house in 191G there were a few davs of exceedingly rough 
and cold weather in the first week in July, the temperature 
being down to 45° F. at sunrise. On several mornings, from 
three to six dead 'free-Martins were laid on the verandah. 
Fledged young birds were seen at Blinilya on 9 September, 
1916, being fed by the parents, and also at Broome Hill on 
23 February, 1919. 

Lagenoplastes ariel conigravi. 

Western Fairy Martins are very local in distribution. 
The only place where any were seen was at the Minilya 
Station early in September 1916. About sixty nests had 
been built in the cart-shed, attached to the underside of the 
corrugated-iron roofing. All the young birds had left the 
nests on that date. I was told by Mr. McLeod that many 
nests were detached by the alternate expansion and con- 
traction of the iron. 

Petroica multicolor campljelli. 

Western Scarlet- breasted Robins were frequently seen in 
all south-western districts. 

Whiteornis goodenovi ruficapillus. 

Western Hed-capjjed Robins are usually only seen in the 
winter months (May to October) about Broome Hill, and 
I was surprised to see one there on 3 February, 1919. 
Several were seen about Woolundra (one hundred and fifty 
miles north of Broome Hill) on 23 May, and many others 
from Carnarvon to North-West Cape on different trips in 

?KK, XI. VOL. III. E 



50 



Mr. T. Carter on some 
Text-figure 1. 



[Ibis, 




Map of part of Western Australia to show INfr. Carter's localities 
and route. 



1 92 1.] Western Australian Birds. 51 

the winter months, when they are usually fairly common 
there. 

Melanodryas cucullata westralensis. 

Western Hooded Robin? were seen in the Broome Hill 
district, where they are fairly common, but do not seem to 
occur in the heavily timbered areas to the south-west. 
They were also noticed all along the North-West Cape 
ranges. 

Smicrornis brevirostris occid en talis. 

Westralian Tree-Tits were abundant about Broome Hill 
and Giiowangerup in February and March 1919, especially 
in the thickets of dwarf eucalyptus (Maalock, Mallet, etc.). 

Etheloniis tenebrosa christopheri. 

Allied Dusky Fly-eaters, first obtained by me in the 
mangroves at (.Carnarvon in September 1911 (cf. Mathews, 
Nov. Zool. xviii. 1912, p. 311 ), were numerous then, and 
also in September 1913 and June 1916 ; but between 
the 18th and 27th of September in the latter year I only 
saw one bird, which was a breeding male, and failed to 
discover any nests. This is a very unobtrusive little bird, 
and tame in disposition, going about in small parties, and 
often in company with Zosterops lutea halstoni. Only one 
was noticed in the large patch of mangroves near the 
North-West Cape, where I spent four days early in August 
191G. None were seen in the mangroves of Peron peninsula, 
Shark Bay. 

Etheloniis fusca fusca. 

Western Fly-eaters were very plentiful in young eucalyptus 
trees at Lake Muir in March 1919, and were seen in lesser 
numbers in other south-west districts. 

Cluoyornis georgianus. 

Only two White-breasted Shrike-Robins were seen in the 
course of the four visits to the south-west, viz., one near 
Cape Leeuwin in March 1916, and one at the Warren River 



52 Mr. T. Carter on soine [Ibis, 

in Marcli 1919. None were noticed in the vicinity of Cape 
Mentelle, where they were not uncommon wlien I was there 
in 1903, and the coastal scrubs \^ ere intact, 'lliis is a very 
seclusive, quiet species, feeding on tlie ground beneath thick 
scrub, especially near any small brook. 

Pachycephala pectoralis occidentalis. 

Western Thickheads were common about Broome Hill, 
and all south-western districts. 

Lewinornis rufiventris didimus. 

T did not see a single specimen of the Southern liufous- 
broasted Thickhead on my 1919 trip, although they are 
usually common about Broome Hill. 

Gilbertovnis inornata gilbertii. 

No Blaek-lored Thickheads were seen in February or 
March 1919 about Broome Hill, although they are usually 
fairly numerous there, their loud notes speedily attracting 
attention. 

Alisterornis lanioides carnarvoni. 

The type of the Carnarvon White -bellied Thickhead 
was obtained b}-^ me on 2S September, 1913 (see Mathews, 
' Austral Avian Record,' vol. ii. p. 75). It was an immature 
male, apparently breeding, and my attention to it was 
attracted by the loud melodious thrush-like notes that it 
was uttering, as it fed under some dense mangroves. When 
I picked the bird up, my first impression was that I had 
secured a new Shrike- i'hrush, to which species there is a 
striking I'esemblance in the {dumage of female and immature 
birds, and also in the size of the beak. 

On 30 September, 1913, I saw a similar bird, also below 
some mangroves, busily eating small crabs and other Crus- 
tacea on the edge of the receding tide. This specimen was 
a female with enlarged ovaries. My next visit to tliese 
mangroves was early in June 1916, and on the Gth of that 
month I shot a male bird in full plumage, but dissection 
showed that it was not breeding then. I searched all the 



1 92 1.] IVestern Australian Birds. 53 

manoroves round where I had obtained it, but saw no more 
of these birds, nor any nest, in the vicinity ; but in other 
mangroves, about a mile distant, I saw several of them, 
on different dates, feeditio- on small crabs near the edo-e 
of tlie sea. One of these which I shot, for breedinof data, 
was a female, and not breeding. I left Carnarvon on 
17 June, hoping to find these birds breeding on my return, 
which was on 18 September, but between that date and 
the 27th, when I sailed again for Shark Bay, I failed to 
see any. I should say that their breeding season is from 
July to September. 

A comparison of the skin of the full-plumaged male bird 
mentioned above, with others in the Perth Museum from 
localities north of the North- West Cape, showed sufficient 
differences to warrant subspecific distinction. 

Eopsaltria gularis gularis. 

Grey-breasted Shrike-liobins were observed all through 
the south-west areas, and were most plentiful in the vicinity 
of Gnowangerup and Broome Hill. 

Rhipidura flabellifera preissi. 

Western Fantails were common in the south-west 
districts. 

Leucocirca leucophrys leucophrys. 

Black-auil-\V' bite Fantails were common in all south- 
western localities, exce))t Augusta and the Margaret River, 
where none were observed. They were also seen from 
Shark Bay to I'oint Cloates, where they occur as winter 
visitors, but are not plentiful. 

Seisura inquieta westralensis. 

A few Wt^stern liestless Flycatchers were seen at Broome 
Hill in February I'Jl'J, and at the Vasse Hiver. 

Pteropodocys maxima neglecta. 

Western Ground CJuckoo-Shrikes were seen at Broome 
Hill in February I'JH), on two or three occasions. I shot 



54 INlr. T. Carter ow some [Ibis, 

one out of a party of three, and one of the remaniing birds 
showed the greatest concern at the fate o£ its companion, 
hovering close round it, until it was picked up. 

This elegant bird is ver^^ local in its distribution, and does 
not occur in heavily-timbered districts. I have seen more 
of them about Broome Hill than in any other locality. 

Coracina novae-hollandiae westralensis. 

Western Black-faced (Juckoo-Shrikes were seen in most 
of the south- and mid-western districts, and were conmion 
about Broome Hill and Lake Muir early in 191G and 1919. 
Eggs were noted in a nest at the Minilya River on 19 Sept- 
ember, 1911, and recently fledged young at the Vasse River 
on 16 February, 1916. 

Lalage tricolor tricolor. 

White-shouldered Uaterpillar-eaters were fairly common, 
and breeding, in the Gascoyne and Minilya districts in early 
September, 1913 and 1916. 

Drymodes bruiineopygia pallida. 

Pale Scrub-Robins occur in the scrub country at Broome 
Hill, and also a long way east of it (Mathews, Reference 
List, 1913, only gives mid-west Australia as its range in 
that State). A male bird in full moult was obtained at 
Gnowangerup on 13 February, 1919j tlie only one seen 
in the course of n.y trips. It is a very shy species, and 
easily overlooked. 

Hylacola cauta whitlocki. 

The Western Giound-Wren is another shy bird that occurs 
to the east of Broome Hill, and is usually seen in thick 
scrub, growing on stony or rough ground. I was fortunate 
in seeing a good many of them in mid-February 1919, and 
obtained a few specimens : but they are difficult to shoot on 
account of the great speed at which they hop and move 
about under the bushes, with tails erect. They remind me, 
by their rapid elusive movements, of the Diaphorillas at 
Shark Bay. 



1 92 1.] Western Australian Birds. 55 

Pomatostomus temporalis rubeculus. 

Red-breasted Babblers did not seem to be breeding on 
the lower Minilya River on 19 Angust, 1911. Recently 
fledged young l)irds were seen tliere on 2 September, 1916. 

The above locality is the only one where I have regularly 
seen these birds, which appear to be always present at the 
same ])lace. They do not seem to occur on the Lower 
Gascoyne River, but are common on the upper parts. 

Morganornis superciliosus ashbyi. 

Western Wliite-browed Babblers were commonly seen 
about Broome Hill, and the inland areas of the south-west, 
which are not so heavily timbered as the coastal ])Hrts. 
I had never seen any of these birds between the Vasse 
and Warren rivers until 31 March, 1919, when I came upon 
a small party near Warren House. A specimen obtained 
seemed to be a typical M. s. ashhiji. 

Morganornis superciliosus gwendolense. 

The (Carnarvon Babbler is a good subspecies, being much 
smaller tlian the south-western form, iM. s. aslibyi. These 
birds wpi-e, as usiuil, plentiful in the scrub around ( 'arnarvon 
in 1911, 1913, and 1916. Fledged young birds were noted" 
there on 19 September, 1911, and three eggs were found in 
a nest on 23 September, 1913. As compared with a series 
of eggs of Morganornis s. ashhi/i from Broome Hill, the 
C*arnarvon eggs are much shorter, having both ends very 
round and blunt, and are "84 of an inch in length, those 
from Broome Hill averaging "96. The Carnarvon eggs are 
heavily blotched all over with purplish brown, and the black 
hair-streaks, which are usually numerous on eggs of M. s. 
ashhi/i, only appear on two of the Carnarvon eggs, and are 
limited to one long streak on the large end of each. 

Calamanthus fuliginosus carteri. 

Western Striated Field-Wrens w^ere seen in mid-February 
19J9,on scrubby sand-plains about thirty miles south-east of 
Broome Hill, and, as usual, were very wary. When staying 
at Woolundra, about one hundred and fifty miles north of 



56 ^Ir. T. Carter on some [Ibis, 

Broome Hill, iu May 1919, I saw and heard a Calamanthus 
on sand-plain country, but failed to obtain a specimen, 
having no gun at the time. It would be interesting to 
identity the birds occurring there. 

Calamanthus campestris rubiginosus. 

Rusty-red Field-Wrens were seen at Maud's Landing, 
and specimens obtained during the hist week of August 
1911 ; also at Maud's Landing and Point Gloates at the 
same time in 1913, and in early July in 1916, when a 
breeding male was obtained on 7 July at Point Oloates. 
These birds breed immediately after any lieavy rainfall, 
irrespective of the season. 

Cincloramphus cruralis clelandi. 

Western Brown Song-Larks were common from Car- 
narvon northwards, on my visits in that district, from early 
June to October. 

Maclennania mathewsi mathewsi. 

Tlie above note also ap})lies to the Western Rufous Song- 
Lark, which species was particularly common about the 
' sandy banks of the Gascoyne River. Recently fledged 
young were noted on 8 September, 1911. 

Ephthianura albifrons westralensis. 

Westralian White-fi'onted Chats were common in south- 
western localities, except in 1919, when very few were seen, 
the only instances being at Lake Muir, when a suiall party 
was seen on 21 March, and considerable numbers on a bare 
sand-drift at (Jape Naturaliste on 13 April, but they were 
unusually wild, and no specimens were obtained at either 
place. 

Parephthianura tricolor assimilis. 

Westralian Tricoloiu'ed Chats were connnon from Car- 
narvon to Point Cloates in 1913 and 1916. On 21 Auiiust. 
1913, a male bird was flushed from a nest containing two 
incubated eggs. Two nests, each "containing four incubated 
eggs, were found on the 11th and 16th of September at 



1 92 1.] Western Australian Birds. 57 

Point Cloates and Carnarvon, respectively. Other nests 
examined between 24 August and 16 September contained 
young birds. 

Aurephthianura aurifrons flavescens. 

Western Orange-lironted (Jhats were scarce about Car- 
narvon and t'artlier north in 1911, but not uncommon on 
salt-marshes and samphire-fiats in August and Septemljer, 
l'.)13 and 191(J. Recently fledged young were seen on 
Maud's Landing salt-marsh on 21 August, 1916. 

Conopoderas australis gouldi. 

Lono-billed Keed- Warblers were not so plentiful in 
January 1916 and March 1919- at the large freshwater 
swamps adjoining Lake Muir as I had found them on 
previous visits ; but when leaving there on 22 March, 1919, 
Mr. Higliam and myself found a small reedy swamp, near 
the south end of the Lake, where Beed-Warblers and Grass- 
birds abounded, and we obtained specimens of both. 

Poodytes gramineus thomasi. 

Dark Grass-birds were common on the edges of the 
freshwater swamps at Lake Muir in December 1911, but 
scarce when I was there in January 1916. On my next 
visit, in March 1919, they were fairly common, and almn- 
dant at the swamp mentioned above. A female shot there 
on 22 March appeared to have been recently breeding. 
One of these birds, obtained at Augusta on 7 April, had 
the underparts tawny yellow, where it is whitish on the 
series of skins I have obtained at Lake Muir and Albany. 

Eremiornis carter! carter!. 

When at the Yardie Creek, from 26 August to 5 Septem- 
ber, 1913, I failed to see any Desert-birds, and had the 
same bad luck when there again for six days in mid-July, 
1916 ; so I left there on '2o July, and drove slowly north, 
carefully searching any patches of large Buck Spinifex 
{Triodia) on my way, but without any result until the 29th, 
when I was camped with two aborigines who had joined me, 



58 Mr. T. Carter on some [I^^is, 

at a rock-hole of very bad water at the foot of the ranges. 
We had been sjsteniaticall}^ hunting through, and beating 
masses of spinifex, often breast high, that grew round our 
camp, for four days, when I heard the familiar " chat-chat" 
of a Desert-bird, which I had not heard for thirteen years. 
After twice flushing the bird, I shot it, and not being able 
to find where it had fallen, called up one of the natives to 
help me, and he very nearly spoilt the specimen by treading 
on it, as it lay on a flat piece of rock between two masses of 
spinifex, missing it by a bare inch. It w^as a male bird, and 
undoubtedly breeding at the time. We spent two more 
days there, but failed to see or hear any more of them, so 
moved on towards the North- West Cape, as so much time 
was lost in climbing the ranges to obtain drinking-water 
there, as described in the itinerary of this paper. No traces 
of Desert-birds having been seen farther north, I camped at 
the same place on my return journey on 11 August, with 
the same native. Soon after our arrival, we flushed one of 
these birds from a large bunch of spinifex, and I thought 
it looked smaller than usual. I did not shoot, as I wanted 
to see whether the bird had a nest ; so three times, at intervals 
of half an hour or more, I cautiously visited and tapped the 
l)unch, but without anv results ; so we got the suudl axe out 
of the buggy, and by the aid of it and a strong sheath-knife, 
cut and pulled that bunch to pieces without finding any 
trace of a nest or seeing the bird. Another careful search 
all round, the next day, yielded no results, so I thought 
that the bird seen was probal)ly one of a recently fledged 
brood, and as my time-limit for returning the hired buggy 
to Maud's Landing had nearly expired, I drove south again, 
alone, having sent the native back to the Cape. 

As I was driving along, late in the same afternoon, I saw 
a Desert-bird in some big spinifex, so tied up my horses and 
had a fruitless search in the vicinity, but could not camp 
there as my horses w;inted water, the nearest being several 
miles farther south, where it had to be dug out with a 
conch-shell from a depth of about six feet of loose drifting 
beach-sand. However, I got them watered there before 



1 92 1.] Western Australian Birds. 59 

dark, and camped. Next morning I had my breakfast 
before dayliglit, and getting in the horses, by 7 A.M. tlrove 
back to where I had seen the bird the previous afternoon, 
and spent nearly all day there, beating through and through 
the spinifex, with intervals of watching. One of the birds 
was twice flushed in dirt'erent places (or it might have been 
the same one), but although I carefully pulled all the 
spinifex to pieces near where I had seen them, no nest was 
discovered. 1 did not shoot at the birds, as I hoped to find 
a nest through their movements. The only result after all 
my work, was to discover that the right hammer of my '410 
gun had been hopelessly lost through the screw working 
loose and falling off when I was tapping the spinifex 
bunches with the barrel, which was not a good thing 
to do. 

When I reached Minilya Station I made a new hammer 
from a piece of quarter- inch flat iron, cut to shape, that 
acted quite well for the rest of the trij), and I have it 
yet. 1 shall always think that my enforced stay of three 
weeks at Point (Jloates lighthouse was the cause of my not 
bein" the first to discover the nest and eggs of Eremiornis. 
but Mr. Whitlock well earned that distinction by his 
untiring efforts. 

Acanthiza pusilla apicalis. 

Broad-tailed Tits were common in all south-western 
districts, and especially so in the vicinity of Broome Hill 
and Lake Muir. 

Acanthiza inornata masters!. 

South-western Plain-coloured Tits were common in the 
south-western area, and especially in the more heavily 
timbered districts, as Lake Muir, Warren River, Collie, 
and Blackwood. They do not seem to occur about 
Broome Hill. 

Acanthiza inornata carnarvoni. 

The type of the Carnarvon Tit (Mathews, ' Austral Avian 
Record,' vol.ii. 1913, p. 76) was obtained by me on 13 August, 



60 Mr. 'P. Carter on some [Ibis, 

1913, in low Melaleuca scrub near Carnarvon, and is, 
I believe, the only specimen to date. It was one of a 
small party of these birds, and when shot, it fluttered out 
o£ sight, and while finding it, the rest of the birds vanished 
in the bushes, and I could not see them again. Although on 
many occasions on that trip, and subsequent ones, I often 
traversed the same ground, not a single Arantliiza of any 
sort was seen between Shark Bay and the North-West Cape 
during my trip in 1916. 

Pyrrholaemus bruniieus pallescens. 

Pallid Redthroats were common in the scrub around 
Carnarvon, and north of there. Recently fledged young 
were noted on 26 August, 1911. These birds make a 
peculiar fluttering noise with their wings when flying. 

Sericornis maculatus warreni. 

Scrub- Wrens were common in the coastal scrubs at the 
mouths of the Warren and Blackwood rivers, also at (yollie 
and Cape Naturaliste, in March and April, 1919. Only one 
of these birds was seen by me at the Vasse River ; this 
was on 21 March, 1916. 

Malurus splendens splendens. 

Banded Wrens were very scarce about Lake Muir in 
January 1916, only one being seen there, but tiiey were 
plentiful at the Vasse River in February that year, many 
being seen in full plumage. Very few were seen anywhere 
in March and April, 1919, excepting al^out Augusta. No full- 
plumaged males were observed in 1919. 

Hallornis lenconotus exsul. 

Recently fledged young of the Western White-winged 
Wren were seen at (Carnarvon on 28 August, 1911. These 
binls were scarce in the mid-west in 1911 and 1913, but 
very common in 1916, when good rains fell from Carnarvon 
northwards. They were breeding at Maud's Landing on 
23 June, and at Point Cloates and farther north in July. 
On 27 August, 1916, I found a nest with one addled egg 



1 92 1.] Western Australian Birds. 61 

near the Lyndon River ; a female bird was sitting on 
the egg. I concluded that the other young birds had been 
safely hatched out, and gone away with another feniide. 
The nest was about a foot from the ground, made of fine 
grasses and partly domed, and looked as if it had seen a 
lot of wear. 

Leggeornis lamberti occidentalis. 

Western Blue-breasted Wrens were not plentiful about 
Carnarvon in 1911 and 1913, but very numerous from there 
to the North-West (-ape, from early June to Septeml)er in 
1916. A party of fledged young, with the parent birds, 
were seen feeding upon insects in heaps of dry seaweed on 
the beach at Carnarvon on 25 September. These birds are 
constantly seen feeding in dense mangroves, where insect 
life is abundant. I shot a full-plumaged male in mangroves 
one day, and saw it fall, evidently dead, a few yards 
from me. When I reached the place, the bird had dis- 
appeared. The same thing happened again, and I began 
to look into some of the numerous holes of the crabs that 
were plentiful under the mangroves, thinking the Wren 
might have fallen into one of them, and saw u crab backing 
down its burrow and draooino- the bird after it. I at once 
thrust my hand in, but it was too large for the cavity, and 
though I eventually forced the full length of my hand 
and arm down, the crab got away with its booty. On 
another occasion I shot a Zosteroj^s halstoni in mangroves, 
and keeping my eye fixed on it as it lay dead, I saw it 
suddenly disappear by being seized by a crab from below. 

As previously stated in this paper, I once saw a Whistling 
Eagle pick up a Stilt before me, as it floated dead on a pool 
of water ; and another time a Tree-Creeper (^Climacteris) 
that fell into some scrub was snapped up by a lurking 
Monitor (large lizard), which disputed (unsuccessfully) 
my right to the bird ; and 1 have seen dead ducks pulled 
below the surface of the water in lakes by freshwater 
turtles, before the birds could be retrieved — but this " crab- 
smitching" was quite a new thing. 



62 Mr. T. Carter on some [Ibis, 

Leggeornis elegans. 

Only one party of Red- winged Wrens was seen in the 
south-west, viz, at Augusta, on G April, 1919, with one 
fuU-plumaged male. None were observed on the Warren 
River, where in 1910 I saw a good many. Mr. Higliam 
obtained some specimens in May 1919 at Gingin, about 
thirty miles north of Perth. 

Leggeornis pulcherrimus Stirling!. 

Although a good look-out was kept for South-western 
Blue-ljreasted Wrens, only one party of five was seen, in 
sand-plain scrub, thirty miles east of Broome Hill. They 
were in full moult. 

Stipiturus malachurns wester nensis. 

Westralian Emu-Wrens were common about Augusta and 
Cape Leeuwin, 1916-19. 

Stipiturus melachurus media. 

The type-specimen of this Emu- Wren was obtained by 
me a few miles east of Gnowangerup (thirty miles south- 
east of Broome Hill) on 12 February, 1919 (vide Mathews, 
Bull. B. 0. C. xl. 1919, p. 45). Several small parties of these 
birds, from three to six in number, were seen in scrubby 
sand-plain country, which is practically always dry, and 
devoid of any surface water. In general plumage this 
subspecies is lighter in colour than Stipiturus m. loesternensis, 
and distinctly smaller in size. It comes midway between 
that bird and -S'. m. hartoc/i, and is a good subspecies. The 
habits of all three are similar. On 26 July, 1908, I shot a 
similar bird on a sand plain a few miles east of Broome 
Hill, but never saw any other there. 

Although the Stirling Ranges are only about twenty miles 
distant to the south of where the type was secured, Whitlock 
does not record having seen any Emu-Wrens there in his 
1911 expedition (see ' Emu,' vol. xi.), and Milligan in his 
account of his trip there in 1902 ('Emu,' vol. iii.) only 
records having seen one bird, that was not secured. 



1 92 1.] TVestern Australian Birds. 63 

Sphenura brachyptera longirostris. 

No sio-ns of Lono-billed Bristle-bii'ds were seen or heard 
in any of the coastal scrubs that were visited in the south- 
west area, aIthoui>h I spent several days at the {)lace where 
the last known birds were seen some years ago ; but the 
localities where these birds may still be living extend along- 
such a great stretch of the coast, and are so densely clothed 
in scrub, that it is very easy to miss seeing such a very shy 
and seclusive species. 

Artamus leucorhynchus leucopygialis. 

The first time White-rumped Wood-Swallows were ever 
seen by me was at Carnarvon on 24 September, 1911, when 
a small party was flying about Babbage Island, but were 
very wild. Many of these birds were seen at exactly the 
same place and same day of month in 1911), and some 
specimens obtained. No examples were seen in 191G. 

Campbellornis personatus. 

Masked Wood-Swallows were numerous about Broome 
Hill in early January 1916. These birds are very erratic 
in their visits. 

Austrartamus cinereus tregellasi. 

Black-vented Wood-Swallows were seen in the Gascoyne 
and Minilya districts on all three trips, but were most 
plentiful in 1916, when many nests containing eggs or 
young were seen in September. A nest with three eggs 
was seen at the Minilya on 9 September, 1911. 

Angroyan cyanopterus. 

Wood-Swallows were common in the south-west districts. 

Micrartamus minor derbyi. 

Little Wood-Swallows were only seen in Shark Bay, and 
in some of the deep gorges in the North-West Cape ranges, 
where they breed in holes of the clitls. When at the Yardie 
Creek on 26 August, 1913, I saw the parent birds feeding 
their young in a nest that was out of sight in a crevice of 
the root of a large cave. 



64 Mr. T. Carter on some [Ibis, 

CoUnriciiicla rufiventris rufiventris. 

BufF-bellied Shrike-Thrushes were common about Broome 
Hill and south-west localities. In the Gascoyne and Point 
Cloates districts these birds are mostlv found in stony 
ranges, and are common in all the gorges ot" the North- 
West Cape ranges, where their song is quite different from 
that of the southern birds. On 7 August, 1916, I found a 
nest, four feet from the ground, in the fork of a small 
white-gum tree, in a gorge near the North-West C^ape ; 
it contained two young birds about half-grown, and the 
male bird was sitting on them. 

Grallina cyanoleuca cyanoleuca. 

Magpie-Larks were more numerous about Broome Hill 
than any other locality. They do not occur much in heavily . 
timbered districts. When at Lake Muir in March 1919, 
Mr. Muir asked me tlie name of a pair of these birds, which 
were feeding near his homestead, as he said he had never 
seen them before during his long residence there, and that 
the birds had only recently arrived. 

Gymnorhina liypoleuca dorsalis. 

Western White-backed Magpies were noted in all districts 
between Woolundra and Broome Hill, at which latter place 
they are very abundant, but I think they are even more plen- 
tiful about the Vasse River. They do not occur in the heavily 
timl)ered south-western localities, but are gradually working 
their way along there as the country is cleared and opened 
out. None were sf>en at the Margaret River or Augusta, 
and only odd birds at the C'ollie. On 1(5 January, 1910, 
I saw fledged young being still fed by the parent birds at 
Broome Hill ; and on 24 February, 1917, I saw a tame bird 
of the previous year that was completely white in plumage, 
with pale fleshy bill and legs. The irides were blue, with u 
slight tinge of pink. It would be about five months old. 
When at the Yasse River on 27 February, 1916, I saw these 
Tvlagpies eating many figs off the trees at a homestead, and 
also digging up with their beaks, and eating, freshly planted 
grains of maize. 



1 92 1.] Western Austruliun Birds. 65 

Cracticus nigrogularis kalgoorli. 

Western Black-throated Butcher-birds were breeding on 
the Lyndon River on 5 September, 1911. They were rather 
3onimon in May 1919 about Woolundra, which is probably 
near their southern limit of ranoe. 

Bulestes torquatus leucopterus. 

White-winged Butcher-birds were common about Broome 
Hill and south-western localities, excepting Augusta and the 
Margaret River, where none were seen. Several of them 
were observed at Woolundra, where the Black-throated 
birds give them a bnd time, by constantly attacking them. 
A specimen of the W^hite-winged was obtained by me on 
13 September, 1916, about midway between the Gascoyne 
and Minilya rivers, the first time this bird was ever seen 
by me in that district. Shortridge does not mention having 
seen this subspecies about the Gascoyne River in 1908 
(Ibis, 1909, p. 669> 

Falcunculus frontatus leucogaster. 

White-bellied Shrike-Tits were commonly seen about 
Broome Hill, especially early in 1919. Adult birds were 
seen feeding recently fledged young on 4 March, 1919. 

r 

Oreoica gutturalis westralensis. 

Western Crested Bell-birds were exceedingly scarce about 
Broome Hill in early 1919, where they are usually plentiful 
at all seasons. They were, as usual, fairly common in the 
Gascoyne and Minilya districts in 1911, 1913, and 1916. 

Aphelocephala castaneiventris minilya. 

Several small parties of Murchison Whitefaces were seen 
in mid-September, 1916, in scrubby country midway between 
the Lower Gascoyne and Minilya rivers, where I had never 
previously seen anyof these birds ; but I had obtained speci- 
mens in 1904 at Mullewa, three hundred miles to the south. 
Shortridge found them " fairly numerous as far north as the 
Upper Gascoyne River (Clifton Downs Station) " in 1908 
(Ibis, 1909, p. 667) ; so, at present, the locality where my 

SER. XI, VOL. Ill, F 



66 Mr. T. Carter on some [Ibis, 

specimens were obtained is the most northerly record, being- 
sixty miles farther north, and about one hundred nearer to 
the coast (westwards) than Clifton Downs. The birds were 
tame, feeding on the ground below short scrub, into which 
they took shelter when disturbed. 

This bird was first described by Mr, G. M. Mathews 
(Bulletin B. 0. C. vol. xl. 1920, p. 75). 

Since writing the above, I have been able, through the 
courtesy of Dr. F. R. Lowe, to compare the specimens 
obtained by me with those obtained by Mr. Shortridge, 
now in the Balston collection at the British Museum 
(Natural History), and find that the Minilya birds are 
more rufous on the mantle than any of the others, which 
were mostly obtained in localities to the south-east — as 
Laverton, 600 miles south-east from the Minilya, and Day 
Dawn, about 300 miles to the south-east and midway 
between the Minilya and Laverton. The specimens from 
Day Dawn are almost white on the whole of the under- 
parts, and can be separated easily from any of the others. 
Those obtained on the Minilya can hardly be distinguished 
from the Clifton Downs birds, which they most resemble. 

Sphenostoma cristatum occideiitale. 

Westralian Wedgebills were, as usual, abundant in the 
Lower Gascoyne and Minilya scrubs, particularly about the 
banks of the rivers. I proved that both sexes utter the 
vvouderful metallic ringing notes. 

Neositta pileata broomi. 

South-west Black-capped Tree-runners were seen in sm:ill 
parties in several south-western localities, including the 
Margaret, Blackwood, and Warren rivers, and Lake Muir. 
They were most plentiful about Broome Hill. 

Whitlocka melanura wellsi. 

The Allied Black-tailed Tree-Creeper (Ogilvie-Grant 
Ibis, 1909, p. tjtl4) was first obtained by Shortridge on the 
Upper Gascoyne liiver, apparently about 1908. I had never 



1 92 1.] Western Australian Birds. 67 

seen a single Tree-Creeper during my long residence in the 
Griiscoyne (Lower) and North-West Cape districts ; but in 
1900 I found a deserted egg, that was new to me, in a nest 
soaked with rain-water in a cavity o£ a small tree, about 
sixty miles inland from Point Cloates. I forwarded the egg 
to Mr. A. J. Campbell at Melbourne, for identification, and 
he replied that it was undoubtedly the egg of some species 
of Climacteris, and lie published a description of it in the 
'Emu/ vol. X. p. 299. 

The first time I was in the Gascoyne district again, after 
Mr. Ogilvie-Urant's 1909 ' Il)is ' paper was published, was in 
August 1911, and I kept a good look out for (!'. m. loellsi, 
but saw none on the lower part of the river. However, 
when travelling south by mail-coach from the Minilya river, 
on 12 Sept(Mnber, I caught a glimpse of what I felt sure 
were Tree-Creepers in some Jam (Acacia) timber through 
which we passed, but of course could not follow them. 
Almost exactly the same thing happened on 18 August, 
1913, in the same patch of Jam trees ; but when there next 
time, on 13 September, 1915, I was able to accept the kind 
hospitality of my old friend Mr. Harry Campbell, and stay 
a few days at his station homestead, in the vicinity of which 
I had seen the birds. Mr. Campbell drove me out a few 
miles that day, but we had no luck with Tree-Creepers ; 
but on the 14th I had a long walk round and obtained three 
specimens of the bird, and found a nest with two young- 
birds almost full grown. 

The " Jam " trees grow to a height of about twenty-five 
feet, with trunks from a foot to twenty inches in diameter, 
and derive their local name from the sweet scent of the 
timber, which always reminded me of violets. I was 
scanning the scattered trees as I walked along through 
them, and saw ahead of me something rapidly moving in 
and out from a hole, about eight feet from the ground, 
in one of them. At first I thought this object was the head 
of one of the large lizards, or monitors, that are great 
robbers of eggs and young birds, but getting nearer, saw 

F 2 



()8 INTr. T. Carter (m some [Ibis, 

that it was the head of a bird, so I shot at it with my 
•410 gnn, and it disappeared in the hole. Upon climbing 
the tree I found that it was hollow nearly down to the 
ground, and, thrusting my arm in, could feel a bird flut- 
tering upwards into the upper part of the trunk, which 
was also hollow. I then withdrew my arm, ])lugged the 
hole with my cap, aud from the ground carefully examined 
the lower {)art of the tree, and through a crevice was 
fortunate enough to catch sight of the extended wing of 
a bird, with a buff band across it, so knew I had got a 
Tree-Oreeper at last. I then cut away the extremely hard 
wood from the edges of the crevice with my knife, until it 
was large enough to enable me to extract the dead bird, which 
was an undoubted fledgling of W. m. wellsi. I then plugged 
this hole, and also the larger one above, with bunches of dry 
grass, and withdrew some little distance to await the return of 
the parent birds, both of whichi obtained in aboutfive minutes; 
they were just commencing to moult. I then walked l)ack 
to the station to obtain a small axe, and returning with 
it to the tree in the afternoon, cut the latter open, but could 
not And the other young bird. 

On the following day I saw another pair of the birds, and 
by watching them, located another nest, about twelve feet 
from the ground, in a crevice formed by a split in the main 
fork of a large, dead Jam tree. The nest was simply a large 
handful of sheeps' wool, laid on chips of wood, about 
eighteen inches from the top of the crevice. It contained 
two young birds, about half-grown. No wool was seen in 
the first tree that I cut open the previous day. I saw several 
other adult birds in the next two days of my visit, but found 
no more nests, and was apparently too late for any eggs, 
but have no doubt myself that the egg obtained in 1900 
was the egg of this new subspecies, which is the only 
Tree-Creeper found in that area. In habits these birds 
much resemble W. r. rufa, often feeding on the ground, 
on fallen trunks and branches of trees laid on the ground, 
as well as on the trunks of standing trees. 



1 92 1.] IVestern Australian Birds. 69 

Whitlocka rufa rufa. 

Rufous Tree-( Creepers were coimnou about Broome Hill, 
and also seen at Woolundra. 

Whitlocka rufa obscura. 

Allied Rufous Tree-l'reepers were observed, and specimens 
obtained, at Lake Muir, tlie Warren, Blackwood, Margaret, 
and Collie rivers. Tliey were all of tliis darker subspecies, 
and confirm its validity. Tlie darkest coloured birds were 
obtained on Big Brook, a tributary of the Warren River 
from the east. 

Zosterops gouldi. 

Green-backed White-eyes were comraon through all the 
districts visited. Small young were seen in a nest at 
C-arnarvon on 4 August, 1911. These birds were feeding 
freely on small orange-coloured berries from bushes near 
the beach at Vasse in February 1916. 

Zosterops lutea balstoiii. 

Carnarvon White-eyes were common in the mangroves 
near (-arnarvon in all my tri[)s, and some specimens shot 
there on 17 September, 1011, were evidently breeding, but 
I failed to find any nests. A few of these birds were seen 
in mangroves near the North-West (/ape on 2 August, 1916. 
None were seen in the mangroves of the Peron Peninsula, 
in Shark Bay, that year. 

Austrodicaeum hirundinaceum tormenti. 

Western Mistletoe-birds were only seen on two occasions, 
viz., a pair on the ranges near Point (Uoates on 11 July, 
1916, and those already recorded (Ibis, 1917, p. 608) on 
Dirk Hartog Island. Mathews (Ref. List, 1913) only gives 
North-west Australia and Northern Territory as the range 
of this bird. Milligan recorded it from the Wonoan Hills 
(100 miles north-east from Perth), and Shortridge from 
near Kalgoorlie, and I have seen them at several places 
along the Midland Railway route. 



70 Mr. T. Carter on some [Ibis, 

Pardalotus punctatus whitlocki. 

Western Red-rumped Pardalotes were common in the 
Karri forests of the south-west, but not always easy to see^ 
and still less to shoot, when they are high up in the giant 
trees that average two hundred feet in height, and in the 
Warren River district often reach three hundred feet. 

Pardalotus rubricatus pallidiis. 

Pale Red-browed Pardalotes were, as usual, fairly plentiful 
about the beds of the Gascoyne and Minilya rivers, and 
occasionally seen far out from water-courses. On 10 Sept- 
ember, 1916, I shot a female at the Minilya River that 
contained a fully-formed white egg. On 18 September 
I noted that a pair of these birds were feeding their young, 
which were being reared inside a perpendicular iron pipe 
about two inches in diameter and seven feet in height ; 
this was set upright in the ground just outside a large 
shearing shed^ where shearing was in full progress. The 
nest was apparently some distance down the pipe. 

Pardalotus striatus westraliensis. 

Western Pardalotes were common about Broome Hill and 
all south-western districts. On 1 September, 1916, I shot a 
pair at the Minilya River, where I had never previously seen 
any of these birds, nor were they met with at the Gascoyne. 

Melithreptus lunatus chloropsis. 

Western White-naped Honeyeaters were observed all 
through the south-west area, where they are one of the 
commonest birds. 

Melithreptus atricapillus leucogenys. 

A few Western Brown-headed Honeyeaters were seen 
about Broome Hill and Gnowangerup in February 1916, 
and s))ecimens obtained. 

Cissomela nigra westralensis. 

Western Black "Honeyeaters were only seen on one 
occasion, viz. on 21 June, 1916, when I shot one out of 
a pair at Maud's Landing. They were very wild and 

restless. 



1 92 1.] fVestern Australian Birds. 71 

Acanthorhynchiis superciliosus wilsoni. 
White-browed Spiuebills were coninion in the south-west, 
especiall}^ about Lake Muir. 

Gliciphila melanops westernensis. 

A7estern Tawny-crowned Honeyeaters were common about 
Broome Hill, Gnowangeruj), and some of the coastal scrubs 
in the south-west. They frequent open country more than 
heavily timbered places. 

Pumella albifrons albifrons. 

White-fronted Honeyeaters, like the above birds, are 
found in open scrubby country, and are erratic in their 
movements. They used to be fairly common about the 
Grascoyne and Point Cloates after heavy rains, but I never 
saw any in the south-west. They were only noticed on two 
occasions on my trips to the north, viz., on IJ: July, 1916^ 
when some were seen on the ranges near Point Cloates, and 
on 23 September, 191G, when there were a few near Car- 
narvon and I obtained specimens. It is a verv restless and 
shy species. 

Certhionyx variegatus. 

Pied Honeyeaters were seldom seen in the Gascoyne and 
Minilya districts in 1911 and 1913, but were abundant in 
1916, which was a good (wet) season. On 21 August^ 
191G, I found a nest containing three fresh eoos at Maud's 
Landino-. It was about two feet from the "round in a small 
bush, and made of small twigs, roots, and grass, and lined 
with some soft bark or tibre. Several nests containing young 
birds of various sizes were seen in the few days following 
this date, when travelling by camel-waggon through the 
scrubb}' coast-hills between Maud's Landing and Cape 
Farquhar. 

Stigmatops indistincta indistincta. 

Least Honeyeaters were seen in most localities, but not in 
any numbers, from the south-west to the North-AVest Cape, 
where this species is fairly common in the scrubby gorges 
of the ranees. 



72 Mr. T. Carter on some [Ibis, 

Meliphaga virescens virescens. 

Singing Honeyeaters were commonly observed in all the 
districts visited. Fledged young were seen at Carnarvon 
on 11 August, 1913, and Point Cloates on 14 July, 
1916. Mr. G. M. Mathews appears to have inadvertently 
described Meliphaga virescens hartogi as a new subspecies 
{vide Bulletin B. 0. C. vol. xl. 1920, p. 76). The type of 
the species itself was obtained on Dirk Hartog Island by 
the French expedition of 1818, as mentioned in ' The Ibis ' 
(1917, p. 609), and was described by Vieillot (N. Diet. 
d'Hist. Nat. xiv. p. 329). 

Lichenostomus cratitia occidentalis. 

Wattle-cheeked Honeyeaters were very plentiful in the 
sand-plain scrubs east of Gnowangerup in February 1919, 
the only locality where any were observed. 

Lichenostomus keartlandi mungi. 

Western Grey-headed Honeyeaters were plentiful all 
along the ranges of the North- West Cape peninsula, but 
were not seen elsewhere. They were breeding from July 
to August, 1916. The song of this bird is a very sweet 
trilling warble, and other shorter notes are uttered. 

Lichenostomus ornatus ornatus. 

Western Yellow-plumed Honeyeaters were common at 
Lake Craigie (fifteen miles north of Perth), where specimens 
were obtained on 8 April, 1916. 

Lichenostomus ornatus wensleydalei. 

Inland Yellow-plumed Honeyeaters w^ere very plentiful 
about Broome Hill, where they mostly fed in the white- 
gum timber. Many recentlj^ fledged young birds were seen 
in early February, 1916. 

Ptilotula penicillata carteri. 

North western White-plumed Honeyeaters were, as usual, 
abundant on the scrubby bunks and islands of the Gascoyne 
River, the bushes and white-gum trees being full of the 
birds, with their cheerful notes and lively movements. 



1 92 1.] Western Australian Birds. 73 

They were also common on the Minilya River and the 
Yardle Creek pools, but exce[)ting near these pools in 
the North West Cape ranges, their place is taken by 
Lichenostomus keartlandi. Most of the young birds are 
fledo-ed in Auo-ust or early Septeml)er. The notes of the 
birds from the Minilya northwards are different from those 
on the Gascoyne. 

Meliornis novsehollandise longirostris. 

Long-billed Honeyeaters were common in all south- 
western districts. 

Meliornis niger gouldi. 

Moustached Honeyeaters were only seen at Augusta, 
when several were feeding on the honey in J3anksia 
blossoms, in company with many M. longirostris. and 
specimens were obtained on 8 April, 1910. These birds 
seem to be very local, and are always very restless and shy. 

Myzantha flavigula lutea. 

Yellow IVlinahs were common on the Lower Gascoyne 
Kiver, and a few were seen on the Minilya and Lyndon 
rivers. Fledged young were noted on 9 Se[)tember, 1911. 

Coleia carunculata woodwardi. 

Western Red Wattle-birds were common about Broome 
Hill and all south-western districts. In early April^ 1019, 
thousands of them were feeding in the coastal scrub and 
timber near the Vasse River. 

Anthochsera chrysoptera lunulata. 

Little Wattle-birds were not commonly seen, except at 
the Vasse River, in April 1919, when many were feeding 
in company with (Joleia carunculata. 

Acanthogenys rufogularis flavacanthus. 

Western Sjjiny'-cheeked Honeyeaters were fairly common 
in the scrubs about (/arnarvon, the Minilya district, and 
North-West Cape ranges, and a good many were seen at 
Woolundra in May 1919, eating the last of the grape-crop. 



74 Mr. T. Carter on some [Ibis, 

These birds were noticed breeding on the Lyndon River on 
5 September, 1911, and at Carnarvon on 23 September, 
1913. Both sexes utter the peculiar gurglino- notes, and I 
observed that these birds north o£ Point Cloates have quite 
a different note and whistle from those of the Carnarvon 
district. Mr. G. M. Mathews described the Woolundra 
bird as A. r. woolundra (Bulletir^ B. 0. C. xl. 1920^ p. 76). 

Aiithus australis bilbali. 

Western Pipits were common about Broome Hill, and in 
open or cleared localities through the south- and mid- west 
areas. They are not seen in heavy timber in its natural 
state, but extend their range as the. country is cleared. 
Two small young were seen in a nest at Carnarvon on 
13 August, 1911, and three fresh eggs in a nest there 
on 22 September, 1913. Specimens of Anthus obtained 
at Peron Peninsula and Dirk Hartog Island (both in Shark 
Bav) and at Carnarvon are slightly more rufous in general 
colourino- than birds from Broome Hill. Point Cloates birds 
arc distinctly more rufous than those at Carnarvon, and near 
the North-West Cape I obtained specimens that agree with 
Mathews' llufous Pipit {Anthus australis subrufus), of which 
I found a nest containing three eggs, about twenty miles 
south of North-West Cape, on 29 July, 1916. They were 
very similar to those of more southern Pipits. 

Mirafra horsfieldi woodwardi. 

Specimens of the Onslow Bush-Lark were obtained by 
me at the Minilya River on 20 August, 1911. It was 
the first time I had seen these birds so far south. 
Fledged young were seen at the same place on 20 Sept- 
ember, 1911. Several were seen at Maud's Landing, Point 
Cloates, and near the North-West Cape. 

Zonaeginthus oculatus. 

Red-eared Finches were common in the Paper-Bark tree 
[Melaleuca] swamps about Albany in 1913, and I saw some 
at Lake Muir (which is thirty-tive miles from the sea) on 
1 January, 1916, and a good many at a large swamp close 



1 92 1.] Western Australian Birds. 75 

io Cape Leeuwin in March 1916. Some of their nests o£ 
the previous year were examined in scrub between the 
swamp and the beach ; the}' were made of fine grass and 
fibre, and partly domed. Boys from the lighthouse quarters 
said they found nests there every year. A few of these 
birds were seen, and specimens obtained, on 25 March, 
1919, in dense scrub below Karri Forest on the Warren 
River. 

Taeniopygia castanotis wayensis. 

Chestnut-eared Finches were fairly common, for a short 
time, about 14 October, 1911, at Broome Hill and to the 
east of there. It was a very dry year. A specimen was 
obtained by me at Lake Muir on 1 January, 1916, which 
is the farthest south locality where I have seen this bird. 
They were, as usual, abundant from Carnarvon, northwards, 
on all visits there. Many nests contained eggs there on 
7 September, 1911, and early September 1913 and 1916. 
Mr. G. M. Mathews described the Dirk Hartog specimens 
of this species, collected by me in 1916, as Ta'niopygia c. 
hartogi subsp. nov. (^vide Bulletin B. 0. C. xl. 1920, p. 76). 

Emblema picta coongani. 

Painted Finches were seen in some numbers on parts of 
the North- West Cape ranges. On 27 July, 1916, I saw a 
flock of more than twenty in a deep gorge, and shortly 
afterwards, at a water-hole high up on the ranges, there 
were many of these birds engaged in drinking. Several 
specimens were obtained there on different days, but none of 
the birds wevQ breeding. When I was at Carnarvon in 1913 
a bird-fancier, who specialized in Finches and had a large 
aviary of them there, assured me that he had found occasional 
nests of Emblema picta in the vicinity. 

Chlamydera maculata nova. 

The first specimen of the Cape Spotted Bower-bird was 
obtained by me early in February 1892, and not 1902 as 
stated in the 'Emu,' vol. iii. p. 37, and as that record may 

not be familiar to the readers of ' The Ibis,' I repeat the 



7C) Mr. T. Carter oti some [Ibis, 

main facts. A distressing (lrou<^lit had been prevailing for 
two years, and I bad been obliged to move all my stock, 
with much trouble and loss, from Point Cloates to the then 
virgin country on the west side of the Exmouth Gulf, only 
to have several hundred sheep poisoned by some unknown 
shrub, soon after reaching there. So I returned to the west 
side of the peninsula ranges with a native boy, in order to 
open out a "soak " or black-fellow^s well, at which we had 
obtained enough water for our horses when driving the 
sheep up. The water was a few feet below the ground- 
surface in a dense patch of scrub, on rocky ground. The 
weather was intensely hot, and we found three putrid 
poisoned dingoes in the water-hole, so had to dig it out 
thoroughly before we could obtain any water to drink. 
It was not long before the boy smashed one of his big toes 
with a heavy sledge-hammer, so that he could not work, 
and I was picking and shovelling alone, in a very bad 
temper, when 1 heard some extraordinary chuckling noises 
in the scrub where the native was nursing his injured toe, 
so called out to him : '' If you cannot work you need not 
make such idiotic noises " ; when he rej)lied, "• That not me, 
that a bird." So I jumped out of the hole (o see what it 
was, and shot it, with my onl}^ firearm at the time — a '450 
Colt's revolver — as it was creeping about in the scrub. 
It seemed to me to tally with Clilamijdera guttata, according 
to Gould's Handbook, which, as usual, I had with me, when 
camping out. The bird of course was badly smashed, but 
I sent what was left of its skin to the Melbourne Museum 
for identification ; they informed me that only a mass of loose 
feathers had arrived. After I had finished mnking the well, 
where there was a splendid sup[)ly of good water, I moved 
most of my sheep back there ; but although I was camped 
there for several weeks, in which time I was constantly 
tramping the surrounding ranges, in order to shoot 
kangaroo, emn, etc., for food, no more of the birds 
were seen ; but when back at Point C'loates again in April 
the same year, i saw one of them in a deep rocky gorge 
among dense fig-trees, but did not shoot at it, hoping that 



1 92 1.] Ifcstcrii.AustnilJa)/ Birds. 77 

it might breed, but I saw no more of it, or any others, during 
the eleven years that I afterwards lived in that district. 

After thirteen years' absence, I was again at the same 
part of the ranges where I had shot the first Bower-bird, 
and on G August, l'.)l(j, Mr. A. Campbell, who now resides 
there, and myself were searching son^e of the deep rugged 
gullies of the ranges, where clumps of thick scrub, :ind large 
wild fig-trees grow in patches, when a thick-set bird was 
seen perched in tall l)ushes ahead of us. I shot it, and 
found it to be one of the long lost Spotted Bower-birds. 
Then we noticed two nests, about twenty feet from the 
bottom of the gully, in a snudl tree ("Eel-bya"),and (Campbell 
climl)ed up to examine them. Directly he reached tlieni, 
another Bower-bird perched in the tree a few feet ;djove 
his head, and I asked him to turn his face away so that I 
could shoot it, which I promptly did without doing him any 
damage. He called down to me that one nest was very old 
and dilapidated, and that the other one was empt}'^ ; so I asked 
him to descend and let me climb up and examine them, while 
he stood below with the "410 gun. Just as I was near the 
nests^ Mr. Campbell called out : "Another of them has just 
settled above j/our head, shall I shoot it ? " ; and as my back 
was towards him, I replied, "" Shoot away," and a third 
bird fell. As Campbell was picking it up, it uttered a harsh 
cry, and a fourth bird appeared in the bushes where we had 
seen the first, and that was also secured. The whole affair 
only lasted a few minutes, and we were both considerably 
excited. The only bird that uttered any sound was the 
third one, as mentioned above. Both the nests were similar 
in structure, being about ten inches in diameter, and made 
entirely of sticks, with small twigs for lining material. 
The nesting cavity was shallow in the better of the two, and 
nearly filled with birds^ droppings and some fallen leaVv'^s. 
It had probably been used a few months previously, and I 
think undoubtedly, by a pair of these birds. When skinning 
the specimens later in the day, three were found to be females, 
and none of them showed any indications of breeding. 
They had been feeding on snudl round berries and leaves 



78 Mr. T. Carter on some [Ibis, 

off: some busb. A careful search in the vicinity failed to 
find any bowers or playgrounds, and none were seen either 
in tliat gully, which we followed to its head, or any of 
the other numerous ones that were examined on that and 
following days. 

On the 7th of August I walked out to the place where 
the birds had been obtained, and took photograplis of it, 
and the tree with the two nests ; but the prints obtained, 
and also the negatives, were lost with the bulk of my 
luggage on the s.S. ' Medina,' when she was torpedoed in 
the English Channel in April 1917. I then again searched 
all the likely gullies in the vicinity, but only saw one 
Bower-bird, that was shot when feeding in a clump of 
fig-trees. I was out again the next day, but tramped many 
miles on the rugged ranges without any results, except 
seeing a single Bower-bird fly from a clump of fig-trees 
some distance from me. 

On the 9th of August Mr. Campbell drove me some miles 
in order to search fresh ground, and after examining several 
likely-looking places, the female bird that was figured (Ibis, 
1920, pi. xiv.) w^as obtained. Two others were seen to fly from 
a large mass of fig-trees, near where we were having our 
lunch, and a single bird from other fig-trees, when returning 
in the afternoon. Apparently these birds feed largely on 
wild figs. Their flight is straight, with rapid strokes of the 
wings, and resembles that of Magpies [Gymnorldna) ; they 
look large when flying. Whitlock, in his paper " On the 
East Murchison," Emu, vol. ix. ji. 218, says of Chlamydera 
m. subguttata that the nuchal band is much smaller in the 
female bird than in the male. This is certainly not always 
the case with C. m. nova. The nuchal bands of all the birds 
obtained by me are mostly of a vivid pink colour, but they 
all contain a few bluish-purple feathers scattered in with the 
pink ones. I also noticed that the markings which ajjpear 
to be black on the edges of the tawny spots on the crown of 
the head, show a distinct green when held at a certain angle. 
The North- West Cape is about 480 miles north-west of the 
locality where Mr. Whitlock obtained his birds. 



ig2i.] Westeryi Australian Birds. 79 

It is curious that my old natives at the North-West Cape 
told me that the Bower-birds were strange to them, and 
they had no aboriginal name for them ; but a native who came 
from the Ashburton district told me that he had seen similar 
birds to the north of that river, and far inland. A white 
man to whom I showed the specimens, asking him if he had 
ever seen any like them, at once replied that he had seen the 
same or similar birds at a locality that corresponded with 
the one described by the native, viz. about 180 miles east 
of the Cape. 

Through some mistake, the letterpress accompanying the 
plate of this fine new subspecies (' Ibis,' 1920, p. 499) is 
headed " On a new species of Bower-bird." 

Corvus coronoides perplexus. 

Southern Ravens were common in all south-western 
districts, and were seen near the mouth of the Warren River. 
Some were also seen at Broome Hill on 14 February, 1919, 
where Ravens seldom occur. 

Corvus bennetti bonhoti. 

Western Small-billed Crows were common about the 
Gascoyne and Minilya districts, A breeding female was 
shot at Carnarvon on 9 August, 1911. It had the bill 
and inside of mouth black ; irides with a bright blue centre, 
and white around it. A male obtained at the Minilya River, 
19 August, 1911, had the bill and mouth black; irides hazel. 

Corvus cecilae cecilse. 

Northern Crows were also common in the above districts, 
and I cannot say which bird is the most abundant, but pro- 
bably C, c. cecilce, and the following notes may be taken as 
ajiplying to this species : — 5-9 September, 1911, Many 
young, of large size, in nests at the Lyndon and Minilya 
rivers, and one nest containing eggs. 17 September, 1913. 
Many young birds in nests at Minilya. 22 Jul}^ 1916. 
Took seven eggs, incubated, and of a pale blue colour without 
markings, from a nest ten feet from the ground in a stunted 
tree at Yurdie Creek. 9 July, 191G. Shot a male at Point 



80 On some JVrstern Avstralhin Birds. [Ibis, 

Cloates, apparently not breeding. IG September, 191(). Shot 
a fledgling that had just left the nest, and could not fly 
much : the irides were bright pale blue. 

A bird, shot at the Yardie Creek on 4 August, 191(J, had 
been feeding largely on caterpillars and salt-bush berries. 
Crows were a nuisance at my lonely camp at the Yardie 
that year, turning all sorts of things over when I was away 
from it. I had shot two specimens of Rock Wallaby 
(Pefrof/ale lateralis) lor food, and pegged out the skins on 
the ground, but the (h'ows damaged them; so next time 
I left the camp I buried the skins, laid flat, some inches 
deep in the sand, but on my return found that the (-rows 
had pulled them up. On 9 September, 1913, I shot one 
of a pair of Crows, for identification, at Carnarvon, and was 
carrying it by its feet, when the other bird followed me for 
about a mile, cawing and flying close round me. It was 
presumably a female, as the one shot was a male. 

Corvus cecilse hartogi. 

My notes on the Dirk Hartog Crow were published in 
' The Ibis,' October 1917, p. 610. It has since been described 
as Corvus hartogi in the lUilletin B. 0. C. vol. xl. p. 76, 
30 January, 1920. 

Neostrepera versicolor plumbea. 

Leaden (^row-Shrikes were common all through the south- 
western area. Their northern limit seems to be about the 
Murchison River. 



Corrections. 
Referring to ray paragraph in ' The Ibis,' July 1920, 
bottom of page 693, re CJdiclonias leucoptera : as no speci- 
mens were obtained of this "' White-winged Tern " I deleted 
it from the proof-sheets, which were received by me at a 
very late date, and apparently too late to make the required 
omission, which I regret. 

On page 709 of the same j)aper, in the fourteenth line 
from the bottom, /or " length " read " height," 



1 92 1.] On rare Birds collected in Southern Cameroon. 81 

Daption capensis. 

Since I recorded the appearance of Cape Pigeons on ilie 
Western Australian coast, in the first part of this paper 
('Ibis,' 1920, p. G93), a specimen of this bird has been 
obtained at Cottesloe, near Freniantle, in August this year 
(1920), and is now in the Perth (W. Australia) Museum, 
together with other rare species obtained during the winter 
gales. I first read the records in a cutting from the ' West 
Australian ' newspaper, sent me by a friend, and by last 
mail have had them confirmed in a letter from Mr. Glauert 
of the Perth Museum. 



IV. — Remarks on rare and otherivise interesting Birds 
contained in Collections made hy Mr. G. L. Bates in 
Southern Cameroon. By David A. Bannerman, M.B.E., 
B.A., M.B.O.U.* 

The birds here referred to were collected by Mr. G. L. 
Bates in the southern part of Cameroon, for the most part 
on the River Ja, but a number were secured on the Rivers 
Bumba and Nyong {vide map, Ibis, 1908, pi. xi.). 

Two distinct collections are represented: the first was sent 
to the British Museum before the war in 1911, and on 
these birds Mr. Bates has already published his interesting 
notes (Ibis, 1911, pp. 479-545 & 581-631). 

The second collection was received by us in 1915, and 
these birds Mr. Bates has now generously [)resented to the 
National Collection. The period during Avhich these two 
collections were made extends over a number of years : — 

Collection I, from 1908-1911. 
Collection 2, from 1912-1915. 

In the following pages I have dealt only with the non- 
Passerine Birds. Mr. Ogilvie-Grant has already published 
some notes on the rarer Passerine birds which Mr. Bates sent 

* PuLlishecl by permission of the Trustees of the British Museum. 
SEll. XI. — VOL. III. G 



82 Mr. D. A. Baimerman on rare Birds [Il)is, 

home in these two collections ; his remarks will he found 
in 'The Ihis,' 1917, pp. 72-90. I thoroughly agree with 
Mr. Ogilvie-Grant's plan in not giving a complete account of 
these collections. It is quite unnecessary, and indeed a waste 
of time and space, to enumerate all the species which were 
obtained ; the constant repetition of notes and observations 
on the same species over and over again in the pages of 
' The Ibis ' is strongly to l)e deprecated, and serves no useful 
pur[iose whatever. I therefore gladly follow Mr. Ogilvie- 
Grant's example, and have only mentioned tiiose birds about 
which there is something of real interest to say which to the 
best of my knowledge has not been said before. 

Thanks to Mr. Bates, the British Museum is now very 
rich in material from southern Cameroon, and to my mind 
the time has come when the knowledge whicli has been 
gained from the study by various museum authorities of 
Mr. Bates's magnificent collections should be collated in 
book form. As Mr, Ogilvie-Grant has truly remarked, 
from 1902 onwards papers on Mr. Bates's collections have 
followed one another in a constant stream fiom the pen of 
the late Dr. Bowdler Sharpe or Mr. Ogilvie-Grant, and last, 
but not least, we have several extremely able [)a})ers con- 
tributed to 'The Ibis ' by Mr. Bates himself. 

The following are the references to papers describing 
Mr. Bates's collections from Cameroon : — 

" On a small collection of Birds from Efulen in Cameroon." Sharpe, 

Ibis, 1902, pp. 89-96. 
" On furtber collections of Birds from the Efulen District of ' 

Cameroon." Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, Part I. pp. 88-100; Part 11. 

pp. 591-638. 
" Field-Notes on the Birds of Efulen in the West-African colony of 

Kamerun." Bates, Ibis, 1905, pp. 89-98. 
" On further collections of Birds from the Efulen District of 

Cameroon." Sharpe, Ibis, 1905, pp. 461-476; Shai'pe, Ibis, 

1907, pp. 416-464; Sharpe, Ibis, 1908, pp. 117-129; Sharpe, 

Ibis, 1908, pp. 317-357. 
" Observations regarding the Breeding Seasons of the Birds in 

Southern Kamerun." Bates, Ibis, 1908, pp. 558-570. 
" Field-Notes on the Birds of Southern Kamerun, West Africa." 

Bates, Ibis, 1909, pp. 1-74. 



1 92 1.] collected in Southern Cameroon. 83 

" Further Notes on the Birds of Southern Cameroon" (with descrip- 
tions of the Eggs by W, R. Ogilvie-Graut). Part I., Bates, Ibis, 
1911, pp. 479-545; Part II., Bates, Ibis, 1911, pp. 581-631. 
1 Letter, de.scribing a trip to the Nj'ong River. Bates, Ibis, 1914, 
pp. 109-172. 

" Some facts bearing on the affinities of SmWiomis." Bates, Ibis, 
1914, pp. 495-502. 

" Remarks on some recent Collections of Birds made by Mr. G. L. 
Bates in Cameroon." Ogilvie-Grant, Ibis, 1917, pp. 72-90. 

Dendropicus lafresnayi camerunensis. 

Dendrojjicus camerunensis Sharpe, Ibi.s, 1907, p. 443 — 
Type locality : R. Ja, Cameroon. 

Dendropicus lafresnayi Malli. ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 620; 
Bates, Ibis, 1909, p. 31. 

Mr. Claude Grant (Ibis, 1915, p. 461) pointed out that 
the type of D. lafresnayi Malh. came from Gaboon, and until 
we had a seiies of typical birds from the Gaboon River it 
would be impossible to say whether the Congo or the 
Cameroon bird would be true D. I. lafresnayi. I do not 
agree with this decision. 

The type of D. camerunensis Sharpe (Ibis, 1907, p. 443) 
was described from the River Ja, Cameroon, and as pointed 
out in the original description, has the ground-colour of the 
upper parts darker than birds from the Congo. This is 
ackiiowledged by Mr. Claude Grant. As typical D, lafres- 
nayi was described from Gaboon, Congo birds are much 
more likely to be similar to Gaboon specimens than 
to Cameroon highland birds. I think we can therefore 
safely consider D. I. camerunensis a well-defined race. 
Mr. Ogilvie-Grant agrees with these conclusions. I am 
aware that this is the opposite opinion to that expressed by 
me in ^ The Ibis/ 1915, pp. 490 & 647. I then believed that 
the type locality of D. I. lafresnayi was (as given in Rev. et 
Mag. Zool. 1849, p. 533) " ? Africa," and I compared my 
specimens from Cameroon Mountain and the Manenguba 
Mountains with birds from southern Cameroon and could 
not distinguish them. I now unite all Camei'oon birds from 
both the north and the south under Sharpe's name, and 
restrict the typical birds to Gaboon and the Belgian Congo. 

G 2 



84 Mr. D. A. Bantiennan on rare Birds [Ibis, 

Mr. Bates has now obtained six more specimens of this 
species from Bitye, River Ja. 

Mesopicus xantholophus Hargitt. 
Mesopiciis elliotti Cassin. 
Dendromus caroli (Malh.). 
Dendromus permistus Reichw. 
Dendropicus gabonensis (Verr.). 

Mr. Bates has sent further specimens of all these Wood- 
peckers from Bitye. 

lynx torquilla torquilla. 

lyrix torquilla Linn. Syst. Nat. 10th ed. 1758, p. 112 — 
Type locality : Sweden. 

I record a specimen shot by Mr. Bates at Bitye, River Ja, 
on the 19th of November, 1913, as we have far too little 
data of European migrants in West Africa. It is nnfor- 
tunate tliat collectors who must often have the opportunity 
of procuring European birds on passage entirely ignore these 
in favour of local species whose range is often much l)etter 
known. It is a fact that several European birds pass 
regularly through the Canary Islands in spring and autunm, 
which have never been taken in Africa soutli of that 
latitude. 

Indicator conirostris conirostris *. 

Meli<jnothes conirostris Cassin, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1856^ 
p. 156 — Type locality : Moonda_, Gaboon. 

Indicator c. conirostris C. Grant, Ibis, 1915, p. 434; 
Bannerman, t. c. p. 489 [Cameroon Mt.]. 

All the examples of this species, eight in number, have 
been procured by Mr. Bates on the River Ja. He has now 
forwarded another pair from the same locality. 

The wings in seven males measure 88-92 mm.; in three 
females, 79, 85, 85 mm. 

The two specimens from the Gold Coast and Fantee, men- 
tioned under /, conirostris in the Catalogue of Birds in the 

* The notes on the species of the genera Indicator, Melignomon, 
and Prodotiscus were written by Mr. ^^■. 11. Ogilvie-Grant in 1017. 



1 92 1.] collected in Southern Cameroon. 85 

British Museum (Vol. xix. p. 10), were separated by Sharpe 
as /. ussheri [of. C. Grraut^ t. c. p. 434'). 

Indicator maculatus. 

Indicator maculatus Gray, Geii. Birds, ii. 1847, p. 45] — 
Type locality : not stated, [River Gambia] cf. specimen in 
Brit. Mns. Coll. ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1907, p. 440. 

We have received another adult male of this rare species, 
shot at Bitye on 2 June, 1910. It agrees entirely with 
the male example procured in July 1905 and also with the 
type specimen from the River Gambia. It has the feathers 
of the fore-part of the crown partially edged on the sides 
with yellowish-white, a character found in all the specimens 
and showing an approach to /. variegatas. It is easily 
distinguished from that species and from /. stictithorax by 
having the ieaihers of the breast and upper belly dull olive 
spotted with yellowish-white, but the spots are less regular 
than those of the chest. Two specimens, male and female, 
collected by the late Dr. Ansorge at Gunnal, Portuguese 
Guinea, appear to be immature examples of this species. 

Indicator exilis exilis. 

Melignothes exilis Cassin, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1856, 
p. 157 — Type locality : Moonda River, Gaboon. 

Indicator e. exilis C. Grant, Ibis, 1915, p. 434. 

Mr. Bates has sent three more pairs of this species, all 
referable to the typical form from Gaboon. 

The wings in three males measure respectively 70, 71, 
72 mm. ; in three females 67 mm. 

Mr. Claude Grant (Ibis, 1915, p. 434) has stated that 
" the male differs from the female in having a well-defined 
white band at the base of the upper mandible and a black 
moustachial streak " ; but in three specimens in the collec- 
tion marked in this way tlie sex has been ascertained as 
female by Mr. Bates, Mr. Dent, and Dr. Ansorge respectively, 
three most reliable collectors. 

Indicator stictithorax. 

Indicator stictitliorax Reichw. J, f. O, 1877, p. 110 — Type 
locality : Cameroon ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1907, p. 440. 



86 Mr, D. A. Bannerraan on rare Birds [Ibis, 

Indicator theresce Alexander, Bull. B. O. C. xxi. 1908, 
p. 90 [Gudima, River Iri]. 

Mr. Bates has sent another example of this species, an 
adult female from Bitj'e, River Ja. He had already procured 
three specimens at Kribi, of which two males taken in 
September are in the British Museum. The uniform dark 
olive crown, spotted breast, and streaked belly serve to 
distinguish this species from the nearly allied /. maculatus 
Gray. 

/. theresce Alexander, the type specimen of which from 
Gudima, River Iri, is in the British Museum, is synonymous 
with the present species. The type specimen has been 
marked a male by Alexander, but it seems certain from the 
small size of the bill that it must be a female : it agrees 
exactly with the female from Bitye sent by Mr. Bates. 

Melignomon zenkeri Reichw. 

Melignomo7i zenkeri Reichw. Vog. Afr. ii. 1902, p. 113 — 
Type locality : Yaunde, Cameroon. 

Mr. Bates, who had previously sent a single male of this 
rare species, has now obtained five more_, including examples 
of both sexes. 

Ceriocleptes robustus. 

Melignomon robustus Bates, Bull. B. O. C. xxv. 1909, 
p. 26 — Type locality : Bitye, River Ja, Cameroon. 

Ceriocleptes xenurus Chapin, Bull. Am. Mus. N. H. 
xxxiv. 1915, p. 512 — Type locality: Avakubi, Ituri 
District. 

The Honey-guide described and figured by Mr. Chapin 
is obviously of the same species as that described by 
Mr. Bates under the name Melignomon robustus. Mr. Bates 
obtained a second female example at the same place, Bitye, 
River Ja, on the 29th of September, 1913. The type speci- 
men of M. robustus shows the peculiarity of the tail-feathers 
figured by Mr. Chapin and mentioned by Mr. Bates 
when he modified tlie diagnosis of the genus Melignomon 
{op. cit. p. 27). Mr. Ogilvie-Grant did not accept the genus 



1 92 1.] collected in Souther?! Cameroon. 87 

Ceriocleptes proposed by Mr. Cliapiii^ but I consider that it 
must be kept up. 

If Keichenow^s genus Melichneutes (Orn. Monatsl). 1910, 
p. 160), founded on M . sommerfeldi, is, as I suspect, identical 
with Chapin's genus Ceriocleptes, then E/eichenow's name 
will take precedence. 

Prodotiscus insignis. 

Hetarudes insiyuis Cassiti, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1856, p. 157 
— Type locality : Moonda River, Gaboon. 

'^Prodotiscus eimni Shelley, P. Z. S. 1888, p. 43 [Bellima]. 

Two advilt female examples procured by Mr. Bates at 
Bitye, River Ja, should be typical examples of Hetcerodes 
insignis Cassin, described from tlie Moonda River, Gaboon. 
It seems more than probable that the ty[)e specimen of 
P. emini Shelley (which came from Bellima iu the Tingasi 
District and not from Wadelai as stated in the original 
description, cf. P. Z. S. 1888, p. 43) is a male o£ the present 
species. In the British Museum collection there is a female 
exam])h' from Nairobi, presented by Mr. A. B. Percival, 
which nearly resembles one of the adult females sent by 
Mr. Bates. He also sent a quite young female with the 
quills half-grown from the same locality. It would seem 
that the species ranges from the Lake District to West 
Africa, but our very small series does not afford sufficient 
evidence to determine this. 

Cuculus gaboiiensis gabonensis. 

Cuculus gaboneiisis Lah-esunyc, Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1853, 
p. 60 — Type locality : Gaboon ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1907, p. 436 ; 
Bates, Ibis, 1911, p. 500.. 

The valuable material now sent home by Mr. Bates, 
together with his notes on this species published in 'The Ibis' 
for 1911, throw considerable light on the complex plumage 
changes which the Gaboon Cuckoo undergoes between the 
stage of nestling and adult. Mr. Bates has already pointed 
this out, Ijut his remarks are of such value that I wish to 
emphasise them again. 

Messrs. Sclater and Mackworth-Praed have recentlv 



88 Mr. J). A. Bannerman on rare Birds [Ibis, 

"worlied through what they term the soUtarius group of 
Cuckoos in the Britisli Museum, and ])ublished their con- 
clusions on pp. 642, 643 of ' The Ibis/ 1919. They remark 
{J. c. p. 643) : " The relationship of the soUtarius group with 
C. clamosus, the Black Cuckoo, which is also found all over 
Africa, is very obscure, as is also the relatiousliip of 
C. soUtarius and C. gahonensis. There appears to be a series 
of intermediate forms (which has been called C jacksoni) 
between C. clamosus and C. soUtarius. There is also a 
series of intermediate forms (called C. mabirce) between 
C. gabonensis and C soUtarius. It is possible that these may 
be regarded either as three separate species intergrading in 
certain areas, or as three species in process of evolution from 
one form within those areas." I am not at all in agreement 
with these conclusions, believing C. soUtarius to be a per- 
fectly fixed race with very distinct young, 

Cucuhis gabonensis I believe to be also a fixed race 
with distinct young, having a subspecies Cucidus gabonensis 
mabiron. I shall deal with the status of C. clamosus and 
C. jacksoni later. 

I have now the entire fine series of these forms contained 
in the British Museum spread out before me in addition 
to certain specimens kindl}' lent to nie, from Tiing by 
Lord Rothschild and by Dr. van Someren from his private 
collection. 

CUCULUS GABONENSIS GABONENSIS 

To deal first with Cuculus gabonensis gabonensis : we possess 
fourteen examples in the British Museum showing the com- 
plete change of plumage as explained by Mr. Bates (Ibis, 
1911, p. 501). 

1. The first plumage is uniform black throughout (speci- 

mens Nos. 3898 and 3904). 

2. The second is the transitional stage, some of the barred 

feathers of the underparts and some of the barred 
chestnut feathers of the throat are appearing amongst 
the black feathers ; the glossy feathers are appearing 



1921.] collected in Southern Cameroon. 89 

on tlie back (specimens No3. 3044, 3141, and the bird 
obtained by Bates at Efulen, B. M. Reg. No. 1903. 
7.16.30, erroneously named C. clamosus hj Sliarpe 
in 'The Ibis' (1904, p. 614). 

3. The third represents the almost adult stage; the under- 
parts have lost all trace of the black feathers except 
on the thighs, the breast is creamy-buff barred with 
black and the chin and throat chestnut barred 
Avith black. Tiie u])per parts are glossy throughont 
(specimens Nos. 4411, 3616, 4091, and 951 [Bates 
Cameroon coll.], No. 14, ex Shelley coll. from 
Landana, ;ind specimen 1919.10.12.46, Poko, Uele, 
Dr. C. Christy coll.). 

4'. In the fourth we see the fully adult bird which has lost 
all trace of barring on the throat, which is now 
uniform chestnut (specimens No. 4291 [Bates coll.] ; 
No. 805, Landana [Shelley coll.] ; and two birds col- 
lected m Gaboon, Danger 11. [Ansell], "Gaboon" 
[Verrcaux]). The ground-colour of the breast is 
creatny-l)uff, and the under tail-coverts are uniform 
bull", with little trace of barring. 

The range oi C.g. gabonensis appears to be from Cameroon, 
through Gaboon south to Landana just north of the mouth 
of the Congo River, and eastward to the northern Belgian 
Congo, Uele River district. 

CUCULUS SOLITARIUS. 

\_Cuculus solitarius Stephens in Shaw's Gen. Zool. ix. 
1815, p. 84 — Type locality : Caffraria (i. e. Eastern Cape 
Colony) ex Levailiant.] 

Next we will deal with Cuculus solitarius, another Cuckoo 
which ranges throughout Africa and occurs in Cameroon. 
Mr. Bates's last collection contains very young birds of this 
species, which shows that it should never be confused with 
C. gabonensis. In the British Museum we have a large 
series of this bird : — 89 in adult plumage and 14 in 



90 Mr. D. A. Baiincrinaii on rare Birds [Ibis, 

juvenile and immatnre plumage, besides a number sent to 
me by Dr. van Someren. 

1. The first plumage of C. soliturius lias the u[)per parts 

black (as in C. f/abonensis), but each feather of tlie 
liead, mantle, back, rump, and wing-coverts is narrowly 
fringed with white or buffish-white, most ])ronounced 
on the head and uape. There is a conspicuous white 
spot at the base of the head. The throat and chin, 
are black, each feather narrowly margined with white; 
the breast and belly buff, strongly barred with black. 

2. In the second stage the white margins to the feathers 

are less conspicuous; the breast and belly are white 
strongly barred with black, the under tail-coverts are 
wiiite barred with black. On the u[)per surface the 
white spot at the base of the head is wider and more 
conspicuous, the rectrices are black, and the four 
white s})ots on the webs of the rectrices (including 
the central pair) have made their appearance — the 
latter an important character, as C. solitarius is the 
only Cuckoo of this complex group which has white 
markings on the webs of the central })air of tail- 
feathers. The while spot at the base of the head 
disappears entirely before the feathers of the upper 
j)arts lose their white edges. 

3. Stage number three is very similar to the last, but the 

cliestnut feathers of the throat are beginning to make 
their appearance, and the underparts are rather more 
buff and are more conspicuously barred. The iiead 
and rest of the upper parts are uniform, the white 
margins to the feathers having entirely disappeared. 

i. The fourth stage shows the grey feathers of the thi'oat 
appearing above the chestnut of the breast; the 
under tail-coverts are now distinctly buff, with a few 
indistinct bars. 

5. In the fifth stage we see the adult bird with uniform dark 
grey upper parts, the conspicuous white markings on 
the webs of the rectrices incduding the middle pair ; 



1921.] collected in Southern Cameroon. 91 

pure light grey throat merging into chestnut on the 
breast ; buff underparts uiiiformly banded with black ; 
uniform buff under tail-coverts sometimes bearing a 
few dark spots or irregular bars, but more often 
entirely wanting in this respect. 

The range of this Cuckoo seems to be Africa generally. 
In the British Museum we have specimens from : 

South Africa (Cape Colony^ Transvaal, Natal, Zululand). 

East Africa (Portuguese E. Africa, British E, Africa, 
Abyssinia). 

No7-th- Central Africa (Sudan^ Niam-Niam country, and 
north Belgian Congo). 

West Africa (Portuguese Guinea^ Gold Coast^ Cameroon, 
Congo River, Angola). 

CucuLus cLAMOsus and Cuculus jacksoni. 

Thanks to Lord Rothschild, Sir Frederick Jackson, and 
Dr. van Someren, who have most kindly lent me all their 
specimens for comparison with the large series in the 
Natural History Museum, I have had ninety examples of 
Cuculus clamosus and Cuculus jacksoni from which to make 
my deductions, i. e. : — 



Div. 1. 



M8 birds from Uganda, Brit. E. Africa, Equat. 

I Great Lakes, S.E. Ethiopia, S. Abyssinia. 

j 12 birils from the Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, 

l^ N. Angola. 

( 10 birds from Nyasaland. 
-p^. jj I 20 l)irds from Cape Colony, Natal, Zambesi, 
I Bechuanaland, Damaraland, Transvaal, South 

i^ Rhodesia. 

Unquestionably all birds in Division 2 are examples of 
Cuculus clamosus ; and before we discuss examples from 
localities in Division 1, 1 wish to deal with the status and 
plumage of the South African Black Cuckoo. 



92 Mr. 1). A. Baiiiierman on rare Birds \\h\%, 

CUCULUS CLAMOSUS. 

[Cuculus clamosns Latham, Ind. Orii. ii. Suppl. 1801, 
p. XXX — Type locality : Cape of Good Mope.] 

The Soutii African Black Cuckoo is unfortunately not 
v.ery well represented in the National Collection, as we have 
not any really young birds. We have twenty specimens 
from Cape Colony, Daniaraland, Transvaal, Natal, Zambesi, 
and Southern Rhodesia ; also ten specimens from Nyasaland, 
which I consider must be included with the typical form. 

The juvenile and second plumage is apparently unknown, 
but Ave have a number of specimens showing the transition 
stage from the plumage just before the adult plumage is 
reached to the fully adult. In this not quite matui'c phase, 
of which we have twxlve examples, the upper parts are 
already black, with a deep greenish-blue gloss as in adult 
specimens. The underparts, in what I take to be the three 
youngest examples before me (Heg. Nos. 89.6.25.112 and 
89.6.25.113), two from Durban, one from Kingwilliams- 
town, are dusky blackish-brown, irregularly barred and in 
one specimen almost mottled (so indistinct is the barring) 
with grey and rufous. The under tail-coverts are black, 
barred distinctly but narrowly with pale rufous and white. 
The Kingwilliamstown Ijird is probably the youngest 
example, as it has the outer webs of the primaries distinctly 
barred, while in the elder of the Durban birds the primaries 
are uniform as in the adult. 

From this plumage the birds gradually lose the barring 
on the undei'side ; in several specimens it is only faintly 
indicated, and finally all trace of markings are lost and we 
see the adult plumage as in a specimen (No. 8994) from 
Durban and a bird from Natal (No. 79.4.5.395). 

In one l)ird with almost uniform under parts but very 
heavily barred under tail-coverts there is a distinct indica- 
tion of rufous on the breast. 

I have purposely described specimens from Soutli Africa 
(Natal and Cape Colony) as benig undoubtedly typical, but 



1 92 1.] collected in Southem Cameroon. 93 

exactly the same changes of plumage are apparent in the 
ten birds from Nyasaland. 

In dealing with examples of the Black Cuckoo from north- 
east and north-west Africa the problem is considerably 
complicated by the occuirence in Uganda, British East 
Africa, southern Abyssinia, and northern Angola of the bird 
known as Cuculus jackso7ii Sharpe, immature examples of 
Cuculus clamosus having l)een confused by many workers 
with the young of C. jackso7ii. Unfortunately both forms 
occur side by side in many districts — even in the same 
forests ; and the very variable plumage exhibited by im- 
mature birds of C. clamosus has made the status of the two 
forms and the range which they occupy a difficult task to 
unravel. 

From northern central Africa we have examples of the true 
Black Cuckoo from Uganda, British East Africa, southern 
Abyssinia, eastern Belgian Congo, tlie Galla country, Niam- 
Niam country, northern Angohi, Gohl Coast, and Sierm 
Leone. The adult black birds are indistinguishable fi-om 
those from South Africa, and the immature .s])ecimens exhibit 
the same remarkable variety in the colouc of the plumage — 
from the indistinctly barred birds with an indication of 
rufous appearing amongst the feathers of the breast to a 
curious grey bird in the collection of Sir Frederick Jackson. 

Cuculus jacksoni. 

\_Caculus jachsuni Sharpe, Bull. B. O. C. xiii. 1902, \). 7 — 
Type locality : Toro, Uganda.] 

At first glance typical examples of C. jacksoni look like a 
very distinct Cuckoo, but the type is not quite adult. The 
upper parts are glossy blue-black as in C. clamosus, but the 
underparts are very dissimilar to any phase of plumage 
exhibited by South African specimens in the National 
Collection, and resemble much more nearly C. y. gabonensis. 
The breast is dark chestnut, the throat greyish, and the 
rest of the underside, Irom the chest to and including 
the under tuil-coverts, is strikingly banded with black 



94 ^NTr. D. A. Bannermnn on rare Birds [Ibis, 

and white. I have examples in tliis phase of plumage 
from Uganda, Brit. E. Africa, and S. Abyssinia, and from 
all these places black birds indistinguishable from adult 
C. clamosus from South Africa. 

This led me to suppose that C. clamosus and C. jacksoni 
were very closely allied. As they appear to inhabit the 
same country, it is impossible to determine which immature 
birds are the young of C. jacksoni. Certainly the series 
of immature birds from Uganda resemble the immature 
specimens of C. clamosus from Natal and the rest of South 
Africa. 

Until young l)irds are obtained of both forms we cannot 
definitely say more. The only fully- adult specimen of 
C. jacksoni in the British Museum is No. 1920.6.7.15, shot 
at Mpumu, Uganda, by Mr. L. M. Seth-Smith. It is dis- 
tinguished from C. gabo7iensis by the more heavily barred 
under surface, the ground-colour of which is white and not 
cream, and by the uniformly banded under tail-coverts. 

In other respects the adult bird of C.^acytsoni resembles 
adult C. yahonensis, and had it not inhabited the same 
country as C.g. mabira, I believe the simplest plan would 
have been to include it as another subspecies of C. gabonensis. 
As it is, it must remain as a species. 

Range. We have specimens of C. jacksoni in typical heavily 
barred plumage from southern Abyssinia, Bahr el Ghazal, 
British East Africa, Uganda, and northern Angola. 

CUCULUS GABONENSIS MABIRjE, 

[Cuculus mabirce van Someren, Bull. B. O. C. xxxv. 1915, 
p. 116 — Type locality : Mabira and Kasala Forests, Uganda,] 

This bird I consider a subspecies of Cuculus gabonensis. 
Dr. van Someren has kindly forwarded me tw^o birds for 
examination, and Dr. Hartert has sent me the type and 
another from Tring. The adult bird has glossy blue-black 
upper parts, pale chestnut throat and breast, and either 
uniform buffish-white or slightly barred underparts and 
uniform buff under tail-coveits. The immature of this bird 
is quite distinct ; the chestnut of the breast extends to the 



ig2i.] collected in Southern, Cameroon. 95 

throat and cliiu and is barred with black; the underparts 
are almost white, barred with black — giving the birds a much 
ligliter appearance than C.jacksoiii. with which it miglit at 
first sight have been confnsed. 

1 have one remarkable bird entirely black, ])nt with several 
barred feathers still remaining in the breast and flanks — the 
barred feathers are fresli feathers, the black much Morn, 
showing that the bird is changing from black plumage (?) of 
the young into the barred plumage. It is impossible to 
determine whether it is a young jacksoni or mahirce. I am 
inclined to think the latter, as the feathers of tiie young o£ 
gabonensis are entirely black and in the adult become barred. 
This I believe to be a parallel case, but it is worthy of 
study by anyone working at this group. The specimen 
alluded to is a male obtained by Mr. L. M. Seth-Smith at 
Mpumu, Uganda, on the 28th of July, 1912, Brit. Mus. 
Reg. No. 1913.7.1G.31. 

At first I believed that this was C. jacksoni turning into a 
black bird, but on closer examination along with Mr. H. F. 
Witherby of the feathers, he drew my attention to the fact 
that the barred feathers were new, the black feathers old, 
and in these conclusions I agree. The young of either 
('.jacksoni or C. mabircs are therefore black. It is not an 
example of C. cUuaosus. 

The range of this Cuckoo is not yet known apparently. 
The type came from the Kasala Forest and the other 
specimens from Mabira and Bngoma in Uganda. There 
are three birds in the Jackson collection from the Mabira 
and Bugoma Foi^ests. The subspecies is not re[)resentcd in 
the British Museum. 

Pachycoccyx validus. 

Cucutus validus Keichw. Orn. Centralbl, 1879, p. 139 — 
Type locality: Muniuni, Tana River, British East Africa. 

Pachycoccyx validus Sharpe, Ibis, 1907, p. ^35 ; Bates, 
Ibis, 1911, p. 499. 

Two specimens of this rare Cuckoo were obtained 
(Nos. 5939 and 4220), and have been presented to the British 



96 Mr. D. A. Bannernian o??. rare Birds [Ibis, 

Museum. There are now three birds in the collection 
obtained by Mr. Bates on the Kiver Ja. No. 4220 has 
already been recorded by Mr. Bates (/. c). It has a 
remarkably mottled appearance, due to the feathers of the 
crown^ mantlcj greater and .lesser coverts, primaries and 
secondaries, upper tail-coverts and tail ])eing; broadly tipped 
with white. The adult bird is uniformly coloured blackish 
brown on the entire upper parts. As Mr. Bates has already 
remarked, the bird, though in such spotted plumage, is not 
very young — the wing measures 220 mm. — and had evidently 
itself caught the numerous insects which were contained in 
its stomach. 

Pachycoccyw validus ranges from British East Africa 
south to Nyasaland, across the Belgian Congo to Came- 
roon, Gaboon, and northern Angola. It has also been 
obtained in two widely separated localities in the late 
German Togoland according to Reichenow. 

Chrysococcyx flavigularis. 

Chrijsococcy.v jiaviyidaris Shelley, P. Z. S. 1879, p. G79, 
p], 50 — Type locality: Gold Coast; Sharpe, Ibis, 1907, 
p. 437 ; Bates, Ibis, 1911, p. 502. 

Mr. Bates's collection contains four more examples of 
this extremely rare Golden Cuckoo, all obtained dnring the 
month of December in 1908, 1913, and 1914. Two are 
females, but the sex of tlie other two has been ascertained 
as males. In plumage they closely resemble the female, and 
must therefore be young birds, as the adult male is a very 
distinct-looking bird. There is no indication of the yellow 
throat in either specimen, the entire under surface being 
narrowly barred as in the female. 

Cercococcyx mechowi wellsi. 

Cercococcyx mechoivi wellsi Bannerman, Bull. B. O. C. xl. 
1919, p. 7 — Type locality : River Ja, Cameroon. 

Cercococcyx mechowi Sharpe, Ibis, 1907. p. 436; Bates, 
Ibis, 1909, p. 15. 

This race of Mechow's Cuckoo has been named by me in 



1 92 1.] collected in Southern Cameroon. 97 

honour of Mr. Wells, of the bird-room, British Museum, 
who first drew my attention to the differences between the 
Cameroon and Angola birds. We iiave in the British 
Museum collection a good series of birds from Uganda, 
the Belgian Congo, Cameroon, northern Angola, the Gold 
Coast, and a single bird from Nyasaland. When these 
birds are laid out in geographical order, it is at once 
apparent that two forms are represented, but the distri- 
bution of the two is at first puzzling. 

To begm with, Cabanis (J. f. O. 188.2, p. 230) described 
Cercococcyx mechowi from Angola from a specimen obtained 
by IMajor von !Mechow. No particulars are given as to 
the exact place where JNTcchow obtained his type, ])ut I 
have ascertained that this German traveller made an expe- 
dition into northern Angola and published a large-scale 
map (Karte der Knango-Expedition) in 1884 at Berlin. 
A copy of this may be seen in the map-room of the 
Royal Geographical Society. Von Mechow appears to 
have ascended the Kuansa River and prepnrcd the sheets 
of his map from Dondo to Malange, Avhere he left the 
Kuansa River and trecked northwards, joining the head- 
waters of the Cambo River. This river he followed to Tembo- 
Aluma, where the Cambo joins the Zaida-Kuango. Thence 
he proceeded by way of the Kuango to Camalamba. No 
connected account of his journey seems to have been 
published. We have six birds in the British Museum from 
northern Angola collected by the late Dr. Ansorge at N'dalo 
Tando (a place situated on the line between St. Paul 
de Loando and Kassandje), and these are very different 
from specimens collected in Cameroon and in Uganda. 

Unfortunately the original description by Cabanis of 
C. mechowi does not accurately fit either the Angola or the 
Cameroon and Uganda birds ; but as the genus Cercococcyx 
was founded on Mechow's specimen obtained in Angola, 
we must restrict Cercococcyx mechowi mechowi to Angola 
specimens. 

These Angola bird.', C. m. mechowi Cabanis, have the 
upper parts greyish brown, strongly Mashed with copper- 

SER. XI. VOL. III. H 



98 Mr. D. A. Baimerman on rare Birds [Ibis, 

colour, the coppery gloss being very apparent in certain 
lights. The underparts are huffish white, the throat, breast, 
and flanks narrowly handed with blackish, each feather 
having a narrow subtcrminal bar. On the belly tlie bars are 
either entirely wanting or only faintly indicated. The under 
tail-coverts are barred in four out of six specimens to a lesser 
or greater extent. 

These birds from Angola have only recently been in- 
corporated in the National Collection, and hence former 
workers have been unable to compare birds from other parts 
of Africa with typical specimens. Had they been able to do 
so, they would have seen that a very noticeable difference 
exists between them. 

We have in the British Museum twenty-one skins from 
other parts of Africa — 13 birds from Cameroon collected 
by ]Mr. Bates (6 in old collections, 7 in the present series), 
4 from Uganda and Kuwenzori, 3 from the Gold Coast, and 
one from Nyasaland. I have also examined one bird from 
Poko on the Uelle River (Christy coll.). 

First, to deal with the series from Cameroon, Uganda, and 
E/Uwenzori, which I have named C. m. ivellsi : — These birds 
differ from ('. m. mechowi in having the upper parts slate- 
brown, a distinct dark bluish grey taking the place of the 
copper colour. The most noticeable difference is, however, on 
the under surface, which in C. m. ivellsi is whitish or huffish 
white, closely banded with brownish black, the bars much 
Avider and closer togetlier than in C. m. mecliowi. The under 
tail-coverts are generally unbarred or unspotted, but this, 
as in the Angola bird, is subject to variation. 

We have still to deal with birds from the Gold Coast, of 
whicli I have only three specimens ; and these, while exhibit- 
ing the coppery gloss of C m. mecliaivi, which they resemble 
on the upper parts, have the under surface closely barred 
(though not quite so heavily) as in C. m. wellsi. With such 
small material 1 can only point out the somewhat inter- 
mediate position which the Gold Coast birds seem to hold. 

There remains the biid from Nyasaland. It is quite a 
young female, the upper parts barred with rufous and brown 



1 921.] cuUeclcd in Soutliern Cameroon. 99 

and the underparts heavily banded. The species to ^vhich 
it belongs may very possibly be new^ but, without adult 
examples, must remain indeterminable. We must, however, 
recognise 

1. Cercococcyx mechowi MECHOWi Cabanis : restricted 

to Angola ; 

2. Cercococcyx mechowi wellsi Bannerman : Cameroon 

(typical), Belgian Congo, Uganda, Buwenzori ; 
and perhaps 

3. Cercococcyx mechowi ? subsp. : Gold Coast ; 

4. Cercococcyx, sp. or subsp. indeterminable : S. Angoni- 

laud, Nyasaland ; 

5. Cercococcyx MECHOWI olivinus Sassi, which I have 

not seen. 

Caprinmlgus europseus europaeus. 

Caprimulgus eiirojjceus Linn. Syst. ISIat. 10th ed. 1758, 
p. 193 — Type locality : Sweden. 

I mention a bird of this species which Mr. Bates shot on 
the 8th of December, 1913, as there are far too few refer- 
ences to European migrants in ornithological literature to 
allow us to omit to record any really authentic specimen. 

Caprimulgus inornatus. 

Caprimulgus inornatus Heuglin, Orn. Nordost-Afrika's, 
i. 1869, p. 129— Type locality : Bogosland. 

No. 3422. ? . Bitye, River Ja, 13 February, 1909. 
No. 5168. S ■ Bitye, River Ja, 14 December, ]912. 

Specimen No. 3422 has already been recorded by 
Mr, Bates (Ibis, 1911, p. 516) as Macrodipteryx niacro- 
dipterus, but I do not think there can be any question but 
that Mr. Bates has identified his bird wrongly. Without a 
large series for comparison it would have been impossible to 
name this Nightjar, which, as has already been pointed out 
is not fully grown. Curiously enough, another example of 
this Nightjar, which has never previously been taken in 
Cameroon, was secured by Mr. Bates in 1912. In this bird 
the head, scapulars, and upper tail-coverts are strongly 

h2 



100 ]\Ir. D. A. Baiinermau on rare Birds [lljis, 

marked witli })iukisli. In the series in the Britisli Museum 
of forty specimens several are in tlie entire reddish phase 
out of whicli si)ecimen No. 5168 is passinj>-. 

The range of ('. inornatus seems to be very peculiar if all 
the skins in the National Collection have been correctly 
identified. The following localities are represented there : — 
Southern Arabia, Bahr el Ghazal, Somaliland, Abyssinia, 
British East Africa, Uganda, northern Belgian Congo. 

Alexander obtained the bird at Angu on the Uelle River 
and also on the Ubangi River in the ( *ongo region. It is 
Avorthy of note that all the specimens obtained in the Belgian 
Congo and Cameroon were shot during the winter months, 
November to February. 

The occurrence of this Nightjar in Cameroon is of sjjecial 
interest. 

Caprimulgus binotatus. 

(uprhitulyus binotatus Bonaparte, Conspect. Gen. Av. 
1850, p. 60 — Type locality : Dal)ocrom, Gold Coast ; Sharpe, 
Ibis, 1904, p. 612; Hates, Ibis, 1911, p. 516. 

jNIr. Bates has now sent two more examples of this 
extremely rare and interesting Nightjar, and with great 
generosity has presented them with other rare things to the 
Britisli Museum. 

He had already ])rocured a single male bird at Efulen 
in March 1902, and this bird, which is in the National 
Collection, was duly recorded and commented upon by the 
late Dr. Sharpe (/. c). The next specimen (No. 4107) Avas 
obtained at Bitye, River Ja, on the 19th of February, 1910, 
and is likewise a male — the occurrence of this particular bird 
has already been noted by Mr. Bates (Ibis, 1911, p. 516). 
In this i)apcr Mr. Bates remarked that in specimen 4107 
there was a distinct diagonal buff band on the feathers of 
the scapulars, and expressed his opinion that these characters 
were distingnlshing marks of the male sex, "supposing the 
original description to have been made from a female.''^ 
In this surmise Mr. Bates is perfectly correct, as he has now 
himself proved by securing yet a third example — a female 



I921.] collected in Southern Cameroon. lOl 

tliis time — on the 9tli of Marcli, 1915, at Bitye. This bird 
lacks any trace of the diagonal bar on the scapulars. 

The most remarkable character exhibited by this Nightjar 
is the entire absence of spots on the inner web of the quills, 
which are uniformly coloured, and as Dr. Sharpe pointed 
out when the first of Mr. Bates's specimens came under his 
notice, resembles in this respect C. concretus of Borneo. 

The wing-measurements of Mr. Bates's three specimens 
are as follows : — 

S (Efulen), 153 mm. ; ^ (No. 4107, Bitye), 141 mm. 
(barely) ; ? (No. 5942, Bitye), 148 mm. 

Caprimulgus binotatus is recorded only from (*ameroon 
and from the Gold Coast (Dabocrom) [Hartlaub, J. £. O. 
1855, p. 355]. 

Caprimulgus batesi. 

Caprimulgus batesi Sharpe, Bull. B.O. C. xix. 1906, p. 18 
— Type locality : River Ja, Cameroon. 

Caprimulgus batesi Sharpe, Ibis, 1907, p. 433 ; Bates, Il)is, 
1909, p. 25. 

We had already received four adult specimens of Bates's 
Nightjar, collected on the River Ja in January, March, July, 
and August, at the British Museum. The present collection 
includes four adult birds collected at Bitye in February, 
July, and August. Numbers 3481 and 4936 are retained for 
the National Collection. 

Cosmetornis vexillarius. 

Semeiophorus vexillarius Gould, Icones Avium, 1838, 
pi. 13— Type locality : Sierra Leone. 

Cosmetornis vexillarius Sharpe, Ibis, 1907, \). 432 ; Bates, 
Ibis, 1909, p. 26. 

There are three specimens of the Pennant-winged Nightjar 
in the present collection (Nos. 4140, 5987, 5947), all of whith 
were obtained in March 1910, 1914, and 1915. No. 4140 is 
a male with the white belly barred with brown, while the 
other two are females. These are not the three birds men- 
tioned by Mr. Bates (/. c.) and already recorded by Sharpe 



103 Mr. t). A. Bannerman on rare JBii'ds [Ibis, 

{I. c), but it is noteworthy tliat all six birds were obtained 
in March "at the end of the dry season," as Mr. Bates tells 
us in his paper. C. vexillarius apparently only visits this part 
of Cameroon at this time of year. 

In an interesting footnote Messrs. Sclater and Praed 
(Ibis, 1919, p. 659) point out that we may accept as the 
type of this species a bird in the British Museum collection, 
Brit. Mus. Reg. No. 55/12/19/63, obtained by James Barlow, 
Esq., from Siena Leone. From information on the label it 
appears to have been the bird originally descril)ed by Gould. 
I agree with Messrs. Sclater and Praed that Ave may accept 
this bird as the type of the species. 

Merops persicus chrysocercus. 

Merops chrysucercus Cabanis & Heine, Mus. Hein. ii. 
J 860, p. 139— Type locality : Senegal. 

The two specimens obtained by Mr. Bates at Akonolinga, 
Nyong River, do not belong to the typical race but to 
M. persicus chrtjsocercus. There is a specimen in the 
British Museum named by Dr. Ilartert M. p. chryso- 
cercus from Oued Nca, whicli almost exactly resembles 
Mr. Bates's bird (No. 5272) both in the colouring of the 
upper parts and in the length of the two middle tail- 
feathers. The back has not got the golden wash ascribed to 
this species. The second specimen obtained ])y Mr. Bates is 
immature. I cannot find that Mr. Bates Ir s obtained tliis 
Blue-cheeked Bee-eater previously in Cameroon. 

Melittophagns gularis australis. 

Merupiscus yularls australis Reichw. J.f. O. 1885, p. 222 — 
l^ype locality: Gaboon and Cameroon. 

Mtlittophagus austruiis Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 611; 1905, 
p. 465; 1907, p. 431 ; Bates, Ibis, 1908, p. 564. 

Melittophagus (jularis australis J^aics, Ibis, 1909, p. 24. 

Without counting the two birds from Bitye which 
Mr. Bates obtained in 1909 and 1910, there are seven other 
speciuiens in the British Museum i'roni Cameroon whicli 
Mr. Bates obtained at Efulen and on the Ja River. These 



1^21.] collected in Southern Cameroon. lOS 

all sliow the characters which Reichenow assigned to this 
race. In no single specimen is there any trace of the pale 
hlue eyebrow streak as in M. g. gularis, and in all but 
two the feathers of the breast are streaked intermittently 
with red. 

In addition to the specimens obtained by Mr. Bates 
in Cameroon, there are in the British Museum two birds 
from north Angola obtained by the late Dr. Ansorge and 
eight birds from the northern Belgian Congo (Uele River 
and Aruwimi River districts). There is no question but that 
these birds belong to the southern form M. g. australis. 

Besides the specimens enumerated we have five birds from 
Gaboon, and here we are faced with a difficulty. Reichenow 
( Vogel Afrikas, ii. p. 313) calls the Gaboon bird M.g. australis, 
and obviously this should be the case ; but of the five birds 
before me, three at any rate are inseparable from typical 
M. g. (fulariSy having the wide pale blue eyebrow streak 
and no indication of red on the feathers of the breast. On 
the other hand, two other specimens from Gaboon have the 
characters of 31. g. australis clearly shown. Had the speci- 
mens similar to the typical form been secured in Cameroon 
and not in Gaboon (two were collected by Du Chaillu and 
the other is from the Gould collection), it would have been 
easier to explain their presence than is the case now. 

Melittophagus variegatus variegatus. 

Merops variegatus Vieill. Nouv. Diet. d'Hist. Nat. vol. xiv. 
1817, J). 25 — Type locality: Malimbe, Loango. 

The five adult specimens of the Variegated Bee-eater are 
the first which Mr. Bates has sent home from Cameroon, 
and it is noteworthy that all were obtained by him in 
January 1913 on tiie Nyong River at a place called Akono- 
linga. Mr. Claude Grant figured a race of this Bee-eater 
from Rhodesia (Ibis, 1915, p. 297, pi. iv.), and in the text of 
his paper remarks tliat most specimens of M. v. variegatus 
from western Africa '" have no snperciliaiy stripe or only an 
incomplete one," noting, however, that he was unable to 
handle a sufficient number of well-collected sj)eciniens from 



lOi Mr. D. A. Bannerman on rare Birds [Ibis, 

the west. The tive beautiful sidus in Mr. Bates's preseut 
collectiou show the blue superciliar}' stripe very distinctly. 

With the material avaihible 1 do not feel inclined to accept 
Mearns's name for the East African race wiiich that ornitho- 
logist considered separable from the typical race. 

The range of M. v. variegatus seems to be as indicated by 
Mr. C. Grant in his paper quoted. 

Eurystomus gularis neglectus. 

Eurystonms gularis neglectus Neumann, Orn. Monatsber. 
xvi. 1908, p. .'iS — Type locality : Canhoca, Angola ; Bates, 
Ibis, 1911, p. 510. 

Eurystomus gularis Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 606. 

Having compared the series of E. gularis in the British 
Museum, I agree that the t\vo races must be recognised. 
In the series before me the distribution seems to be as 
follows : — 

E. gularis gularis. Sierra Leone, Gold Coast, and Northern 
Nigeria. 

E. g?daris neglectus. Southern Nigeria, Cameroon, Gaboon, 
Angola, Belgian Congo. 

E. g. neglectus are certainly more violet-coloured on tlie 
under surface than typical specimens, and most of the ten 
specimens examined have a distinct violet wash on the basal 
lialf of the two middle tail-feathers, although, as instanced 
by specimen No, 3262 and pointed out by Mr. Bates himself 
(Ibis, 1911, J). 606), this character is not always present. 

Agapornis Zenker i. 

Agupornis zenkeri Eeichw. Orn. Monatsber. 1895, p. 19 — 
Type locality : Yaunde, Cameroon ; Shai'pe, Ibis, 1904, 
p. 605 ; Bates, ibis, 1905, p. 89. 

The present collection contains three examples of this 
little Parrot [Nos. 4285, 4290, and 5496], which Mr. Bates 
tells us (Ibis, 1911, p. J97) were shot amongst otliers "with 
bows and arrows." Specimens of this Parrot liave been 
obtained by jNIr. Bates in Cameroon at Efulen and at Bitye, 
River Ja. Reiehenow (Yiigel Afiikas, ii. p. 19) gives only 



1921.] collected in Southern Cameroon. 105 

two localities i'roin which specimens were then known, 
Yaunde and Manjema. The first-named town is, of course, in 
Cameroon, while Manjema is in the Belgian Congo imme- 
diately west of the northern end of Lake Tanganyika. 
Recently this bird Mas obtained by Dr. Christy at Bosabangi 
in the Belgian Congo and at Poko on the Uele River. 
There are also two specimens in the British Museum from 
Bompona on the Congo River. It appears, therefore, that 
this little Parrot extends its range right across central 
Africa from Cameroon to the eastern boundary of the 
Belgian Congo. Judging from the few specimens which 
travellers and collectors have brought back, it must be either 
very rare or very locally distributed. 

Accipiter sharpei. 

Accipiter sharpei Reichw. Yog. Afr. i. 1901, p. 564 — '^^'yP® 
locality : [? Gaboon] ; Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 101. 

Accipiter batesi Sharpe, Bull.B.O.C. xiii. 1903, p. 50. 

The present collections contain two additional specimens 
of this beautiful little Hawk — a male [No. 4663] shot on the 
25th of December, 1911, and another male [No. 4926] shot 
on the 6th of August, 1912, at Bitye (2000 ft.). Unfor- 
tunately Mr. Bates failed to secure a female. 

I'he bird which Sharpe named A. batesi is said by 
Mr. W. L. Sclater to be tiie female of A. hartlauhi sharpei. 
Including this latter bird, which was procured at Efulen, 
Cameroon, there were hitherto only three specimens in the 
British Museum — a male from Gaboon and a male collected 
by Bates at Efulen in May 1903. 

I am doubtful whether sharpei and batesi will prove to be 
synonymous. Certainly the two birds were procured from 
localities not far separated from one another. Only further 
material can settle this point satisfactorily. 

Buteo augur alls. 

Buteo auguralis Salvad. Atti Soc. Ital. viii. 1865, p. 377 
■ — Type locality : Abyssinia. 

The female shot on the 2nd of March, 1915, at Bitye 



106 Mr. I). A. Bannerman on rare Birds [Ibis, 

seems to Ijc the first record of this species from (Jame- 
rooD. 

We have specimens iu the British Museum from the 
Egyptian Sudan and Abyssinia in the east, and from 
Sierra Leone, Gold (*oast, French Congo, and Portuguese 
Congo in the west. 

Spizaetus africanus. 

Limna'etus africanus Cassin, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1865, 
p. 4 — Type locality : Ogobai River, Gaboon. 

Tiie only specimen which Mr. Bates procured of this rare 
bird — a male shot on the 16th of December, 1913, at Bitye, 
R. Ja— was described by Mr. W. L. Sclater (Bull. B. O. C. 
xxxix. p. 87) as Spizaetus batesi, sp. nov. Mr. Sclater had 
then overlooked the fact that what must evidently be the 
same bird had l)een already described by Cassin : l)ut he 
discovered and corrected his mistake himself in the following 
number of the ' Bulletin' (vol. xxxix. pp. 93, 94'). 

Pteronetta hartlaubi. 

Querquednla Jiartluubi Cassin, Proc. Acad. Philad. 1859, 
p. 175 — Type locality: Camma and Ogobai (Gaboon). 

Pteronetta tiartlaubi Sliarpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 98, 1907, 
p. 425; Bates, Ibis, 1909, p. 6, 1911, p. 482. 

Pteronetta hartlaubi albifrofis Neumann, Bull. B. O. C. xxi. 
1908, p. 42. 

In 1908 Oscar Neumann gave a name to the form of 
Hartlaub's Duck from the Upper Congo, Ituri, and Uele 
Rivers, n;iming it P. h. albifrons. He separated it from 
typical examples of P. hartlaubi ((Jassin) on account of 
adults of both sexes having " a large white patch on the 
forehead, extending to the middle of the vertex,^' noting 
"in the West-African form the females never had any white 
on the head, but in the males there were sometimes a few 
white feathers on the forehead.'' 

In 'The Ibis,' 1911, p. 482, Mr. Bates makes the following 
interesting observation: — " ^lale specimens (Nos. 3661 and 
4143) from (Jameroon have a small white spot on the fore- 



K)!!,] collected in Southern Cameroon. 107 

head at tlie base of the bill, but have not nearly so much 
white as the birds which Neumann has called 1'. h. albifrons 
(Bull. 13.0.C. xxi. p. 42). All my female examples (Nos. 29, 
33, 4142, and 4459) have either no white or a very faint 
'ticking' of white on the forehead. This white spot is a 
sexual marking of the male, which is beginning to be 
acquired by fully adult or old females; it is more developed 
in birds from the Upper Congo region than in tln)se from 
the West Coast." 

Mr. Bates has now forwarded the birds mentioned, in the 
above note to England^ together with three male birds 
(Nos. 4592, 4664, and 554'5) which he oljtained since writing 
in ' The Ibis' for 1911. The series which are now before 
me clearly show that Neumann was in error in thinking 
the white patch of the forehead a subspecific character. 
Mr. Bates was clearly right Avheu he pointed this out, 
although it does not appear to be confined to the male bird 
alone. The three male birds above noted have an equally 
large (if not larger) white patch at the base of the bill as 
any birds from the northern Belgian (/Ongo, specimen's of 
which, named «Z6i/"rons, in Mr. Neumann's own handwriting, 
are in the British Museum. It is therefore clearly not more 
developed, as Mr. Bates suggested, in birds from the Congo 
than in West Coast examples. 

As to this patch being a sexual character of the male, an 
examination of Mr. Bates's birds from Cameroon would 
lead one to think that this was the case ; there are, however, 
adult females in the National Collection from the Congfo 
disti'ict showing as much white at the base of the bill as any 
males I have examined. 

The tine series now sent home by Mr. Bates includes two 
beautiful downy nestlings. 

The range of this species appears to be Sierra Leone 
[Kelsall), Liberia {Pye- Smith), N. Belgian Congo, Boma 
[Harrison), Uele River {B. Aleu:ander) , Tingasi [Emin Pasha), 
Ituri Forest (Camburn), Gaboon (Dm Chaillu), S. Cameroon 
{Bates). Reichenow, Vog. Afrikas, i. p. 123, includes other 
localities in the districts mentioned here. 



108 Mr. D. A. Bannerman on rare Birds [Ibis, 

Lampribis rara. 

Lampribis vara Hotlisch., Hart., & Kleiiisclini., Nov. Zool. 
iv. 1897, p. 377 — Type locality : Denkera, Gold Coast. 

Ill 'The Ibis/ 1914, pp. 622-636, I attempted to dis- 
entangle the confusion into Miiicli Lcmiprilns rara and 
Lampribis olivacea luul rallcn. 1 then showed that Ibis 
olivacea Dii Bus ought not to have been confused with 
L. rara ; and I then accepted the following as the range of 
these two very distinct species : — 

L. rara. Ashanti, Cameroon, Upper Congo. 

L. olivacea. Prince's Isl., St. Thomas Isl., Cameroon, and 
the coast of Guinea. 

Further material has induced me to considerably alter the 
views then expressed with regard to the range of these two 
birds, but all I wrote as regards the confusion of the two 
forms I now stand by. My jiaper was apparently overlooked 
by Dr. Clhapman when in Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. xxxi. 
1912, p. 235, he gives a description of a bird obtained by 
Du Chaillu on the Muni River, which is obviously a specimen 
of Lampribis rara, and calls it erroneously Lampribis olivacea, 
Elliot's wrongly named figure (P. Z. S. 1877, pi. li.) leading 
him into the same error which I tried to correct in 1914. 

Unfortunately, when 1 wrote about these Ibises in ' The 
Ibis' (I.e.), I myself overlooked a much more important 
paper, written by Reichenow (Orn. Monatsber. xi. 1903, 
pp. 132-136). 

In this paper Reichenow reviews the forms and recognises 
four (liflerent birds : — 

1. Lampribis rara, from the Gold Coast to Angola. 

2. Lampribis splendidus, from Liberia. 

3. Lampribis cupreipe/mis, from Cameroon. 

4. Lampribis olivaceas, from Prince's Island and 

St. Thomas. 

1. Lampribis kaka. 

Lampribis rara Rothsch., llart., and Kleinschm. 

[Nov. Zool. iv. p. 377. 'J'ype loe. : Denkera, Gold 
Coast. '^l\ype specimen in the British Museum, 
collected by Ussher 5/11/71.] 



1 92 1.] collected in Southern Cameroon. 109 

As tlie authors of this species named Usshei's ])ird 
from Deiikera, specimens from the (irohl Coast must 
bear the above name. The bird is figured in P. Z. S. 
1877, p. 477, pi. liv and tliere erroneously named Ibis 
olivacea. 

We have only specimens from the Gold Coast, Came- 
roon, and the Upper Congo in the British Museum ; 
wiiile Reichenow records it from Gaboon and Angola 
in addition. 

2. Lampribis splendidus. 

Lampribis splendidus Salvadori, Ibis, 1903, pp. 184-185 — 
Type locality : Liberia. 

I have not seen specimens of this Ibis, but a complete 
description of the bird is given by Salvadori [I.e. p. 185). 
From the description the Liberian bird seems to be more 
nearly allied to L. olivacea than to the spotted-breasted 
Ijampribis rara. AVe have no examples of this bird in 
the British Museum. It may be only a subspecies of 
Lampribis olivacea. 

[Lampribis cupreipennis. 

Theristicas cupreipennis ReichenoAV, Orn. IMonatsber. xi. 
1903, p. 134 — Type locality : Cameroon. 

In the 'Ornithologische Monatsberichte ' for 1903, Reiche- 
now gives a description of a bird which he obtained froui 
Cameroon, and which he named L. cupreipennis. The 
description agrees with a bird in the British Museum, which 
was obtained by Mr. G. L. Bates at Efulen, ( 'ameroon 
(No. 158), on the 19th of May, 1903, and which in 'The Ibis,' 
1914, p. G23, I referred to Lampribis olivacea, thinking it 
might be an immature exam[)le of that Ijird. At first sight, 
therefore, it would appear that we must call the Cameroon 
bird Lampribis cupreipennis of Reichenow, but before we 
accept this name for the uniform-breasted, bronze- winged, 
short-billed Ibis from Cameroon, let us examine the next 
species, L. olivacea, mentioned by Dr. Reichenow in his paper 
(/. c), of which species we shall find that L. cupreipennis is a 
synonym !] 



110 Mr. D. A. Banneriiian on rare Birds [Ibis, 

3. Lampribis olivacea. 

Ibis olivacea Dii Bus, Hull. Acad. Roy. Sci. Bclg. 1837, 
p. 105, pi. iv., et Esquisses Oniitliologiqiies, 1845, p. 5, 
pi. iii. — Type locality : " La cote de Gtiinea.^^ 

The Coast of Guinea ! Clearly this is tlie type locality of 
Lampribis olivacea and not Prince's Island, so that if it is 
proved that the Prince's Island bird and the bird from the 
mainland are different, the name Lampribis olivacea (Du Bus) 
must apply to the mainland bird, and the Prince's Island 
bird requires a new name. This I named in the ' Bulletin ' 
of the British Ornithologists' Chib, vol. xl. 1919, pp. 4-7, 
to which I must refer the reader ; and in this paper, as the 
Prince's Island bird was left without a name, I named it 
Lampribis rothsc/iildi, and made the type an adult male in 
the Genoa Museum, collected on the 26th of January, 1901, 
by Leonardo Fea at Infante d'Henrique, Principe. I have 
given a full description of this bird in the ' Bulletin ' 
(/. c. p. 7), and will not therefore repeat it here. 

Briefly, then, we have the following forms in this genus in 
West Africa : — 

Lampribis rara. Gold Coast (terra typica), C!ameroon, 

Gaboon, and Upper Congo. 
Lampribis olivacea. The Coast of Guinea (terra typica), 

S. Cameroon. 
Lampribis rothschildi. Prince's Island (terra typica), 

St. Thomas Island. 
Lampribis SPLENDIDUS. Liberia (terra typica). 

Nycticorax leuconotus. 

Ardea leuconotus Wagl. Syst. Av. 1827, p. 189 (sp. 33) — 
Type locality : Senegambia. 

Nycticorax leuconotus Bates, Ibis, 1911, p. 485. 

The immature male Heron (No. 4042) which Mr. Bates 
obtained at Bitye on the 29th of November, 1909, can be 
none other than N. leuconotus^ to which species he correctly 
assigned it in ' The Ibis' {supra). It is quite a young bird, 
but is not nearly so spotted on the wing-coverts as other 
young birds of A^. leuconotus in the British Museum. 



192 1.] collected in Southern Cameroon. Ill 

Phalaropus fulicarius. 

Tringa fulicaria Linn. Syst, Nat. lOtli ed. 1758, p. 148 
— Type locality : Hndson Bay. 

The interesting occurrence of the Grey Phalarope in 
Cameroon is worth recording here. Mr. Bates shot a male 
at Bitye on the 27th of March, 1912. The Grey Phalarope 
is said in the B. O. U. List of British Birds to be an 
accidental visitor to North-West Africa ; nothing is said of 
its ranging in Africa down the west coast. The present 
is the most southerly record of which I am aware. Mr. P. R. 
Lowe obtained it at sea near the Cape Verde Islands and 
Mr. C. Chubb has recorded it from Liberia. 

Canir alius oculeus batesi. 

Canir alius bate si Sliarpe, Bull. B. O. C. x. 1900, p. Ivi. — 
Type locality : Rio Benito^ French Congo ; Sharpe, Ibis, 
1904, p. 95. 

Sharpe separated as a distinct species the Rail, inhabiting 
the French Congo and Cameroon, from the allied Cani- 
raJlus oculeus of the Gold Coast. In any case C. batesi 
is but a subspecies of C. oculeus, and indeed is so close to 
that form that Reichenow unites all birds from Liberia to 
the Congo under one name. I do not think he is correct 
in doing so, as tlie Gold Coast birds, of which we have five 
specimens in the British JMuseum, are distinctly paler olive- 
green on the u])per parts, with less of a rufous tinge than is 
exhibited by most of the birds from Cameroon and the 
Rio Benito. 

The two birds just sent home by Mr. Bates are a male and 
female (Nos. 4671 and 4426). The female is much more 
rufous on the neck and nape than the male, which is more 
olive above and has the underparts paler reddish-chestnut 
than the female. 

Himantornis haematopus haematopus. 

Himantornis Juematopus Ilartl. J.f. O. 1855, p. 357 — Type 
locality : Dabocrom, Gold Coast; Sharpe, Ibis, 1904, p. 95, 
1907, p. 421; Bates, Ibis, 1911, p. 483. 



112 Mr. D. A. Baiiiieriuaii on rare Birds [Ibis, 

Three more examples of this bird have now been sent by 
]\lr. Bates to the Mnseuiii. It will interest him to know 
that we have recently acquired, through the kindness of the 
Belgian authorities, a further exam])le of the rare rufous- 
backed Himantornis iK^matojms tvhitesidei Sharpe, obtained 
by Dr. Christy at Poko on the Uele Kiver, Belgian Congo — 
the first since the type was discovered. 

Sarothnira elegans reichenovi. 

Sarothrura reichenovi Sharpe, Cat. Birds Brit. Mus. xxiii. 
1894, p. 121— Type locality : Cameroon ; Bates, Ibis, 1909, 

With a series of sixteen males and females from south- 
east Africa and from Cameroon before me, I have been able 
to form an opinion on the validity of S. reichenovi. 

I consider that it must be kept as a subspecies of S.elegans, 
the Natal form, and that Sharpe's original description of 
S. reichenovi is very misleading. 

The three male birds of S. e. reichenovi sent home by 
Mr. Bates, together witii the four specimens he had sent 
in former collections, has enabled me to satisfy myself that 
the above comparison is correct. 

Dr. K.eichenow did not recognise this form himself 
(Vogel Afrikas, i. p. 287), but I am sure that he will do 
so on further examination, provided that he has plenty of 
material, as also Mill Mr. Chapin. 

Sharpe maintained that it was "everywhere mucli darker 
in colour" than S. elegans, ''the rufous of the head and 
breast being deep chestnut instead of orange-rufous,, this 
chestnut colour extending over the whole throat to tlie base 
of the bill." I have now five adult males from Cameroon 
to compaie with the seven adult males from Natal, and in 
only one bird from Cameroon (No. 4620) is the chestnut 
of the throat and breast darker than in any of the Natal 
specimens. The females are practically indistinguishable. 
1 measured the wings, thinking there might be something 
in the size, but males from Cameroon measure 85-90 mm.; 
from Natal, 80-88 mm. 



1921.] cnllected in Sontl/ern Cameroon. 113 

A comparison of Sharpe's desciiptiou with actual s|)eci- 
mens is tliei'cfore very misleading-, and withont a series of 
both forms one would be inclined to say that »S'. relclienovi 
and S. elegans are synonymous. 

A closer examination, however, reveals the fact that these 
two Rails, as might certainly be expected from their distri- 
bution, are separable on characters which Sharpe oveilooked. 
Dr. van Soraeren pointed out the differences to me, and they 
are plainly visible: — 

The spots on the back o^ S. e.reichenovl ^ve\(i^% numerous 
and less sandy-coloured than in S. e.e/er/aits ; the bill is also 
shorter and iieavier. These characters serve to distinguish 
the two forms from one another. 

Besides the Cameroon and Natal s|)ecimcns, we have in 
the British Museuni a single female which closely resembles 
the female of this species h'on\ ]\Iubinde, Uganda, but which 
may prove to be se[)aiable when further material is available, 
or it may be the female of >S', e. lurinr/i. 

The present range appears to be very douljtful— Uganda 
and Cameroon. 

We have, therefore : — 

Sahothrura elegans elegans (Smith) — Type localitv : 

Port Natal. Banff e. Natal. 
Sahothrura elegans reicfiknovi Sharpe — Type localitv: 

Cameroon. Ranc/e. Cameroon and ? Uganda, 
Sarothjiura elegans buryi Ogilvie-Grant— Type locality : 

Dubar. Range. Wiigga Mountains, N. Somaiiland. 
Sakothrura elegans loringi Mearns * — J ype locality: 

Mt. Kenia. Range. ? Kenya Colony. 

We have only a single female (the type) of S. buryi ; but 
I feel certain that when the male is discovered, it will prove 
to l)e a subspecies of S. elegans., and I tlierefore include the 
Somaiiland bird as a subspecies of the Natal bird. 

* I have not seen the type or any specimens oi S. e. lorinyi Mearns 
[Smithson. Miscell. Cull. 00. No. l-"]. 191.j, p. 8], and iiiohule it here on 
the opinion of Mr. Chapin of tlie American ."Mnsenni o\ Xaliiral Ilistoiv. 
SER, XI. VOL. 111. ( 



114 Mr. D. A. Bannerman on rare Birds [Ibis, 

Sarothrura pulchra svibsp. 

Examination o£ the Rails formerly named Sarothrura 
pulchra (Gray) reveals the interesting fact that there are 
apparently three or fonr distinct races of this form, as 
has already been pointed ont l)y Nenmann. The type of 
Crex pulchra Gray [Griffith's Cuv. Anim. King. vol. viii. 
Aves, p. 410] is in the British Museum. It is an adult male, 
but the sex Avas not ascertained. The only locality on the 
label is " Africa.^' In the Catalogue of Birds, vol. xxiii. 
p. 117, "West Africa" is supplemented for the locality from 
which it was obtained. In the original description no type 
locality is mentioned. 

The next mention of this Rail is in Gray\s Zool. Miscell. 
1831, p. 13, where no locality is mentioned either. 

Gray therefore does not himself designate a type locality 
for this species. 

The first mention of a locality from which this Rail has 
been ol)tained is given, prior to Gray's work appearing, by 
Latham in his '^History of Birds,' vol. ix. 1824, p. 379, where, 
under the English heading, "Rufous-headed Rail," he gives 
the description of a feniale bird which he says inhabits 
Sierra Leone. This description can only apply to the female 
of Sarothrura pulchra, and we may therefore accept Sierra 
Leone as the first designated locality of this species. 

It is next noted by Swainson in his 'Birds of West 
Africa,' 1837, p. 243, but again no particular habitat is 
mentioned. 

There is only one other name for this Rail, i. e. Rallus 
cinnamonieus Lesson [Rev. Zool. 1840, p. 99], where 
the bird from Casamauce (Portuguese Guinea) is thus 
designated. 

I have not seen a single specimen from Sierra Leone, but 
there can be little doubt that it is the same as the Gold Coast 
bird which Ave know to be S. jmlchra of Gray {cf. Schlegel, 
Mus. Pays-Bas, lirUles, 1865, p. 26 — Gold Coast). I have 
also before me several specimens from Fantee and Bibiani, 
as well as birds from Portuguese Guinea and the Gambia, 



1 92 1.] collected in Sonthern Cameroon. 115 

and these all belong to the same race and must be known as 
Sdvothrura pulclira pnlclira. 

Hitherto this species has been said by Siiarpe (Cat. Bds.) 
and Reicheiiow (Viigel Afrikas, i. p. 286) to range from 
Senegatnbia to Gal)ooii and Angola, east to the Congo. 

Neumann (Bull. H. O. C. xxi. p. 45) describes two races 
of S. pulchra : — 

(A) S. p. centralis — Type loc. : Mswa, on the west shore 

of Lake Albert. Habitat. Lake Region of Central 
Africa. 

(B) S. /J. -enkeri — Type loc. : Bipinde, S. Cameroon. 

Habitat. South Cameroon. 

In both, the males are almost indistinguishable from 
S. p. pulchra, and the females are therefore best dealt with 
separately. 

In the first place, the female of S. p. pulchra has the 
ground-colour of the back black, closely barred with pale 
chestnut ; the bars of pale chestnut and the bars of black are 
almost the same width. This is an important point to bear 
in mind. The black bars on the tail are, moreover, either 
wanting or only faintly indicated. 

In the original description of /S. ^j. centralis the female is 
said to be similar to the female of S. p. pulchra, but the tail 
lias broad black bars, while in S. p. pulchra it is nniforra 
chestnut or with only an indication of thin black bars. 

Now, I have before me five females from the Jackson 
collection, collected at Mabiraand Bugoma, IFganda. These 
birds bear out the character of the broadly banded tail, but 
they can be distinguished from 6'. p. pulchra much more 
readily by the barring on the upper parts (which from 
Neumann's description one would imagine to be similar to 
the barring in S. p. pulchra). The pale chestnut bars are, 
however, much narrower than the black bars, which are at 
least three times as wide as the pale bars. Thus the back 
has a much blacker appearance than in typical specimens. 
Although Neumann has omitted to mention this strikina 



116 Mr. D. A. Bannerman 07i rare Birds [Ibis, 

character, these Uganda specimens can only be referred to 
S. p. centralis. 

In S. p. zenkeri the female is said by Neumann in the 
original description to have the head and neck darker than 
in S. p. pu/chra or S. p. centralis. Moreover, S. p. zenkeri 
is said by Neumann to be easily distinguished from both by 
having the upper side bhick, with but few brown bars, the 
intermediate black bars being from six to eight times broader 
than the brown bars. The black bars of the underside are 
also much broader tlian the brown ones; the tail is said to 
be black, with a few defined chestnut bars; the measurements 
are less than those of S. p. pulchra and S. p. centralis. . 

Now, the female type of S. p. zenkeri came from Bipinde, 
and the habitat is said to be " South Cameroon " ; so when 
we recently received specimens of S. pulchra from Mr. Bates^ 
collected at Bitye, R. Ja, S. Cameroon, I naturally expected 
these birds to be typical S. pulchra zenkeri. They do not, 
how^ever, agree with the description of the type (which is in 
Berlin) any more than Sir Frederick Jackson's birds from 
Uganda agree with Neumann's descri[)ti()n of S. p. centralis. 
In fact, the female birds which Mr. Bates obtained in 
southern Cameroon (Nos. 5443 and 5453) agree with female 
specimens fi'om northern Angola, Tingasi, and Ndoruma, 
and only differ from Uganda birds in having the chestnut 
colour of the head, neck, and breast brighter. 

We cannot possibly accept Neumann's name zenkeri for 
these bii'ds, as the intermediate black bars on the back are 
only al)()ut three times as broad as the ])ale burs {nut six 
times broader as they are said to be in zenkeri)-^ the black 
and chestnut bars of the tail are al)out equal in breadth, and 
the tail cannot, therefore, by any stretch of imagination be 
called "black with a few defined chestnut bars"; moreover, 
the head and neck is, if anything, brighter chestnut than in 
S. p. centralis, not darker, as I gather Neumann infers his 
S.p. zenkeri to be, although in the original description this 
is very badly expressed. 

We have the choice, therefore, of uniting birds from Lower 



1921.] collected in Southern Cameroon. Il7 

Guinea witli S. p. centralis, or of coiisiilcring it a di>tinct 
race distinguished 

from ;S'. p. pu/c/ira, by having the black bars on the back 
decidedly broader ; 

from S. [>. zeiikeri, by having a tail unifonidy banded in 
black and chestnut, and by having tlie black bars 
of the back only three limes as broad as the 
chestnut bars (instead of six times as broad )j 
and by having a brighter chestnut head ; and 

from S. p. centralis, by having the chestnut of the head 
brighter. 

If we consider the Cameroon, Angola, and western 
Belgian Congo birds as distinct from centralis., we shall have 
the following races of S. pulchra : — 

SaROTHKUKA rULCIIKA PUIXIIKA. 

[_Crc.v pulchra Gray, in (jriflith's Cuv. Anim. King, 
vol. viii. Aves, p. 410 — Type locality : Sierra Leone 
(Latiiam's Hist. Birds, ix. 1824, p. 379).] 
Ran(/e. The Gambia, Portuguese Guinea, Sierra Leone, 
Gold Coast. 



). 



S. PULCHRA subs} 

Raiiffc. N.W. Belgian Congo (Tingasi and Ndorunn 
Cameroon (11. Ja), N. Angola (N'Dalla TandoJ. 

S. PUI.CHRA ZENKEIU. 

[Sarothrura pulchra zenkeri Neumann, Bull. B. O. C. 
xxi. p. 45 — Type locality : Bipinde, S. Cameroon.] 
Range. Bipinde District, S. Cameroon. 

S. YULCnRA CENTRALIS. 

\_Sarotlirura pnlchru centralis Neumann, Bull. 15. O. C. 
xxi. p. 45 — Type locality : Msvva, on the west 
shore of Lake Albert.] 
Range. Lake liegion of Central Africa ; Uganda, and 
northern Kavirondo to Nandi. 



118 Mr. D. A. Baunermau on rare Birds [Ibis, 

Sarothi'ura bohmi bohmi. 

Sarothrnra hohni Reicliw. Vogel Afrikas^ i. 1900, p. 290 
— Type locality : Likulwe^ Congo. 

This distinct species was described by lleiclienow from 
Liknhve, just north of Katanga in the southern Belgian 
Congo. 

Unfortunately we have no typical ])irds in the British 
Museum ; in fact, the specimen now sent home by Mr. Bates, 
shot at Bityp, R. Ja, on the 29th of November, 1913, is the 
first of its kind which we have seen. The occurrence of this 
Bail so far from its typical locality at once suggested the 
possibility of its being a distinct form. 

Dr. van Someren recently obtained two specimens of this 
Bail — one from the Nairobi Rifle-range, the other from 
Kisuniu. These birds differ from the Cameroon specimen 
iu the highly streaked appearance of the wing-coverts caused 
by each feather having two pronounced submarginal white 
streaks, considerably wider than the streaks on the back. 
1 am inclined to think that the bird which Mr. Bates 
obtained at Bitye has not yet attained the fully adult 
plumage, as only three feathers of the greater wing-coverts 
are submarginally streaked with white. 

Mr. Chapiu now writes to me from America that he has 
specimens of S. bohmi from Faradje (Upper Uele) and from 
Medje. 

It is, of course, quite possible that this Rail extends its 
range across central Africa, and that the Cameroon birds 
are identical with the Nairobi specimens ; but should further 
specimens be received from Cameroon and from the typical 
locality, it will be worth while coniparing the specimens very 
carefully, as the possibility of a distinct West African race 
must not be overlooked. In any case, the occurrence of this 
Rail in Cameroon is oi considerable interest. 

Since writing the above, I have examined a female Rail 
obtained at Machakos, Brit. E. Africa, which 1 have named 
Surothrura somerciii. It is (piite unlike any other Rail 
which I have seen (a full description of this bird appeared in 
Bull. B. 0. C. vol. xl. 1920, ])p. 8 & 28), and Dr. van Somereu 



1921.] collected in Southeryi Cameroon. 119 

thinks it is probaljly the female of liis two male birds from 
Nairobi and Kisnmn, which he believes are distinct from 
S. bohmi. If this is the case, it must, of course, be known 
as Sarothnira bohmi somereni. 

While this paper was in the press I received yet another 
form of this Rail, caught at sea in lat. 10° 0' N., 
long. 15° 30' W. off the coast of French Guinea by 
Mr. W. P. Lowe. I have named this bird Saruthrura 
bohitii danei in the Bull. B. O. C. xli. p. 5, October 1920. 
It is very much blacker on the underparts than the typical 
form and is darker on the back, but other differences exist 
and are set forth in the original description. 

If Dr. van Someren is correct in thinking »S'. somereni 
a race of biJhmi, we shall have : — 

1. Sarothruka bohmi bohmi Rchw. 

Type loc. : Likulwe, Belgian Congo. 
Range. Belgian Congo, probably westwards to Came- 
roon. 

2. Sarothrura bohmi somereni Bannerman. 

Type loc. : Machakos. 
Range. Kenya Colony. 

3. Sarothrura bohmi danei Bannerman. 

Type loc. : At sea off French Guinea. 
Range. Unknown. 

Sarothrura rufa bonapartei. 

Corethrura bonapartei llartl. Syst. Orn. Westafr. 1857, 
p. 242 — Type locality : Gaboon. 

A. single example of this Rail appears in the collection 
which Mr. Bates has now sent to us. It is a male bird iu 
adult plumage. Whilst working at this group of Rails, I 
had the advantage of examining a series of birds which 
Dr. van Someren sent to me for my opinion as to their 
being one or two new subspecies represented. I arrived at 
very much the same concUisions as Dr. van Someren Iiad 
done working at Triiig, aiul as he has now descrii)ed two of 
these forms in the Bull. B. O. C. vol. xl. 1919, p. 20, I will 



120 On rare Birds collected in Southern Caineroa//. [Il)is^ 

publish tlic notes which I made on the various forms while 
working through his birds. 

We liad s[)eciniens from Cajje Cohmy, Natal, Angola, 
Cameroon, Galjoon, Sierra Leone, J>ritish East Africn, and 
Uganda ; in addition to which a race had i)een described 
from the eastern shores of Lake Tanganyika, oL" which we 
had no examples. 

AVe recognised Hve distinct forms as follows : — 

1. Sarothrura Rui'A RUFA (Vieill.j — ^'yv^ locality: 

" Africa.^' 
Range. Natal, Cape Colony, Transvaal. 

2. Sarothrura rufa lugens (Bolnn) — Type locality: 

Ugalla (East of Lake Tanganyika). 
Range. East of Lake Tanganyika. 

3. Sarothrura rufa elizabetHvI': van Someren— Type 

locality : Kisumu. 
Range. Uganda, from Entebbe east to Elgon and 
. Kisumu in Kenya Colony. 

4. Sarothrura kufa ansorgei van Someren — Type 

locality : Duque de Braganza. 
Range. Angola. 

5. Sarothrura rufa bonapartei (Hartl.) — Tyi;e locality : 

Gaboon. 
Range. Gaboon, Cameroon, extending north to Sierra 
Leone. 

We have no specimen of Sarothrura nntouii (INIadarasz & 
Neumann, Orn. Monatsber. 1911, j). 186 — Ndas^ckera and 
Borders of Kenya Colony and Tanganyika Territory). 
Mr. Chapin thinks it will [)rove to be synonymous with 
S. lugens. 

Haplopelia simplex plmnbescens. 

llaplupelia plinnbesrens Sliarjx-, Ibis, lUOl, p."!)5 — Type 
locality : Efulcn, S. Cameroon ; Hates, Ibis, UJl], p. 488. 

Mr. Hates has sent four more s{)ecimeiis of these 
interesting Pigeons — two males and two females. It is 
gratilying to find that these s})ecimens Ht in well with the 
key to the species which I prepared in my review of this 



1 92 1.] On the Genus Macrospheuus Cassin. 121 

genus (Ibis, 191(5, \)\). 1-16). JNlr. Bates has remarked on 
tJie back of one of his hibels that he believes thd species 
named H. plumbescens Sliar[)e is identical with H. simplex, 
but he will see in my p;iper cited that this is not the case. 
//. s. si)iij)lex is I'estrictcd to the island of St. Thomas in the 
Gulf of Guinea {cf. Ibis, 1915, p. 119). I should like to 
take this opportunity to correct an error which appeared in 
my review of this genus (/. c). On pp. IT and 14 I gave 
the same i-angc for tjoth Haplopelia simplex inornata and 
7/. s. plumbescens. It should be as t'oUows : — 

H. s. inuniuta. 

Range. Cameroon ^Mountain. 
II. s. plumbescens. 

Raiifje. Southern Cameroon (except Cameroon 
Mountain). l\i\er Ja district. 

Aplopcliu tcsmunni Rchw. described from Bebai, S.Came- 
roon, is synonymous with H. s. plumbescens. 



V. — On the Genus Macrospheuus Cassin, with special 
reference to the races of Macrospheuus flavicans. By 
David A. Bannerman, M.B.E., B.A., M.B.O.U. 

The type of the genus Macrosphenus is M. jiavicans of 
Cassin (Proc. Philad. Acad. 1859, p. 43), and this species 
was described from the Camnui River, Gaboon. 

Macrosphenus flavicans flavicans Cassin. 

From material in the British Museum I consider that this 
species, of which we have seventeen examples in the British 
Museum, extends from western Cameroon, through Gaboon 
to Landana at the mouth of the Congo, and 1 also unite 
with it Macrosphenus pocnsis of Alexander (Bull. B. O. C. 
xiii. 1903, p. 30) which inhabits Fernando Po, as I cannot see 
any distinction between this and the mainland bird. It is 
also evident, as suggested by Sharpe and confirmed l^y 
Ogilvie-Grant (Trans. Zool. Soc. xix. 1910, p. 378), that 
Macrosphenus zcnkerl lieichw. (Orn. Monatsber. 1898, p. 23), 



122 Mr. I). A. Banneriiian on the [Ibis, 

described from Jauiidc, Cameroon, and figured in Reiche- 
now^s Atlas, 1902, is founded on an iuimature example of 
M. flavicans. 

Besides M . jfuvicmis flavicans, there are at any rate three, 
and probably four, well-defined races in Africa, as follows : — 

M. flavicans hypochondriacum (llchw.). 

This name was [jroposed b}^ Keichenow (Orn. Monatsber. 
1893, p. 32) for a specimen obtained at Kiujawanga, imme- 
diately north of lluwenzori, and I accept it for the birds 
inhabiting the northern Belgian Congo eastwards (the Uele 
and Aruwimi Rivers districts aud the eastern Congo forest). 

Specimens from these localities are appreciably brighter 
coloured (more golden and less olive) on the under surface 
tlian ty[)ical examples from Cameroon and Gaboon, and 
liave in addition a slightly shorter bill. We have ten 
examples in the National Collection of this race. 

M. flavicans angolensis Bannermau. 

This race was described by me (Bull. B. O. C. vol. xli. 
1920, p. 6) from northern Angola — Type locality : N'Dalla 
Tando. 1 separated it from the typical species on account 
of its much shorter bill — varying in five specimens from 
14"5-15 mm. (exposed culmen). 

M. flavicans leoninus Neumann. 

This is another subspecies which has been described 
(Bull. B. O. C. xxiii. 1908, p. 46— Sierra Leone) from 
Avestern Africa, a single example having been obtained by 
Robin Kemp at Rotifunk. Opinions differ as to whether 
the bird in question is an adult specimen. Ogilvie-Grant 
believed that it was an immature of M. flavicans. I am 
doubtful whether the bird is immature — as it has a yellowish 
throat, whereas quite immature examples of M. /. flavicans 
sliow traces of the grey throat at an early stage. Jt has 
a remarkably long t)ill (18 mm. exposed culmen, 21 mm. 
measured from the ga[)e) for an immature bird, and the fact 
that no representative of M. flavicans is known to exist 
north of Cameroon is sufficient justification for the name to 
be kept up. 



1 92 1.] Genus Macrosphenus Cassin. 123 

M. flavicans ugandae van Someren. 

Tliis form was described from jNIabira (Bull. B. O, C. 
XXXV. p. 126)j and is said to inhabit tlie Uganda forests. 
It is darker than the typical form and is richer yellow on 
the underside. 

The only other species in the jjeuus besides M. jiavicans 
and its subspecies are : — 

Macrosphenus kretschmei-i Rchw. & Neumann (Orn. Mon. 
1S95, p. 75 — Kiboscho), of which I have never seen a 
specimen and wiiich is only known to occur in the Kili- 
manjaro region; likewise Macrosj>henus griseiceps Grote 
(Orn. Monatsber. 1911, p. 162 — Mikindani, late German 
E. Africa), compared by the author with M. kretschmeri, 
and M. alblgula Grote (Orn. Monatsber, 1919, p. 62 — 
Mlalo, Usambara, Tanganyika Territory), I have not seen 
specimens of either. 

Macrosphenus kempi (Sharpe) and Macrosphenus concolor 
(Hartl.), concerning which two forms the following remarks 
may be of interest : — 

In the first place I wish to transfer the bird hitherto 
known as Aniaarocichla kempi Sharpe from the genvis in 
which Sharpe placed it and put it in the genus, Macrosphenus^ 
as it is evident that it has nothing Avliatever to do with 
Aniaarocichla bocagei. * 

The bird figured as Amaurocichla kempi (Ibis, 1905, 
plate V. faciiig p. 231), named and placed in the genus 
Amaurocichla by Shstrpe (Bull. B. O, C. xv. p. 38, 1905), 
cannot in my opinion be assigned to that genus, although 
Sharpe was himself the author of the genus Amaurocichla. 
The generic characters. are given by Sharpe in P, Z. S, 1892^ 
p. 228, and are as follows : — " Similar to Crateroscelis, but 
distinguished by the shape of the wing^ the first primary 
being nearly as long as the second. Additional characters 
are :^The bill is as long as the head, aiul rictal bristles are 
absent, while the tail-feathers are somewhat acuminate.^' 
The type of the genus is Amaurocichla bocagei. 

Now, the bird which has hitherto been known as Amauro- 
cichla kempi ditl'ers markedly from Amaurocichla bocagei. 



124: Mr. 1). A. Biiuuerniau on the [I^i*? 

Ill the first [)lace the prineipal eharacter of tlie genus 
AniaurocicJda — ?". e., tlie first primary being- nearly as long as 
the second primary, Avliich is long — is not borne out by 
examination of the type of kcnqyi. In the type from Sierra 
Leone the first primary is actually 14- nun. shorter tlian 
the second primary, which is short. The bill is longer (not 
as long as) the head, and the general as[)ect of tlie bird is 
entirely dissimilar. I unhesitatingly transfer the bird figured 
as Amuurocichla kempi to the genus Macrosphenns, and 
anyone examining the three specimens of M. kempi now 
in the British Museum will, I feel sure, endorse my 
action. 

Compared with 3I(icrosphenus Jlavicans jiavicuns, the most 
obvious diflerences are in the length of the tail — very much 
longer in M. f. //avicans,^a.nd the totally different colour, 
olive-green in M. /lavlcaiis and subspecies, grey and rufous 
in M. kempi. 

Mr. Willonghby Lowe, who has recently obtained a speci- 
men of M. kempi near Lagos in southern Nigeria, tells me 
that in iiabits the bird resembles a Nuthatch, and that it has 
in life a strikingly elongated neck, out of all proportion to 
the size of the bird. Once seen alive it is a species which 
can never be forgotten. 

If future workers do not agree with me in temporarily 
placing this bird in the genus Macrosplieniis., an entirely 
new^ genus will have to be created for it — a course which 
I do not favour until we know more about this remarkable 
form and can compare its skeleton with a skeleton of 
M. Jlavicans. 

The other species which I include in this genus, thereby 
following a suggestion of Mr. Oscar Neumann (Bull. 15. O. (\ 
xxiii. J). 4<7), is Macrosphenns concolor (Hartl.) (Syst. 
Orn. Westafr. p. 63) — a s])ecics which has been usually 
included in the genus < 'amaroptera. It has, however, a 
hooked ui)])er mandible, thereby ditl'ering from all the true 
members of the genus Cainaroptera, and in general appear- 
ance seems to resemble a Macrosphe/tus. It however posse>>>ses 



1 92 1.] Genus ^Nlacrosplieims Cdssin. 125 

rictal bristles, thereby differing from the other members of 
the genus Macrosphenus. 

To recapitulate, we have : — 

Macrosphenus flavicans flavicans Cassin. 

Type loc. : Camma River. 

Range: Cameroon to the mouth of the Congo. 

Synonyms: 71/. ^;oera.s«5 Alexander. (Fernando Po.) 
M. zenkeri Rchw. (Yaunde, Cameroon.) 
Macrosphenus flavicans angolensis Bannerman. 

Type loc. : N'Dala Tando, N. Angola. 

Range: N.Angola. 
Macrosphenus flavicans hypochondriacum Rchw. 

Type loc. : Kinjawanga, near ]\It. Ruweuzori. 

Range : N. Belgian Cona-o, Uganda. 
Macrosphenus flavicans leoninus Neumann. 

Type loc. : Rotifunk, Sierra Leone. 

Range : Sierra Leone. 
Macrosphenus concolor (Marti.). 

Type loc. : '' Guinea." 

Range: Sierra Leone. Gold Coast^ Cameroon, Fernando 
Po, N. Belgian Congo, Uganda. 
*Macrosphenus kretsch.meri (Rclnv.). 

Ty[)e loc. : Kiboscho. 

Range : Kilimanjaro liegion, Kenya Colony. 
Macrosphenus griseiceps Grcjte. 

Type loc. : Mikincbuii (late German E. Africa). 

Range : Tanganyika Territory. 

Macrosphenus kempi (Sharpe). 

Type loc. : Sierra Leone, 

Range : Sierra Leone and Southern Nigeria. 
Macrosphenus albigula (jlrote. 

Type loc. : JNllalo near Willielnistal. 

Range: U.sambara, S.K. shores of Victoria Nyanza, 
'I'anganyika Territory. 

* Now placed in tliis jivniis on tlie uutlujrity of Ifeic-lienuw, vide 
Viio-el Afrikas, iii. p. CM. 



126 Col. R. ^Meineitzhitocn o/< the [Ibis, 

VI. — A Note on. the Breeding/ Birds of Crete. 
By Col. \l. Meixertzhagen, B.S.O., M.l^.'o.U.. B^Z.S. 

I ARitiVED in (h-ete on the -ttli of June, 1920, ami left the 
island in early July, liaving had my visit cut short for official 
reasons. H. L. Powell accompanied me as taxidermist. 

Landing at (^uidia I collected for three days in the neigh- 
bourhood and then went direct to Monnt Ida, the central 
hill-mass of Crete. Here I remained for about a fortnight. 
No collecting was done outside the Candia district. 

The area comprising this district falls easily into three 
areas : — 

(a) Below 2500 feet. Human habitations and cultivation, 

mostly olives, vines, orchards, and corn. 
(/>) Between 3000 and 4500 feet. Ilex forest on mountain 

slopes. 
{(•) Above 4500 feet. The bare wind-swept hills of Ida 
and Nidha with the remarkable Nidha Plain. The 
summit of Ida is 8200 feet elevation, and snow was 
still lying about in drifts of many acres in extent 
above ()500 feet. 

Travelling in Crete in summer is easv. The weather is 
perfect and one can sleep anywhere, though the nights 
on Ida were bitterly cold. I always bedded down in some 
o-arden, havino- taken no tent with mo. On Mount Ida one 
has difficulty in avoiding an incessant wind, as shelter is 
rare, but we usually managed to get in a hollow. Staple 
foods can be obtained everywhere and good water abounds. 
Mule transport is the rule, a beast carrying about 400-450 
pounds the whole day without fatigue. There is but one 
great drawback — expense. A naturalist, living simply, 
witiiout tent or luxury, must be prepared to spend £100 
per month, excluding his ticket to the island. Mules cannot 
be hired for less than £1 a day each. A guide-interpreter 
costs from £12 to £15 per month. My expenses were par- 
ticularly heavy, as I was compelled to retain in my service 
the numerous policemen and consular messengers who were 
S(>archinir for me for three weeks. 



1 92 1,] Breeding Birds of Crete. 1.27 

The Cretans are charming and ver}- helpful, more especially 
the sheplierds o£ Mount Ida, whose evil reputation I em- 
phaticallv deny. They are robbers by nature and are a law 
unto themselves, but it one appreciates that spirit of freedom 
and contem|)t tor th(» soft civilization of plenty, they rank as 
nature's foremost gentlemen. The chieftain of Ida, one 
George Nikolokakis, though doubtless a thorn in the side of 
the (*retan ])olice and the officials, was kindness itself to me, 
and I look back to his rough kind face and his imperious 
manners, with a desire to accept his kind invitation to stop 
with him for a com|»lete summer. 

Though I speak not a word of modern Greek, my derelict 
knowledge of ancient Greek was most useful. It was 
pleasant to hear the Cliukar called '' Caccaba," the Vultures 
" Gyps," the Ravens " Mavro Corax," the Larks " C^ory- 
dallos," the Nightingale " ^don," the Swallow " T^helidon," 
and the Eagle " mio^r 

Finally, I must again thank Dr. Hartert for the nngrudgino- 
help he always gives me at Tring, and Lord Rothschild for 
allowing me to make every use of his collection. 

Specimens were obtained of every species mentioned, 
unless it is stated to the contrary. Wing-measurements 
taken flat, culmen-measurements from the junction of upper 
mandible and skull. 

Corvus corax corax (L.). 

Two yoni]g males oljtained, both moulting into adult 
plumage. They belong to the typical race, there being no 
trace of the oily blue on the wing-coverts or brown on the 
upper parts as in C. c. laurenrei. 

It seems doubtful whether the Ravens of eastern Greece 
are C. r. Jaurencei, as stated by Reiser (Orn. Balcan. iii.). 
Gengler (J. f. 0. April 1919) thinks they are some un- 
described race, but the few I have seen mvself in Greece 
are the typical race as in Crete [cf. also Stresemann, Avif. 
Macedon. p. 1). 

The Raven is to be seen at all elevations in Crete, breeding 
in the hills apparently in ]\Iarch, 



128 Col. R. iMeiuertzliageii on the [Ibis, 

Coi'vus cornix minos IMeiiiertz. 

Corms c. minos Meinertzhagen, Bull. B. 0. (J. xli. 1920, 
p. 10 : Candia. 

This new race is pale and very similar to (\ c pallesfens 
from Cyprus, but has a longer wing and a deejier and longer 
cubnen. 

It is a common bird, ascentiing to the Nidha Plain at 
5000 feet. It breeds in olive and oak trees, the young- 
being well on the wing by the end of June. 

Garrulus glandarius cretorum Afeinertz, 

(lai')'tilus (/. cretoi'iim Meinertzliagen, Bull, R. 0. C. 
xli. 1920, p. 19 : Mount Ida. 

Very near (i. ff. icJinutur from Sardinia, but with a slightly 
redder neck and greyer back. Similar in size. 

Not seen below 4000 feel, and appai'ently confined to the 
Ilex forest. Both fidl-grown and half-grown y(Hing seen in 
the middle of June. 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax (Ij.). 

The Chough was Jibundant on Mount Ida l^etween 5000 
and 7000 feet. About 100 pair were nesting in the Kamares 
Cave in June, the young being wtdl on the wing and a few 
still in the nest in mid-June. 

The young iiave a peculiar call, not unlike that of M('r(>/>s 
apiaxter. Several smaller colonies were found in other 
smaller caves. 

l)oubtless the "•Yellow-billed Chougln '" reported bv 
Miss Bate (Trevor-Battye : 'Camping in Crete ' J were the 
young of this species. 

Chloris chloris subsp. ? 

A single adult nuiie obtained in worn plumage. In size 
it is nearest to C. e. cldorotica, but in general coloration is 
nearest ('. e. maderaszi from Cyprus. It is certainly not 
C. c. muhlei, which is a darker and larger bird than my 
(/retan specimen. 

Common from sea-level to 4500 teet, both in cultivation 
and in the Ilex forest. Fnll-grown vouiig seen on 7 June, 



1 92 1.] Breedinf/ Birds of Crete. 129 

Carduelis carduelis harmsi Reichw. 

Four adults in worn breedino- plumage agree well with 
l>irds in similar plumage from Palestine. After a further 
examination of birds from the Caucasus, Asia Minor, Palestine, 
and (/jprus, I am confident that only one race of the Gold- 
finch occurs as a breeding species in these localities. The 
difference in the intensity of the colour on the back among 
freshly-moulted birds and worn birds is very renuirkable, and 
accounts for the many races which have been described from 
the range of C. c. harmsi. 

Acanthis cannabina mediterranea Tschusi. 

I cannot agree with Stresemann (Avif. Macedon.) that 
A. c. mediterranea becomes a synonym of A. c. hella. 
The latter race was described from Syria, and all Syrian 
birds which I have examined are most certainly A. c.frin- 
(jillirostris. Stresemann appeal's only to have examined 
birds from Asia Minor, and these are quite likely A. c. 
mediteri-anea. It does not follow that Syrian and Asia 
Minor birds are similar. A. c. hella must therefore remain 
a synonym of A. e. fringillirosiris. 

A common breeding bird, but not seen below 2000 feet. 
Full-grown young were seen in early June. When I first 
saw these birds on Mount Ida, far away from bushes and 
among rocks and dwarf alpine plants, I thought they were 
Twites, more especially as I believe Drummond reported 
Twites from the island. I shot several of tliese Mount Ida 
Linnets, and I do not think the Twite exists in Crete. / 

Fringilla ccelebs subsp.? 

Four males in worn breeding plumage appear to be less 
brown on the upper back than birds from the continent, and 
they are on the small side, the wings varying from 84 to 
88 mm. 

The (chaffinch is a common breeding bird from sea-level 
to the top of the Ih^x forest at 5000 feet. Young were just 
out of the nest by the middle of June. 

Cretan name " spinos.'' 

SER. XI. VOL. III. K 



130 Col. R. Meinertzliagen on the [Ibis, 

Passer italiae (Vieill.). 

Cretan s|)eciinens are indistinguisliable from birds from 
Italy. (Common about all human habitations up to 2000 feet, 
and always nesting in buildings. Young were not out of 
the nest by the middle of June, when all hen birds were 
still being fed by the cocks. 

Emljeriza calandra calandra L. 

Two birds obtained do not differ from typical examples. 

Not uncommon in suitable country from sea-level to 
2000 feet. A nest with four incubated eggs was found on 
13 June. 

Ember iza hortiilana L. 

Quite common and breeding between 2000 and 4000 feet, 
and a few at sea-level near Candia. Adults were feeding 
young in the nest in early June. 

Calandrella brachydactyla brachydactyla (Leisler). 

Five adults are typical, wings varying from 88 to 98 mm. 
Found breeding commonly at two places, on the Nidha Plain 
at 5000 feet and near Varavara on the southern slopes of 
Mount Ida at 2000 feet. 

Galerida cristata meridionalis Brehm. 

Six birds were obtained in very worn plumage, but I have 
been fortunate in being able to compare a winter bird in the 
Tring (Collection with specimens from Greece and Albania. 

A common breeding bird up to 2500 feet. First young 
seen out of the nest on 29 June. 

Lullula arborea subsp. ? 

Five birds in worn breeding plumage seem nearest to 
L. a.Jfavescens from the Balkans, but until autumn or winter 
birds are obtained I refrain from defining their race. 

Fairly common above 1500 feet and reaching up to 
GOOO feet. Five incubated eggs were found on 18 June, and 
several broods seen on the wing at ihe end of the same 
month. 



I92I-] Breeding Birds oj Crete. 131 

Anthus campestris campestris (L.). 

Four obtained are identical with others from sonthern 
Europe. 

Common in suitable country between 2000 and -4000 feet, 
and a few were breeding at GOOO feet on Mount Ida. 

Certhia brachydactyla subsp. ? 

Tree-Creepers were found at 4500 feet at the top of the 
Ilex forest on the soutliern slopes of Mount Ida, and three 
adults and three young were obtained. The former are in 
such worn plumage that it is inipossible to say to which race 
they belong. 

Parus major peloponnesus Parrot. 

Five adults in worn plumage appear to agree with birds 
from Greece. 

Common from sea-level to the limit of the Ilex forest, say 
4500 feet. Full-grown young were seen about by early June. 

Parus caeruleus ogliastrae Hartert. 

An adult female and a young bird obtained. But I have 
examined Witherby's adult male collected by Lynes at Suda 
Bay, and I agree with AVitherby (Ibis, 1912, p. 145) that the 
Cretan form belongs to this race. They are certainly not 
the typical race as stated by Jourdain (' Eggs of European 
Birds '). The wing of my female measures 61 mm. 

Not uncommon in wooded country from sea-level to 
5000 feet. Young were well on the wing by early Jun^. 

Parus sp. ? 

On two occasions on Mount Ida at 5000 feet in Ilex forest 
I heard and saw a brown Tit which I failed to secure. It was 
not the Marsh or Coal Tit. 

Lanius senator niloticus (Bp.). 

Two breeding males have less white at the base of the 
central tail-feathers than Palestine breeding birds, and in 
this respect approach the typical race. Perhaps the formula 
Lanius s. niloticus > senator would be a convenient way of 
expressing this, as is done by Stresemann (Avif. Macedon.). 

k2 



132 Col. R. Meinertzhagen on the [Ibis, 

Birds from Crete certainly do not belono- to the typical 
form as stated by Jourdain (' Eggs of European Birds '). 

A scarce breeding })ird, occurring from sea-level to 
4000 feet. A nest with five incubated eggs was found 
at Gnossos on 13 June. 

Muscicapa striata striata (Pall.). 

Two males obtained are identical with birds from C'Onti- 
nental Europe. 

The Spotted Flycatcher is a common breeding bird from 
sea-level to 4500 feet. A nest with five incubated eggs 
was found at 2000 feet on 11 June. 

Locustella luscinioides luscinioides (Savi). 

A male and fully-fledged young bird were obtained near 
Candia in early June. They agree with birds from southern 
Europe, but the male is small, having a wing of barely 
60 mm., and a culmen of only 15 mm. 

Not otherwise seen. 

Hippolais sp. ? 

Probably //. /xillida. Seen and heard on several occa- 
sions below 2000 feet. Not obtained. 

Sylvia communis communis Lath. 

Two males in worn breeding plumage were obtained. 
They ap[)roach nearest to the western race, though they are 
rather grey on the upper parts. 

A fairly common breeding bird up to 2000 feet. 

Sylvia melanocephala melanocephala (Gm.). 

The breeding Cretan bird undoubtedly belongs to the 
ty[)ical race, though they are on the small side, wings of 
males varying from 57 to 59 mm., but the coloration is that 
of the typical race. Birds from the hills appear darker 
below than those from the plains. 

The Sardinian Warbler is a scarce breeding species below 
2000 feet. On Nidha Plain they were especially common at 
5000 feet, where young were on the wing by the third week 
in June. 



1 92 1.] Breeding Birds of Crete. 133 

Tardus merula subsp. ? 

Only one bird, an adult male, obtained. Wing 11,'? and 
culmen 25 mm. This is smaller than any other adult male 
I have examined from Europe, and from what I saw of 
the Blackbird in Crete, they all seemed uncommonly small. 
It seems likely that this is a new insular race, but a larger 
series are necessary before it can be named. A pair of live 
birds were brought to Egypt, where they are doing well in 
the Giza Zoological Gardens. 

The Blackbird occurs throughout the country, but is very 
shy and difficult to obtain. Trevor-Battye (' Camping in 
Crete ') thought the hill bird smaller than the plain bird, but 
I did not notice this difference. 

Cretan name " kotsifos," 

Monticola solitarius solitarius (L.). 
A female obtained belongs to the western race. 
Occurs as a breeding species in all suitable country from 
sea-level up to 6000 feet. 

Cretan name " petro kotsifos." 

(Enanthe cenanthe virago Meinertz. 

(Enanthe ce. virago Meinertzhagen, Bull. B. 0. C. xli. 
1920, p. 20 : Mount Ida. 

Adult male with a more silvery mantle and larger culmen 
than in the typical race. Adult female closely resembling 
the male and not brown. Juvenile plumage tinged with 
grey, whereas there is no grey in the young of the other 
races. 

A common breeding bird on Mount Ida above about 
4000 feet and ascending to the summit of Ida at 8200 feet. 

Fully-fledged young are about by the end of June. 

These birds appeared to be equally at home in the Ilex 
forest, on the wind-swept slopes of Ida or among the snow 
drifts, perching with equal ease on tree or rock. 

Mr. Witherby kindly lent me five birds from Suda Bay 
obtained by Capt. Lynes in March and early April. The four 
males have wings varying from 93 to 98 and culmens from 
17"5 to 19 mm. One has a broad white forehead, two have 



134- Col. R. Meinertzliagen on the [Ibis, 

moderate white foreheads, and the fourth has a narrow wliite 
forehead. The female is typicnl of (J^nanthe «?. (cnanthe, and 
has a wing of 90 and culmen of 17 mm. These birds, un- 
doubtedly on s|)rino; passage, all belong to the typical race. 

(Enanthe hispanica melanoleuca (Griild.). 

Sa.i'icola h. xantliomehrna (H. & E.) ; Hartert, Vog. pal. 
Fauna, p. 6<S7. 

Two breeding males obtained belong to this eastern race. 
Black-throated and white-throated birds appear to be in 
equal numbers. 

Fairly common below 3000 feet. Not seen above that 
altitude, though Trevor-Bat tye states they occur up to 
6000 feet in the White Mountains in western ('rete. 

Saxicola torquata rubicola (L.). 

Two males and a female do not vary from typical specimens 
except that their culmens are on the large side, measuring 
14 and 15 mm. The back of the two males is of a par- 
ticularly intense black, but this also occurs among otliers 
from southern Europe. 

The kStonechat occurred as a breeding bird at all elevations, 
being commoner at higher elevations than in the plains. 

Luscinia megarhynchos megarhynchos Brehm. 

The western race of tlie Nightingale breeds in Crete up 
to 2000 feet wherever suitable conditions prevail. They 
were beginning to go off song about the third week in June. 
Two adults were obtained. 

Troglodytes troglodytes subsp. ? 

Four adults and two young birds obtained. The culmen 
is large, varying from 13'5 to 15 mm. In typical Trog- 
lodytes t. tro(jlodijtes the culmen does not exceed 13'75 mm. 
The ctilmen is nearer that of 1\ t. cy]>riotes or kahi/loram. 
The plumage of the adults is so worn that I have been 
unable to say definitely whether they are a new form or not. 
They appear to be greyer and more streaked on the back 
than other closely-allied forms, but this might be due to 
abrasion and bleachino-. 



192 1.] Breeding Birds of Crete. 135 

The Wren was common on IMount Ida at over 4500 feet. 
Full-grown young with their parents were about in parties 
by the middle of June. 

Accentor collaris subalpinus (Brehm). 

A single bird shot is referable to this Balkan race. I only 
saw them at Nidha Cave at 5500 feet. Trevor Battye 
(' Camping in Crete') found them common on Mount Ida at 
7500 feet in June. 

Stresemann (Avif. Macedon.) unites this race with the 
typical form. In this I cannot agree; my bird resembles 
others in the Tring Museum from the Balkans, and accords 
well with Hartert's description (Vug. pal. Fauna, p. 763). 

Hirundo rustica rustica (L.). 

A single breeding male obtained on 8 June. The specimen 
is white below, slightly tinged and blotched with chestnut. 
If the race //. r. hoissonneauti Temm. is recognised it may 
belong to it, bnt I have not had any Balkan specimen with 
which to compare my examples. 

The Swallow is a plentiful breeding bird wherever there 
are human habitations. Three nests found at Gnossos on 
8 June had fresh eggs, hard-set eggs, and half-fledged young. 

Riparia rupestris (iScop.). 

Common at all elevations where caves or rough craggy 
country occurs. 

Apus apus apus (L.). 

Three breeding birds obtained agree with others from 
western Europe, and are not .1. a, marwitzi or A. a. 
pekinensis. 

Swifts were breeding abun(iantly at (Jandia and on all the 
small coastal islands off Candia. A few were seen in com- 
pany with Ajyus melba on the summit of Mount Ida on 
23 June, but I doubt whether they were up there for any 
other purpose but food. 

Apus melba melba (L.). 

A common breeding species in the hills and on Dia Island 
off Candia. Three obtained are typical. 



136 Col. R. Meinertzhagen on the [Ibis, 

Caprimulgus europaeus meridionalis Hartert. 

A male obtained at 2000 feet on 13 June was tlie only 
one seen. Trevor-Battye ('Camping in Crete') saw them 
frequently in summer. 

Cretan name " arno vysastra," a literal translation of 
Goat-sucker. 

Otus scops powelli Meinertz. 

Otus scops pou-eUi Meinertzhagen, Bull. B. 0. C. xli. 1920, 
p. 21 : Candia District. 

This new race, intermediate between the typical form and 
0. s. cyprius, was common from coast-level to 2000 feet, and 
a few were heard in the Ilex forest at 4000 feet. Two 
clutches of eggs were taken from holes in buildings on 
13 and 15 June, the former consisting of four incubated 
eggs, and the latter of two fresh and one incubated egg. 

Birds were frequently heard calling by daylight, and it 
was not ditiicult at dusk to call them to quite close quarters. 

Falco peregrinus subsp. ? 

A small Peregrine was twice seen in the hills, ])ut none 
were obtained. 

Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus L. 

I obtained two breedino' males, with wnnos measuring 223 
and 245 mm. respectively. One of these birds is much 
redder Ijelow than most European birds^ whilst the other is 
normal. I have recently examined a series of 157 Kestrels, 
and I find that in the southern part of their breeding" range 
birds tend to become more red below than those breeding 
in central and northern Europe and Asia, though, of course, 
such red birds occur fre(piently in both the British Islands 
and throughout Europe. I am going full}'^ into this question 
at a near date, Init all that concerns us for the moment is 
that the Cretan breeding bird can only be referred to the 
typical form. 

Kestrels were seen everywhere in small numbers. Two 
nests, both with half-grown young, were- found in buildings. 
In lioth cases the cock bird was feeding the chicks, visiting 



1 92 1.] Bi-eeding Birds of Ci'ete. 137 

tlie nest only about three times a day. I never saw the hen 
bird at the nest in either case. 

Falco eleonorae Gene. 

One obtained. There are hirge colonies of these Falcons 
on Dia and Paximadi IsLands north of C^andia, and I sin- 
cerely trust no ravening oologist will abuse this information. 
Occasional birds were also seen in olive gardens near the 
coast, and flying high over (Jrete at dusk. 

Aqiiila chi't/sat'tos^ a Buteo, Gi/ps fulvus, and (jrijpa'eLos 
harhatus were frequently seen but not obtained. Ardea 
rinerea was often seen on the coast near Candia, and had 
apparently bred on a small island^ where an empty nest and 
full-grown young were seen. 

Botanrns stellaris was twice seen near C'andia in June, 
and may have been breeding. 

Fhalarocorax carbo breeds in colonies on the small rocky 
islands near Candia, where many empty nests were found in 
late June, and about 30 young seen. 

Adults and full-grown young of Anas platyrliynclios were 
seen on the Halmyros stream near Candia on 2 July. 

No examples of the above species were obtained. 

Columba livia palaBstinae Zedl. 

The Cretan Rock-Pigeon is referable to this race, being 
much paler than Cohtmha I. liv/a on the upper parts and 
slightly smaller. Two birds obtained have white lower backs, 
and compare well with a large series from Palestine, Syria, 
and, curiously enough, Solium in western Egypt. It would 
therefore appear that C. I. pahestime occurs not only in 
Palestine, Sinai, and Arabia, but in the eastern Mediter- 
ranean, with the exception of the Egyptian Delta, where the 
smaller C. I. schimperi occurs. 

The wings of my two Cretan birds measure 216 and 220 
mm., both males. 

Rock-Pigeons were breeding commonly on all the islands 
near Candia, on the coast, and in the hill caves of Mount 
Ida. Let he who fancies himself at shooting try his hand 



138 On the Br eediny Birds of Crete. [Ibis, 

at a Rock-Pigeon coming out of Kamares (.*ave ; if he 
recovers one bird for every three cartridges he will do well. 
Most of the young birds were on the wing by the middle 
of June. 

Columba palurabus palumbus L. 

A pair of breeding birds obtained agree in colour with 
continental birds, but are small, the wing of a male 
measuring 246 mm., and that of a female 236 mm. 

Wood-Pigeons were common in the Ilex forest between 
3000 and 4500 feet, coming down to 3000 feet to feed. No 
young were seen on the wing by the middle of June. 

Alectoris grseca Cypriotes Hartert. 

Tbree males and two females were obtained, all adult birds. 
Wing of males 155, 160, and 163, and of the females 148 
and 151 mm. ( 'yprus birds vary from 162 to 169 in males, 
and from 153 to 157 in females, so the Cyprus birds are 
somewhat larger. Such a slight difference in a large bird 
cannot count for much, and as they agree absolutely in colour 
with breeding birds from Cyprus, I unite them with the 
Cyprus race. 

The Chukar is thinly distributed below 3000 feet, above 
which they are abundant. Young birds from newly-hatched 
young to birds slightly larger than quail were seen in the 
last week in June. 

Coturnix coturnix (L.). 

A pair were flushed out of some vines at 2000 feet on 
30 June. None were obtained. 

Fulica atra atra L. 

A single adult male was obtained at Halmyros, near Candia, 
on 2 July. The bird had not bred during the year. All its 
pinions were in very shoi't cjuill. 

Burhinus cedicnemus saharae (Reich w.). 

Only one was seen — a male, shot near Candia on D June. 
W^ing 239 mm. Its pale sandy colour agrees absolutely 
with birds in similar plumage from the Sahara and 
Palestine. 



1921.] On the Kconomic Status of the Kingfisher. 139 

Tringa ochropus L. 

A Hock of five birds were seen on 2 July near (Jandin, out 
oE which a pair were shot. They were in complete l)reeding 
plumage, were very fat, and showed no signs o£ having bred. 

Larus argentatus cachiiuuDis was common off the coast 
near Candia, and had bred in a large colony on Paximadi 
Island ; a young bird was found in the nest, but all the rest 
were on the wing. 

Fufimis piijfinus yeJkouan and Procellaria jielagica were 
common at sea off eastern Crete throughout June, but I 
could not locate any breeding quarters. 



VII. — On the Economic Status of the Kingfisher, Alcedo 
ispida Linn. By Walter E. Collinge^ D.Sc, F.L.S., 
M.B.O.U. 

(Text-figure 2.) 

I. Introduction. 

The brilliant external colouring of the Kingfislier [Alcedo 
ispida Linn.) makes it one of the most beautiful birds we have 
in this country, in consequence of which Yarrell (10) states, 
it is " so much sought after by tlie idle and thoughtless that 
its numbers, probably iiever very great in any part of the 
country, have of late years very sensibly decreased .... 
but the most constant persecution the species undergoes 
arises rather from the deliglit .... so many people take in 
possessing its stuffed skin ; . . . . and to this end more 
Kingfishers are probably shot or netted for English bird- 
stuft'ers than any other species.'^ Although this statement 
Avas made nearly fifty years ago, it is equally true to-day. 
So recently as 1891 Mr. A. H. Cocks (2) reported that a 
local bird-stuffer had nearly a hundred Kingfishers sent to 
him to set up that year. 

Further, as a frequenter of streams, brooks, and rivers, 
this bird has generally been regarded as injurious to fish- 
culture, and consequently has been ruthlessly shot. 



140 



Dr. W. E. Collinge on the 



[Ibis, 



Some little time ago the writer was appealed to for some 
definite information as to the precise nature of the food of 
the Kingfisher. Unfortunately, as in the case of so many- 
other British birds, no such information was available; the 
present investigation was therefore undertaken. 

The results here set forth are based upon the examination 
of 120 nest-contents, obtained from sixteen counties ; 
53 pellets ; and the stomach-contents of 27 birds obtained 
from eight counties during all the months of the year 
excepting May, June, and December. Numerous field 
observations have also been made. 

The method adopted throughout for estimating the food 
percentages is that known as the volumetric one (3). 

Table I. — Showing number of adult Kingfishers and nest-contents 
examined in this investigation, arranged to show locality 
and month in which collected. 



County. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mch 


Apl. Maj^ 


J une 


July. Aug 


. Sept 


. Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Totals. 
























Birds 


Nests. 


Bedford . . . 






1/2 






1/2 1/3 


1/3 








4 


10 


Cheshire . . . 




1/ 


1/ 






/I 1/1 


/2 


/2 






3 


6 


Cumberland . 


/2 


/"■^ 




1/ ... 




... /2 


1/6 


/I 


/I 




2 


14 


Devon 












... /3 


/I 


/2 









6 


Dorset 


/4 














/2 


/I 







7 


Hants 
















/3 


/I 


/2 





6 


Hereford . . . 




1/ 


1/ 


1/ ... 




1/ 1/4 


/3 


1/2 






6 


9 


Leicester . . . 














/2 


/5 


/I 







8 


Lincoln 




/2 


/I 














/I 





4 


Middlesex . . 


1/ 




1/ 


1/ ... 






1/7 


/4 


1/ 




5 


11 


Nottiiig:hani . 












... 1/ 




1/3 






2 


3 


Norfolk ... 


... 












/2 




/2 







4 


Warwick . . . 








1/ ... 




... /3 


/2 




/I 




1 


6 


Worcester . 




/2 


1/ 


1/ ... 






1/5 


1/2 


/I 




4 


10 


Yorkshire . 


/5 








/4 




/2 


/3 









14 


Ireland 




2/6 


.5/3 


/I ... 

5/1 ... 


/I 
/5 










/3 




27H 


2 


Totals ... 


1/11 


2/3 4/16 


4/35 


3/29 


1/8 


-120 



The figures on the left denote the number of birds, and those on the right the 
number of nest-contents. 



1 92 1.] Economic status of the Kingfisher. 141 

I acknowledge witli many thanks the kindness of the 
Carnegie Trnst for the Universities of Scothand, in defray- 
ing the whole of the expenses in connection with this 
investigation. 

II. Historical. 

References to tlie food and feeding habits of the King- 
fisher are exceedingly few. Yarrell (10) states : " Its food 
consists of small crnstaceans, aqnatic insects, such as dragon- 
fliesj water-beetles, and little fishes — especially minnows and 
sticklebacks, while leeches are also said to enter into its 
diet." 

Butler (1) writes: "Although very fond of small fish, 
these by no means constitute the sole food of the Kingfisher, 
for it is very fond of tadpoles and water-beetles ; moreover, 
many of the small fry which are eaten are quite useless for 
human consumption, so that the bird has been treated with 
undeserved severity by pisciculturists, many of whom lose 
no opportunity of shooting it.'' 

Newstead (8) examined the stomach-contents of nineteen 
specimens, in most of which he found minute and small fish- 
bones, one small gudgeon (Gobio fldviat His), and remains of 
several water-boatmen (^Notonecta glauca). 

Forbush (4) refers to the American species as eating 
grasshoppers, and Mason (7) quotes certain autliorities as to 
A. ispida, in India, feeding upon small tishes, tadpoles, and 
aquatic insects. 

III. Field Investigations. 

1. Abundance. — So far as I can learn from information 
supplied by difierent corresjjondents, the number of nesting 
sites has decreased during the last ten or twelve years, 
particularly in the following counties : — Cumberland, 
Cheshire, Devon, Hereford, Leicester, Middlesex, Warwick, 
Worcester, and Yorkshire. 

Messrs. Jourdain and Witherby (5), in their valuable 

■ report on the effect of the winter 1916-1917 on our resident 

birds, state : " The diminution in the breeding stock is 



142 Dr. W. E. Collinge on the [Ibis, 

shown l)y the fact that whilst most of its favourite breeding 
phices on the lower reaches of the Thames were occupied in 
1917, the up[)er reaches weve deserted, though the birds 
have reappeared in 1918. In Devon, Worcester, Cheshire, 
and Cumberland considerable decreases were noted, and 
some diminution in Kent, Surrey, and Middlesex, while no 
change is reported from Radnor and Beds.^^ 

2. Nesting Habits. — Further observations on the nesting 
habits of the Kingtisher are very desirable. All the nests I 
have met with have been iu the banks of streams. I doubt 
if they are always dug out by tlie birds, as on two or three 
occasions I have found that the old burrows of the water- 
vole have been utilized, and in another case tlie hole was 
formed by part of the bank of the stream being washed 
away beneath tlie root of a tree. 

In all the nests examined I have found an accumulation 
of fish-bones and other indigestible portions of food, and 
only these. 

While in many cases I have failed to observe any attempt 
at arrangement of the different items, in others there is 
undoubtedly a very definite nest formed, described by 
Yarrell (10) as follows : — " The eggs are laid, sometimes on 
the bare soil, but at others on the fish-bones already ejected 
by the birds and allowed to accumulate until they amount to 
a handful or more. These bones are cast up as pellets, but 
are apijarently Avorked by the bird's movements, as she sits, 
into the shape of a cup ; and, whether by pressure, by the 
moisture of the soil, or by both, they generally cohere so as 
to form a very pretty nest, more than an inch deep and quite 
smooth within, whicii with care may be removed so as to 
preserve its structure." 

During the time the young occupy the nest the passage 
leading lo the terminal cliamber becomes almost filled with 
castings, excreta, etc. 

In many cases two broods are reared in the season. Here, 
in Fifeshire, I have never known more than one. 

?), Food hrotight to the Nest. — Fish, tadpoles, crayfish, and 



1921.] Economic Status of the Kingfisher. 143 

the larvpe of various insects have been observed in the bircFs 
beak when alighting before entering the nest, Fisli are 
sometimes hehl crosswise, in which case the bird jerks them 
upwards catching them head downwards. In other cases 
they are held lengthwise, either by the head or the tail, and 
swallowed, this action being accompanied by a throw-back of 
the head. 

When newly hatched the young are fed by the parents, 
but after a time they frequently do no more than deposit 
the food about half-way along the passage. In some cases 
it is allowed to remain there and become trampled down 
into the putrid mass of material which has accumulated 
there. 

4. Depredations. — Tiie opinion is frequently expressed 
that the Kingfisher destroys large numbers of young trout, 
and such an opinion seldom loses anything in its repetition, 
so that among a certain class of people this bird has come 
to be regarded as an enemy and injurious to all fishing 
preserves and hatcheries. 

As is frequently the case where the food of a bird is con- 
cerned, careful observation and investigation do not bear 
out or even lend any support to the views just mentioned. 
Indeed, one can scarcely imagine any other factor that 
Avouhl remove so many enemies of fish ova and fry with so 
little injury. 

Unfortunately, once a bird is given a bad name, it is 
difficult to clear its character, and writers who should know 
better persist in repeating the inaccurate stories as to the 
number of fish destroyed, etc. The ultimate result of all 
this condemnation is that in many parts of the country the 
Kingfisher is shot down mercilessly, and is slowly but surely 
becoming rarer, much to the detriment of all trout streams. 

IV. Examination of Old Nests and Pellets. 

1. Nest Contents. — An examination of one hundred and 
twenty nest-contents shows them to consist entirely of 
animal remains, of which fish constitutes 59*5 per cent., 



144 Dr. W. E. CoUinge on Me [Ibis, 

injuiioTis insects 15*5 percent., neutral insects 4"5 per cent., 
Crustacea 6*5 per cent., molluscs 5*5 per cent., tadpoles 
4"0 per cent., worms 1"5 per cent., and miscellaneous animal 
matter 3'0 per cent. 

The lightest nest-content weighed 12"5 grains and the 
heaviest 320 grains, the average being 142 grains. In all 
probability the heavier ones represent the contents accumu- 
lated over more than one season, but on this point I have no 
definite information. 

Of the 59*5 per cent, of fish, minnows constituted 39*5 per 
cent., stickleback 31"0 per cent., gudgeon 14"5 per cent., 
trout 12"5 per cent., and 2'5 per ceist. of unidentifiable fish- 
remains. 

2. Pellets. — The average weight of the pellets was 15 grains. 
The analysis of the fifty-three specimens shows that they 
consist wholly of animal matter of which fish constitutes 
590 per cent., injurious insects 15'0 per cent., Crustacea 
6"0 per cent., tadpoles 5*5 per cent., moUuscs 5"0 per cent., 
neutral insects 5*0 per cent., worms 1*5 per cent., and 
miscellaneous animal matter 3'0 per cent. 

V. Examination of Stomach Contents. 

Practically all the stomachs examined were full. The 
average weight of the contents was 32'5 grains. Only twenty- 
seven stomachs have been examined. It was evident at a very- 
early stage of this inquiry that the pellets and nest-contents 
afforded a very valuable source of information, and one 
Avhich was in close agreement with the results obtained from 
the post-mortem examinations. It was, therefore, not thought 
desiral)le to destroy a large number of birds for the purpose 
of examining the stomach-contents. Many of those examined 
have been kindly sent to me by taxidermists, to whom the 
birds had been sent or brought to be set up. 

1. Nature of the Food. — An examination of the stomach- 
contents shows that the whole of the food consists of 
animal matter. Specimens have been examined in all the 
months of the year excepting May, June, and December. 



1921.] Economic Status of the Kingfisher. 



145 



Unfortunately, I have not been able to obtain any birds 
feeding on river estuaries or near to the coast. 

Analysis shows that of the total bulk of food consumed, 
fish of various kinds forms the major portion, viz., 63-5 per 
cent. ; injurious insects, either adult or in their larval con- 
dition, form the next largest item, viz., 16-5 per cent., 
neutral insects constitute 6*0 per cent., molluscs 4*0 per 
* cent., tadpoles and Crustacea each 3*5 per cent., Avorms 
1'5 per cent., and miscellaneous animal matter 1'5 per cent. 

Only two items call for s[)ecial remark, viz., the fish and 
the injurious insects. 

A reference to Table II. showing the monthly percentages 
shows that fish-remains were present in the stomachs 
collected in every month ; the highest pei'centage was taken 

Table II. — Showing the monthly percentages of the food items of the 

adult Kiniifisher. 





Jan. 


Feb. 


Moll. 


Apl. May 


June 


. July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. Dec. 


Averages. 


Fish 


80-5 


75-0 


63-5 


41-5 ... 




49-5 


54-5 


59-5 


G7-0 


80-5 ... 


63-5 


Tadpoles . ' 
Molluscs . 


2-5 


3'5 

4-0 


8-0 
2-5 


12-5 ... 
1-5 ... 




0-5 
2-5 


1-0 
4-5 


G-5 


7-5 


4-5 ... 


3-5 

4-0 


Injurious 
Insects . 


8-5 


10-5 


16-5 


27-5 ... 




22-0 


22-0 


20-0 


1.3-5 


8-0 ... 


lG-5 


Neutral 
'Insects . 


1-0 


3-0 


4-5 


11-5 ... 




10-5 


9-0 


G-5 


5-5 


2-5 ... 


G-0 


Crustacea . 


G-0 


3'5 


2-0 


2-5 ... 




4-0 


3-5 


3-5 


3-5 


3-0 ... 


3-5 


Worms ... 


•5 


"5 


1-5 


1-0 ... 




2-5 


3-5 


1-5 


1-5 


1-0 ... 


1-5 


Miscell. ... 


1-0 




1-5 


2-0 ... 




2-5 


2-0 


2-5, 


1-5 


•5 ... 


1-5 


Totals . . . 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 ... 




100-0 100-0 


100-0 100-0 


100-0 ... 


100-0 



irj November and January, 80"5 per cent, in each month, 
and the lowest percentage in April, 41 "5 per cent. It is 
significant that in the months when there are no fry or ova 
about, the percentage stands the highest ; thus we have 
75'0 per cent, in February, 67*0 per cent, in October, G3'0 
per cent, in March, 595 per cent, in September, and 54"5 
per cent, in August. 

SEK. XI. VOL. III. L 



146 Dr. W. E. Collinge on the [Ibis, 

Tadpoles or very young frogs were present during five 
months, and tlie remaining food items occurred in each 
month. 

The liighest percentage of injurious insects was found in 
April, viz., 27*5 per cent., and the lowest', 8'0 per cent., in 
Novem])er. L^rom observations made in the open this item 
Avas thought to be considerable, but the large j)ercentage 
found from February to October was somewhat surprising. 
Tlie species consist very largely of those that are classed as 
injurious because, either in their adult or larval condition, 
they feed upon fish ova and the fry, such for instance as 
the Dragon-fly (^^scfina cyanea Miill.), and all the species 
of Coleoptera. 

Table III. shows the different percentages side by side of 
the food items obtained from the stomach-contents and the 
nest-contents and pellets, and the averages. 

Table III. — Showing percentages and averages of the 
different food items found in (i.) the nest-contents, 
(ii.) the pellets, and (iii.) the stomachs. 

Nest 
Food item. ^ , ' , Pellets. Stomachs. Averages. 

Fish 59-5 59-0 63-5 60-67 

Tadpoles 4-0 

Molluscs 5'5 

Injurious Insects 15"5 

Neutral Insects 4*5 

Crustacea ., 6-5 

Worms 1"5 



5-5 


3-5 


4-33 


5-0 


4-0 


4-83 


15-0 


ir.-5 


15-66 


5-0 


0-0 


5-16 


G-0 


3-5 


5-33 


1-5 


1-5 


1-50 



Miscellaneous 


3-0 


3-0 


1-5 


2-50 








Totals 


100-0 


100-0 


100-0 


99-98 



Of the various species of fish four only could be identified. 
The minnow forms the chief item, totalli)ig 390 per cent, of 
the total fish-content, the stickleback approaches this very 
closely with 32"0 per cent., then we have 15 per cent, of 
gudgeon and 13'0 per cent, of trout ; the unidentifiable fish- 
remains were 1*0 per cent. 



1 92 1 . ] Economic Status of the Kingfisher. 



147 



In view of all that lias l)een laid to the charge of this 
bird, and especially its destruction of trout, the figures here 
given are worthy of very careful consideration. Moreover, 
it is important to note that in none of tlie stomachs was any 
trace of fish ova found. 

Text.fig. 2. 



/A 


\: TROUT 


Ao 


f 


\f\ 




1 




INJURIOUS 

INSECTS. 

15-66 


K 


} 


1 


{IIIIIIIIMlMI 





1 100 






NEUTKAL 

FISHES. 

33-33 



The portion shaded by longitudinal lii'es represents food that it is 
beneticial the bird should eat ; that stippled, food that it is injurious 
it should eat ; and the blank portions food of a neutral nature. 

Summarizing these figures, we find that 77'04 per cent, of 
the food is of a neutral nature, 15-6G per cent, is beneficial, 
and only 7*28 per cent, injurious (text-fig. 2). 

If the estimate were taken upon only a local record, the 
injuries might possibly be shown to be greater, but estimated 

l2 



148 



Dr. W. E. Collinge on the 



[Ibis, 



upon tlie records from a number of districts there can be no 
doubt as to the economic status of this bird. The benefits 
it confers are twice as great as the injuries it inflicts, whilst 
the bulk of its food is of a neutral nature. 



2. Classified List of the I< 

Anipliibia. 

Tadpoles and younu- frogs. 
Fishes. 

Miunow. 

Stickleback. 

Gudgeon. 

Trout. 
Mollusca. 

Linmaa sfai/7i(ihs Linn. 

palustris Miili. 

auricularia Linn. 

percijra Mull. 

IHanorhis sp. 

Crustacea. 
Cr&y^&h {AstacuspalUpeshQi'tib.). 
Freshwater Shrimp {Gtiviinarus 
index Linn.). 

Tnsecta. 
Hemiptera. 

Water Boatman {Nutonecta 
ylauca Linn.). 

Plectoptera. 

Mayfly {Ephemera vulyata 
Linn.). 
Odonata. 

Drag'ou-fiy {Aischiia cyaiiea 
Miill.). 

Neuroptera. 

Alder-fiy (Sialis Iiitarius 
Linn.). 



'uod. 

Coleoptera. 

Large Water Beetle {I)ytincHs 

marginalis Linn.). 
Great Water Beetle {Hydro- 

pliilus piceus Linn.). 
Small Water Beetle {Hydro- 

/ji'us fuscipes Linn.). 
Whirligig Beetle (Gyrimis 

ncdator Scop.). 

Trichoptera. 

Caddis-Hies, various species. 

Lepidoptera. 
Noctuid larvse. 

Diptera. 

liiver Sand-fly (Sinudh/m 

sp.). 
riarlequin-fl}' ( Chironomns 

spp.). 
Pliiintom LarvfB (Coret/tra 

jdiimicorn is Fabr . ) . 
Gnat (Cule.v 7ie})iorosi(s Mg.). 

Annelida. 
Oligochfeta. 

Earth worm (Lumhricus sp.) 

and cocoons. 
Red-worms ( Tubifex rivu- 
lonnn Miill.). 

Ilirudinea. 

Small Pond Leech {Nephdis 
vulyaris Linn.). 



VI, Sumniarij and Conclusion. 

An examination of the contents of one hundred and twenty 
nests, fii'ty-three pellets, and the stomach-contents of twenty- 
seven Kingfishers, shows tliat the bulk of this bird's food 
consists of (ish. 



1 92 1.] Economic status of tJie Kingfisher. 149 

The species which go to form the total of 60'67 i)er cent, 
consist almost entirely of neutral species, 7'28 per cent, only 
consisting of trout. 

The highest percentage of fish is consumed in the raontlis 
of October, November, January^ February, and ]\Iarch, and 
the lowest in April. 

Insects, most of which are injurious to trout, constitute 
15'66 per cent, of the total bulk of food, and tlie highest 
percentage is taken iu the spring (March, April, and June), 
so that much of this material consists of voracious larvpe, 
most of which occasion a large amount of damage to fish 
ova and fry. 

Only 5'33 per cent, of Crustacea are taken, most of which 
are referable to Gammarus pulex, wiiich species I. am 
informed attacks the eggs of fishes. The consumption of 
worms and molluscs is only small. 

A summary of the percentages of the various food items 
shows that 77*4 per cent, of tlie food is of a neutral nature, 
15"66 per cent, is beneficial, and only 7'28 [)er cent, is 
injurious. 

It is obvious, after considering the results obtained in this 
investigation, tliat the pisciculturist is grossly mistaken as 
to the economii; position of the Kingfisher, and that despite 
the small percentage of trout that it destroys, it is really 
a very beneficial bird iu that it destroys a much larger 
percentage of acknowledged enemies. Moreover, tlie little 
damage it occasions is not altogether beyond prevention. 

In view of these results it is sincerely to be hoped that 
very strict and rigorous protection will be afforded this bird 
for the future. A clause in any new Act of Parliament 
affecting wild birds, making it an offence to stuff or set up 
specimens of the Kingfisher, excepting under a permit, 
would certainly tend to reduce the present senseless 
destruction. 



150 Obituary. [Ibis, 

Bibliography . 

1. BuTLEB, A. G. — British Birds, with tlieir Nests and Eggs. 

London, 189G : vols, i.-vi. 

2. Cocss, A. H. — " Destruction of Kingfishers." The Zoologist, 

(3) vol. XV. 1891, p. 154. 

3. CoLLiNGE, Walter E. — "On the Value of the Different 

Methods of Estimating the Stomach Contents of Wild 
Birds." Scot. Nat. 1918, pp. 103-1 OS, 2 figs. 

4. EoRBusii, E, H. — Useful Birds and their Protection. Boston, 

1907, pp. XX + 437 ; Ivi pis. & 171 figs. 

5. JouRDAix, F. C. E., & WiTUEKBY, H. F.— " Tlie Effect of 

the Winter of 1916-1917 on our Resident Birds." Brit. 
Birds, vol. xi. 1918, pp. 266-271 ; vol. xii. pp. 26-35. 

6. Keee, Helen M. Eait. — " Field Notes on the Kingfisher." 

Ibid. pp. 36-38. 

7. Maso.x, C. W.— "The Food of Birds in India." Mem. Dept. 

^gric. India, Entom. Ser., 1912, vol. iii. pp. 1-371. 

8. Newsteau, R. — "The Food of Some British Birds." Suppl. 

Journ. Bd. Agric. vol. xv. 1908, pp. viii + 57. 

9. Rowan, AV. — "Notes on the Kingfisher {Alcedo ispida).'' 

Brit. Birds, vol. xi. 1918, pp. 218-225. 
10. Yarbell, William. — A History of British Birds. London, 
vols, i.-iv., 1871-1874. 



YUl.— Obiluary. 

Sir John Arthur Brooke, Bt. 

Sir Jolin Arthur Brooke of. Feuay Hall, Huddersfield, 
Yorks, who died on 12 July last, was a prominent mau 
of business in the north and a Director of Messrs. John 
Brooke & Sous, Limited, worsted manufacturers, Hud- 
ders field. 

Sir John Brooke was born in 1844, and was the fourth 
son of the late Thomas Brooke. He was educated at 
Repton and Oriel College, Oxford, graduated B.A. in 1865, 
and was created a Baronet in 1919. His chief interests 
were in his business and in politics, and he \vas for many 



1921.] Obituary. l5l 

years chairman o£ the Hucklersfield Conservative Association. 
He was elected a member of the Union in 1898^ but his 
interest in ornithology was purely that of an araatenr. 
He was a keen observer of bird-life^ and had made in his 
younger days a very fine collection of British Birds^ eggs. 
He was also a collector of books on all subjects relating to 
ornithology and natural history. 

George Wyman Bury. 

The ornithological exploration of south-western Arabia 
must always be associated with the name of Lieut. G. Wyman 
Bury, R.N.V.li., whose recent death at Helouan, near Cairo, 
at the age of 46, we regret to learn from the pages of the 
' Times.' 

Bury was born at Mancetter Manor House in Warwick- 
shire, and was educated at Atherstone Grammar School and 
at Army crammers. In 1894 he received a commission in the 
3id Batt. R. Warwick Regt. ; in the following year he was 
in southern Morocco with the rebel tribes. During the next 
six or seven years he was in the Aden hinterland and other 
parts of southern Arabia, making archaeological and zoological 
investigations and acquiring a wonderful knowledge of the 
Arab tribes. He was political officer at Aden in 1903-4. 
On the outbreak of the war he joined the Intelligence Staff 
on the Egyptian front, and later on was attached to the 
Red Sea Patrol. 

His first ornithological collections were made in 1899 -1900, 
when he was attached to the expedition under the leadershij) 
of Messrs. W. Dodson and A. B. Percivalfor the exploration 
of the hinterland of Aden, the results of which were worked 
out by Mr. Ogil vie- Grant and published in ' Novitates Zoo- 
logicse^ (vol. vii. 1900, pp. 243-266). Further collections of 
birds were made l)y him in the following year when attached 
to an Austrian expedition which visited south-eastern Arabia 
for archa3ological investigation. Tlie account of the birds 
then collected was published in the ' Journ. filr Ornithologie ' 
of 1901 by Messrs. L. von Lorentz and C. E. Hellmayr. 



152 Obiiuary. [Ibis, 

In 1905 Mr. Bury, at the instigation and with the assistance 
of Mr. Ogilvie-Grant, made a collecting expedition to Soraali- 
land, but was unable on account of political difficulties to 
reach tlie high ranges behind Cape Guardafui as he had 
intended. The Somaliland collection was worked out by 
Mr. Bannerman (' Ibis,' 1910, p. 291). Finally, in 1912-13 
Mr. Bury explored the Yemen country of south-east Arabia, 
never previously visited by an ornithologist and even by 
very {q'n Europeans. The collection of birds was worked 
out by Mr. W. L. Sclater (' Ibis/ 1917, pp. 129-186). 

Mr. Bury published an amusing account of his travels in 
Yemen under the title ' Arabia Infelix ' in 1915. He was also 
the author of ' The Land of Uz,' 1911, and 'Pan-Islam.' 
He leaves a widow but no children. He was never a 
Member of the Union. 

William Dutcher. 

From the last number of the 'Auk' we learn tliat 
Mr. Wm. Dutcher, President of the National Association 
of Audubon Societies for the Protection of Wild Birds and 
Animals, died on the 1st of July at his home in Chevy 
Chase, near Washington, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. 

To Mr. Dutcher, more than any other individual, is due 
the present interest in wild bird conservation in America, 
the organization and (leveloj)ment of the National Association 
of Audubon Societies, of which he was President from the 
time of its conception until his death, and the manifold 
activities which have grown out of this organization. 

In his young days Mr. Dutcher was an active field-student, 
working in Long Island, and he published many important 
papers on the birds of that region, l)esides forming a 
valuable collection, which is now at New York in the 
American Museum of Natural History. 

Later on he was elected Chairnuin of the A. O. U. Committee 
on Bird-Protection, the work of which was eventually taken 
over by the National Association of the Audubon Societies. 
This great institution is the federal bond linking together 



1 92 1.] Obituary. 153 

tiie Auduljoii Societies in eaeli State of the Uiiion^ and is 
besides, tlirougli the energy and enthusiasm of its President, 
possessed of amjjle means, which are devoted to the main- 
tenance of special bird-reserves, to work among the schools 
and school-children, and to jjropaganda and the guiding of 
the legislatures in the various States of the Union in regard 
to the protection and conservation of wild life. 

Mi'.Dutcher was a Fellow of the American Ornithologists' 
Union and a 3Iember of their Council. 

Robert Etheridge. 

Mr. Robert Etheridge, the son of the distinguished 
geologist and paheontologist of the same name, died after a 
short attack of pneumonia at Colo Vale, near Sydney, on 
the 4th of January of last year. He was elected a Member 
of the Union in 1914. 

Born in 1847 in England, he early took up geological work 
in Australia in the middle sixties. He returned to England 
and was for a short time, together with his father, on the 
staff of the Geological Department of the Natural History 
Museum. In 1887 he went back to Australia as palsecnto- 
logist to the Geological Survey of New South Wales and to 
the Australian Museum at Sydney, of which latter institution 
he subsequently became Director. His scientific work and 
publications were, we believe, entirely concerned with geology 
and [)ahcontology, and his interest in ornithology was purely 
that of an amateur. 

John Gerrard. 

John Gerrard, F.G.S., M.B.O.U., who died at the age of 
70 at his residence at Worsley, Lancashire, on 28 July last, 
was born at Ince Hall in the heart of the Lancashire colliery 
district, and inherited from his father, a mining engineer, 
some of the gifts which proved so useful during his long 
life of practical experiment and investigation. He was 
educated at Wigan Grammar School, and entered the 
service first of the Ince Hall and then of the St. Helens 



154 Obituary. [Ibis, 

collieries, but at the age of 23 lie was appointed an 
Assistant Inspector of Mines. In 1893 lie became Chief 
Inspector for the Manchester and Irish areas, and held this 
post until 1914. Perhaps his most important scientific 
work was his investigation of the causes of coal-dust 
explosions ; after the terrible explosion at the Pretoria pit 
he was amongst the first who descended to the rescue. 

His interests, however, were not confined to engineering 
or geology, although he was one of the leading geologists in 
the North. He was keenly interested in ornithology and 
certain branches of entomology, and during trips to the 
west coast of Scotland, the Orkney, Shetland, and Faroe 
Islands, he accumulated interesting collections of birds 
and eggs, which, through the kindness of his sister. 
Miss E. M. Gerrard; have found a home in the Wigan 
Mining and Technical College. He supported any move- 
ment which he considered would further science; thus he 
was a member of the Yorkshire Naturalists' Union, and for 
many years served on the Committee of the Manchester 
Museum. He was elected a member of the British Orni- 
thologists' Union in 1892. 

He was always genial, always sympathetic, and his advice 
when sought was willingly given and sound. — T. A. C. 

Charles William Sheppard. 

We regret to have to record the death on the 20th of 
September last of one of the oldest Members of the Union — 
the Rev. Chas. William Sheppard — at the age of 84. He was 
elected a Member of the Union in 1863, Canon Tristram 
being his projjoser. He had been rector of Trottescliffe, near 
Maidstone, in Kent since 1875. 

Mr. Sheppard was born at Trottescliffe Rectory in 1838, 
where his father, the Rev. Edward John Sheppard, was 
rector before him from 1827 to 1875 ; so that father and sou 
held the same benefice for over 90 years. He was educated 
at Merchant Taylors' School (then in Thames Street) and 
also at Charterhouse, and subsequently at Trinity College, 



1 92 1.] Obituary. 155 

Cambridge, where lie took his degree of B.A. in 1861 and 
M.A. in 1864. He was ordained in 1870, and acted as his 
fatiier's curate for four years before succeeding him in the 
living which was his only cure. 

His interest in Natural History was very considerable, and 
in his younger days, accompanied by Mr. Upclier and the late 
Mr. G. G. Fowler, of Gunton Hall, who was for many years 
a Member of the Union, he made an excursion to Iceland, 
and visited the north-western peninsula, a portion of the 
island not previously explored by any English traveller. 
The results of this visit, both ornithological and otherwise, 
are related in a little book, ' The North-west Peninsula of 
Iceland,' published in 1867 (see ' Ibis,' 1867, p. 239). 

Mr. Sheppard and Mr. Upcher subsequently accompanied 
Canon Tristram to Palestine in 1864-5, and the results of 
that expedition will be found recounted in the pages of ' The 
Ibis ' for 1865 and onwards, where Mr. Sheppard's name is 
often mentioned. 

The only other ornithological publication with which 
Mr. Sheppard's name is connected is ' Notes on the Birds of 
Kent/ published in 1907, in which he collaborated with 
Messrs. R. J, Balstou and E. Bartlett. 

Mr. Sheppard had a fine collection of Ducks, both British 
and foreign, the foundation of which was made during his 
visit to Iceland. Eor nearly half a. century he had been the 
father of his parish, and was greatly respected and beloved 
by all the people of his neighbourhood, though he was not 
perhaps so well known among the younger ornithologists 
of to-day as he deserved to be. 

Herbekt Huntington Smith. 

Mr. Smith, wlio met with his death through a railway 
accident on the 22nd of March, 1919, at Tuscaloosa, Alabanui, 
U.S.A.j v^'as Curator of the Alahama Museum of Natural 
History, and one of the earliest and most experienced of 
American field-naturalists. 

Between 1881 and 1886 Mr. Smith, accompanied by iiis 



156 Rccenthj published Ornithological Works. [Ibis, 

wife, M'lio was liis constant companion and herself a first- 
rate collector, Avas in the vicinity of Cliapada and Cuyuba, 
in the Province o£ Matto Grosso in Brazil. The large 
collection of birds secured in that region is now divided 
between tlie British Museum and the American Museum o£ 
Natural History. In 1889 the Smiths collected in Mexico 
for Mr. Godman, who was then amassing material for the 
MUolo^na Centrali- Americana.' From 1890 to 1895 they 
were in the West Indies, in the interests of the West Indian 
Committee of the Royal Society and British Association. 
Later he collected in Colombia for the Carnegie Museum. 
Here, however, he became so seriously ill that he had to 
give up all further work in the Tropics. 

A sketch of his life by Dr. W. J. Holland will be found in 
' Science ' (vol. xlix. 1919, pp. 481-483). 



IX. — Notices of recent Ornitliological Publications. 

Cory's Catalogue of American Birds. 

[Catalogue of Birds of the Americas and the adjacent Islands in the 
Field Museum of Naturid History. By Charles B. Cory. Pt. ii. nj. 2. 
Families Trogonidfe, Cuculidse, Capitonidc-E, Rhamphastidse, Galbulidse, 
Bucconidfe, and Picidas. Pp. 317-607, 1 col. pi. Field Museum of 
Natural History Publication no. 203, Zool. ser. vol. xiii. Chicago, 
U.S.A., Dec. 31,1919.] 

The second part of Mr. Cory's Catalogue of the Birds of 
the Americas contains the lists of the species of the remaining 
families of Picarian birds left over from Part I. published in 
1918 and reviewed in ' The Ibis ' (1918, p. 500). The present 
part follows the lines of the previous one, and contains 
descriptions of all those species not mentioned in the Cata- 
logue of the Birds in the British Museum or in Ridgway's 
' Birds of North and Middle America.' We are very glad to 
see a great improvement in the proof-reading, and have hardly 
noticed any of the misprints which disfigured the first part. 



1 92 1.] Recently published Ornithological Works. 157 

We have found (lescriptions of about seven new species and 
subspecies in tlie text, and it would be a great convenience 
to woi'kers if a list of these were printed in the introduction. 
They are as follows : — Coccyzns mimv caymaneusis (dayman 
Ts,, W.L, Nystulus niaculatns nuc/uilis Ceara, Brazil, Soroplex 
campestris cear<e Ceara, Brazil, Chrysoptilus rnelanocldorus 
jute Ceara, Brazil, C. puuct'tgula notata Colombia, Celeus 
eleguns approxhiiayis Brazil, Crocomurphus ffavus peruvianus 
N. Peru, A coloured plate of the three subspecies of Celeus 
elegans forms a frontispiece to the volume. 

Cory on the genus ilhynchocyclus. 

[Tlie relationships and geographical distribution of the species and 
races belonging- to the genus RJnjncliocyclus. By C. B. Cory. Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Washington, vol. 32, 1919, pp. 217-224.] 

A useful revision of this complicated and extensive genus 
of South American Tyrant-birds. No new foims are 
described, twenty are included in the lisL 

Hellmayr^s recent papers. 

1. Neue Veigel aus dem tropischen Anierilia. Von E. C. Ilellmayr und 

Josef Graf von Seilern. Verhandl. Orn. Ges. Bayern, xii. 1914, 
pp. 87-92. 

2. Weitere neue Fornien aus Westindien und Venezuela. Id., ibid. 

pp. 201-205. 

3. Ueber einen neuen Kerubeisser aus Venezuela. Id., ibid. pp. lGO-161. 

4. Ein Meiner Beitrag zur Ornithologie des Staates Espirito Santo, 

Sudostbrasilien. Von C. E. Ilellmayr. Ibid. pp. 119-159. 

5. Neue Fornien aus dem neotropischen Gebiet. Id., ibid. pp. 206-214. 

6. Beschreibung von sechs neuen neotropischen ViJgelformen, uebst 

einer Bemerkung iiber Aonpelion cinctus (Tsch.). Id., ibid. xiii. 
1S17, pp. 106-119. 

7. Miscellanea Ornithologica, II., Ill, IV. Id., ibid. xiii. 1917 & 1918, 

pp. 188-200, 302-317 : xiv. 1919, pp. 126-133. 

8. Bibliographisches und Kritisches iiber B. Schoujburgk's Veigel von 

Britisch-Guiana. Id., ibid. xiv. 1920, pp. 270-274. 

9. Drei Beitrage zur Nonieuklatur der Viigel Europas. Id., ibid, xiii, 

1917, pp. 87-104. 
10. Zur Nonienklatur zweier paliiarktischen Krahen. Id., ibid. xiii. 
1917, pp. 181-187. 



158 Recently published Omit lioloyical Works. [Jbis, 

11. Hans Graf von Berlepcch — Eine Lebeusskizze. Id., Jourii. Oriiitli. 

1915, pp. 557-6G8, portrait. 

12. Description of a new Formicarian Bird from Colombia, by 

E. Hellmayr and Dr. J. v. Madarasz. Aquila, xii. 1914, p. 88. 
1.3. Nomeuclatorder Vijo-el Bayerns. Von 0. E. Hellmayr und 11. Laub- 
mann. Pp. i-viii+1-68. Miincben (G. Fischer). 8vo. 

We have recentlj^ received from Dr. Hellmayr a set of 
his publications during the war period, and the importance 
and accuracy of his work demands this somewhat long 
notice. The first eight of the papers listed contain descrip- 
tions of new species and subspecies of Neotropical birds, and 
for the enumeration of these we must refer our readers to 
the ' Zoological Record/ in which the new forms are duly 
recorded. In the paper numbered 6, a new Andean Jay is 
characterized under the name Cyanohjca viridicyunea cyuno- 
lama. This is obviously identical with the bird named and 
figured by Mr. W. L. Sclater in the October number of 
'The Ibis' of the same year, 1917 (p. 465, pi. viii.), and 
Hellmayr's name, having been published in February, must 
take precedence. Another nomenclatural clash is in regard 
to the Fan-tailed Raven of north-eastern Africa, Corvus affinis 
Riipp. nee Shaw, which therefore requires a new name. 
Dr. Ilartert renamed it C. rhipidurus in the 'Bulletin^ 
of the V>. 0. Club, published Nov. 30, 1918 ; Hellmayr 
renamed it Corvus brachycercus in his Miscel. Orn. iv., 
published June 1919. 

In the ninth paper on our list Dr. Hellmayr criticises 
three recently published check-lists of European birds : our 
own B. O. U. list, to which he gives a good deal of praise ; 
that of Rsichenow and Hesse (published in the ' Journal fiir 
Ornithologie ' for 1916) of German birds, which meets with 
scant approval as being reactionary ; and, finally, a Swiss list, 
published at Berne in 1915 and compiled by Th. Studer and 
G. von Burg, '^i'he 13th item on the list is Dr. Hellmayr's 
own contribution to the check-lists, and a comparison of 
the names used by him in his Bavarian list with those 
of the B. O. U. list shows that thei-e are but ^ew points of 
disajireement between them. 



192 1.] Recently published Ornithological Works. 159 

Hhigstori's Himalayan observations. 

[A Naturalist in Himalaya. j5j R \V. G. Hingston, M.C., M.B., 
I.M.S. Pp. xii+300; 24 illustr. ; 1 map. London (Witlierby), 1920. 

8vo.] 

Captain Kingston is a close observer of nature, and has 
had the good fortune to be stationed in an interesting and 
little-knowu vallej' of the Himalayan range. This valley, 
the British territory of Hazara, runs in the form of a wedge 
between the native state of Kashmir and the territory of 
the independent Afghan tribes of the Black Mountain. 

Our previous knowledge of the birds of this area is due to 
the late Major C. H. T. Whitehead, who spent a short time 
at Kagan, in the upper part of the district, and contributed 
a few notes on liis visit to ' The Ibis ' and 'Journal of the 
liombay Natural History Society.' 

Through Hazara apparently a big stream of migration 
passes in spring and autumn, ami it is to Ije regretted, 
from the point of view of readers of this Journal, that 
Captain Hingston did not pay as much attention to birds 
as he did to ants and spiders. True, he gives us a good 
picture of the local migration from the plains of the Punjab 
to the lower valleys and hills of Hazara, but this is only a 
general sketch with practically no details. 

Like iiiany of us, Captain Hingston has been fascinated 
by the soaring of birds, and has made a special study of it. 
His remarks on the soaring of the Common Kite, or was 
it not rather Milvus melanotis, which take up nearly the 
whole oC the single chapter on " Ornithological Observa- 
tions," will be read with interest. The book is illustrated 
with a number of good photographs, including one of a male 
Paradise i^'lycatcher in fully-adult plumage. 

Howard on Bird Territories. 

[Territory in Bird-Life. By IL Eliot Howard. Witli illustrations 
by G. E. Lodge and H. GriJnvold. Pp. xiv-|-.j08 ; 11 illustr. ; 2 plans. 
London (Murray), 1920. 8vo. Price 21s.] 

Most of our readei's will remember Mr, Howard's beautiful 



160 Recently published OmUliological Works. [Ibis, 

book on the Eritisli Warblers and of tlie theory wliicli lie 
first promulgated in that work of bird-territories and of the 
great importance of exclusive possession of a tract of land in 
bird-life. In this new work he has developed his views, and 
he endeavours to prove that the struggles and battles of male 
birds in spring are due, not so much to contention for the 
possession of mates as for the possession of tracts of land or 
estates to provide hunting-grounds from which to secure 
food for the young brood. 

This new volume is of great interest, and if the author's 
conclusions are correct has a most important bearing on 
many biological problems. We hope to present to our 
readers a more extended and critical notice of it in the next 
number of ' The Ibis.' 

Laubmann on the Kingfishe7\ 

[Beitriige ziu- Keinitnis des Formenlireises Alcedo atthis. Von Dr. A. 
Laubmann. Arch. Naturges. Berlin, vol. 84, pt. A, 19:^0, pp. 43-82.] 

Dr. Laubniann's paper deals with the subspecies of the 
bird which we have hitherto called Alcedo ispida ; but owing 
to the fact that Linnaeus described the Egyptian Kingfisher 
six pages before the familiar A. ispida under the title of 
Graculn attliis, the latter name must become the specific 
name of our familiar British bird. As, however, the British 
bird is subspecifically distinct from the Egyptian, we can 
retain the name Alcedo atthis ispida for our own form. 

Dr. Laubmann has added another terror to systematic 
ornithology by making use of four names instead of three, 
and that something which comes between the species and 
the subspecies he calls a " formengruppe." According to 
this system our bird becomes Alcedo atthis atthis ispida, 
the Egyptian A. attliis atthis atthis, and together with 
several other subspecies makes up the " formengruppe " 
Alcedo atthis attliis, while another "formengruppe^'' is made 
up of three Moluccan subspecies and is termed Alcedo atthis 
hispidoides. 

The subspecific races as revised by Hartert numbered four; 



1 92 1.] Recently published Ornithological Works. IGl 

to tliese Dr. Laubmaiin has added four more, two of which 
{A. a. corsicana and A. a. formosana from Corsica and 
Formosa respectively) are new. In addition, some five 
intermediate races are separately listed which have to be 
designated l)y no fewer than five names, i. e. Alcedo atthis 
atthis at this ispida, an intermediate race between that of 
northern Euroj)e and Corsica which occurs in northern 
Italy. 

We fear Dr. Laubmann's quadrinomial system is too 
heavy a burden for the already harassed ornithologist 
to carry, and we sliali be interested to see whether it is 
adopted, even among the more advanced systematists. 

The paper contains a good historical levievv of the King- 
fisher's systematic liistoiy, and paragraphs on individual and 
geograpliical variation and on the phylogeny of the group. 

Lonnherg on the Birds of Juan Fernandez and Easter Islands. 

[The Birds of the Juan Fernandez Islands and Notes on Birds from 
Easter Island. By Prof. Dr. Einar Lomiberg. Extracted from ' The 
Natural History of .luan Fernandez and Easter Island,' edited by 
Dr. Carl Skottsberg. Vol. iii. : pp. 1-24 (separately paged).] 

This is an account of the birds collected during the 
Swedish Pacific Expedition in 191G-17 under the direction 
of Dr. Carl Skottsberg. Mr. Kare Backstrom was the 
zoologist of the expedition, and has furnished some interesting 
notes and observations on the birds obtained. 

The Juan Fernandez Islands are two in number — Masa- 
tierra and Masafuera, the former being the island always 
associated with Defoe's ' Robinson Crusoe.' They are 
over 100 miles apart, and lie in the southern Pacific, some 
400 miles from the coast of Chile. There are eight species of 
indigenous land-birds out of a total bird population of about 
30 species. These are all listed by Dr. Liiuuberg with some 
interesting comments on their status and habits. Cinclodes 
oustaleti baeckstroemii and Fterodroma cooki masafuera 
are described as new, and a photograph of the nest of the 
indigenous and peculiar Ilumming-bird [Eustephanus fernan- 
densis) taken by Dr. Skottsberg is reproduced. 

SER. XI. VOL III- M 



162 Recently published Ornithological Works. [Ibis, 

The expedition stayed on Easter Island only a short time, 
and the collections thence are not so complete. There are 
said to be twelve species inhabiting the island. Of these, 
examples of six were obtained, all sea birds. Procelsterna 
caerulea shottsbergii and Pterodioma lieraldica paschte are 
described as new. 

It is interesting to note that the holy bird o£ the Easter 
Islands, about which Mrs. Routledge has written (' The 
Mystery of Easter Island/ London, 1919) and which is called 
locally '-JManntara,^^ is identified by Mr. Bixckstroin as 
Sterna lanata Peale, while Mrs. Routledge believes it to 
be tliC Dusky Tern, Anous stolidus unicohr. 

McClymont''s Ornithological Essays. 

[Essa_Ys on early Ornithology and kindred subjects. By James 
Pt. McClymont. Pp. 1-34; 3 plates. London (Quaritch), 1920. 
Sm. 4to.] 

In this little work Mr. McClymont endeavours to identify 
the birds mentioned 'in some of the old travellers' narratives, 
a fascinating task, though often difficult to bring to a 
satisfactory conclusion. His first attempt is to identify 
Marco Polo's " Rukh/' a bird said to liave an expanse of 
wing of thirty paces. This he frankly gives up in despair. 

The birds met with during the first voyage of Vasco da 
Gama to India are perhaps less fanciful. Penguins still 
exist on the coasts of South Africa in very^ considerable 
numbers, as well as seals or, rather, sea-lions (Arctocephalus 
pusiUus), though the latter are stated by our author to be 
no longer denizens of those regions. A reference to the 
volume on Mammals in the 'Fauna of South Africa' would 
have put this matter right. Other essays deal with the 
early voyages to the Banda or Spice Islands and to Western 
Australia and New Zealand. 

We would suggest that the diving bird '•' plongeon," met 
with by Crozet on the island, since named Marion Island, 
in the southern Indian Ocean, is the Diving Petrel, Pele- 
canoides exul, a species which is very abundant in those 
waters. 



1 92 1.] Recently published Oi-nithological Works. 163 

rt is interesting to find that tlie earliest use of the name 
Emu in English occurs in ' Pnrchas his pilgrimes,' where 
the bird is stated to occur on Banda Island in tlie Molucca 
group. The bird referred to was probably a Cassowary^ which 
had been brought to Banda from Ceram. Skeat and the 
New English Dictionary state that Enie or ]*]nia (whence 
Emu) is a Portuguese word for an Ostrich or Crane, 
but Mr. McClymont believes that the derivation is from 
^' neama," an Arabic name for the Cassowary, distorted by 
the Portuguese into " uma ema " and thence into Emu. 

The volume is illustrated by three well-produced ))lates 
in black and white, and is a beautiful example (jf book- 
making. 

Mathews on Australian Birds. 

[The Birds of Australia. By Gregory M. Matliews. Vol. viii. 
pts. 3 & 4, pp. 14r)-24, pis. 382-394. Loudon (Witlierby), Aug. & Oct. 
1920. 4to.] 

In these two parts Mr. Mathews continues his account 
of the Muscicapidte with the genera Ethelornis, Fseudo- 
gerygune, Ireclideornis, FwciJodryas, Tregellasia, Kemjjiella, 
PachycephaJa, and Lewinornis. 

This family has always been a source of troul)le, as it has 
sonu'times been included in the Turdidie, while certain 
genera have been referred to the Laniid^e, as for instance 
Pachycephala. 

Ethelornis was formed by Mr. Mathews to contain most 
of Sharpens species of Fseudogerygune ; they are compara- 
tively large-billed, and all the nine members are of modest 
coloration. They are largely found in mangrove-swamps, 
but the habits of the various forms, both in this genus and 
its nearest neighbours, are but little known, except in the 
aggregate. Two subspecies are recognised. 

E. cairnsensis is now raised to specific rank; it is hrannei- 
pectus of Sharpe, from Australia, but not New Guinea. 
Here again there are two subspecies, one [robini) being new. 
E. tenebrusHs has three subsijccies, of which one (^ivhitlocki) 
was formerly referred in error by Mr. ^lathews to 

M 2 



164 Recently published Ornithological Works. [Ibis, 

magnirusfris. E. chlorunotns lias also three subspecies, 
E. lavigaster is restricted to the iiortli-west and Northern 
Territory west of the Roper River, cantator, mould, and 
mastersi being now considered full species. E. Icsvigaster 
has two new subspecies out of four, while mastersi has a 
couple and cantator has one that is new. E.fuscus proving 
to be the same as E. cuHcivorus, both of Gould, the former 
name has priority, and six subspecies are admitted. 

The yellow-breasted, black-throated Pseudogen/go7ie palpe- 
brosa is allowed to stand in a separate genus, with three 
Australian and two New Guiiiean subspecies — on considera- 
tions of colour. 

Very different is that fine bird, Iredaleorms cinereifrons, 
of the Cardwell district, which has a near ally {ariniti) 
in Papua. 

The P/rcilodn/as series is divided, and Leucophanes is 
kept ; while Plcsiodryas is founded as a uew genus for 
Megalestes of Salvador], Papualestes for Myiolestes cyanus 
of that author, Gennceodryas for Eopsaltria placens of 
Ramsaj^, not to mention Tregellasia and other forms. 

Poccilodryas superciliosa has two subspecies, P. ccrvini- 
ventris four, I'regellasia capita three, T. leucops two, but 
the type-species is exti-alimital. 

It will be remembered that the name Kempiella kempi 
was bestowed in 1913 by the author on a new bird from 
Cape York, of which little is yet known. 

The Thickheads are nn interesting series of Australian 
forms, well known for their fine songs and lively coloration. 
Three species are recognised of the yeilow-l)reasted forms, 
Pactiycephala pcctoralis, P. robusta, and P. metanura with 
eleven, six, and two subspecies respectively, of which 
P. r. intercedens is new, as are P. p. betthiytoni. myponga^ 
and interjecta. 

The Rufous-bieasted Thickhead is still called Lennnornis, 
and L. rufiventris has several subspecies, which will be 
tabulated in the next j)art. 

Since AYatling in his drawings figured P. pectoralis and 
Latham described it, there has been teri'ible confusion in 



I921.] Recently jmhlisJied Ornithological Works. 1G5 

the genus, as will be seen by reading p. 21G ; while 
Mr. Mathews will doubtless wish us to emphasize his 
regrouping, which has the coloration of the female as 
a distinctive feature. 

Mullens, Stcann, and Jourdain's Bibliograptiy. 

[A Geographical Bibliography of British Ornithology from the earliest 
times to the and of 1918, arranged under counties. By W. H. Mullens, 
II. Kirke Swann, and IJev. F. C. R. Jourdain. Pts. 4-6, pp. 289-558 
(completed). London (Witherby), 1920. 8vo.] 

On the conclusion of tliis most useful piece of work, for 
which ail British ornithologists must feel grateful to the 
authors, it is our pleasant duty to congratulate them on 
its completeness and accuracy. We have been carefully 
through the pages, and find little to suggest in the way of 
alteration, should a second impression be called for. We do 
not like the abbreviation " s " for " shire." as Banffs foi- 
Banffshire, especially as it is not used consistently. The 
omission of "Co" in many Irish records would [)()ssibly 
have been an equal saving in printing ; but this is a small 
nuitter. A very important point is the collection of records 
from newspapers, such as 'The Field/ and from small 
local periodicals ; here workers will be saved an enormous 
amount of trouble in hunting through the annual files. 

It is to be hoped that all readers will send a note to the 
authors of any omission ; as a supplement, if not a new 
edition, is sure to be the outcome of this compiehensive 
work. So far we have noticed no such omissions. 

Oyilvie on British Birds. 

[Field observations on British Birds. By a Sportsman Naturalist 
(the late Fergus Menteitli Ogilvie, M.A., M.B., etc.). Edited by 
Henry Balfour, M.A., with a foreword by Mrs. John Massie. I*]). Avi + 
228 ; t) pis. ; portr. ; o maps & 14 text-ijgs. London (Selwyn & Blount), 
1920. 8vo.] 

It is not necessary to read more than Number 1 — "On 
some of the commoner Wading Birds " — of the eight sections 
into which this book is divided to realize that Mr. Ogilvie 



166 Recently published Ornithological Works. [Ibis, 

was a remarkal)ly close and accurate observer of bird-life, 
and that lie was able to record his observations in a delight- 
fully simple and charming manner. 

JNIany interesting accounts are given of a variety of birds — 
the Gannet, Shag, Cormorant, Norfolk Plover. Nightjar, 
Stoneeliat, SliDrt-eared Owl, and several Aecipiti-ine l)irds 
are a few concerning which the author sup|)lies information, 
gathered in every case at first hand. His essay on the 
Snipe is a really valuable contribution to ornithology ; 
no fewer than thirty-three p;iges are devoted to this species, 
and not one line is dull reading. 

In his essay on the Grey Partridge, Mr. Ogilvie pays a 
well-deserved compliment to Mr. Ogdvie-Grant as being 
the first authority to point out the plumage differences 
of the male and female Partridge, finally exploding the old 
incorrec^t theory, still so often held by sj)ort!smen, that the 
male bird alone has a horseshoe on its breast. Mr. Ogilvie 
lully bears out Mr. Ogilvie-Grant^s deductions, and cor- 
roboration from so careful a source is always welcome. 

Both the Grey and the French Red-legged Partridge are 
dealt with in this ariicle^ which may be strongly recom- 
mended to future monographers of the birds in question. 
It is worthy of note that Mr. Ogilvie puts forward a strong 
plea on behalf ot the " Frenchman," and anyone who has 
shot these sporting birds will surely endorse his views. 

A chapter of peculiar economic interest, both to sportsmen 
and agriculturists, contains the results of the author's in- 
vestigations into the food of the three Scotch game-birds — 
the lied (j rouse, the Blackcock, and the Ptarmigan, and, 
incidentally, of the Cuckoo ; while in a later chapter the 
food of some of our commoner Falconidae is discussed. 

Attention is drawn to the desirability ,of altering, by 
Act of Parliament, the opening date when Black Game 
may be shot from the 20th of August to the 1st of October, 
and correspondingly the close (season commencing on the 
1st of February instead of the 10th of December, as is at 
present the ease — a change which from every point of view 
seems advisable. 



1921.] liecenthj puhlislied Ornithological Works. 167 

Mr. Ogilvie's views ou the Wild Birds Protection Act 
and the anomalies which he cites may be commended to 
the Standing Committee recently chosen to advise the 
Home Secretary on this controversial subject. 

x\ delightful description of Mr. Ogilvie^s first meeting 
with procession ary caterpillars [Onethocampa pityocampa) 
in southern France, though hardly within the scope of this 
review, serves to show that he Avas a natur;dist whose 
interests were not cramped within the narrow limits of a 
collector's horizon. 

In his chapter on Wild Geese we would specially draw 
attention to plates iv. and v., depicting the colours of the 
soft ])arts of Arise?' cinereus and A. albifrons, from coloured 
drawings done by the author immediate!}^ after death ; the 
colouring there produced is admittedly different from plates 
usually accepted as correctly portraying the soft parts 
(not excepting Alplieraky's celebrated work). Mr. Ogilvie's 
remarks on this subject are well worthy of careful study. 

That Ogilvie was a keen collector is perhaps to put it 
too mildly, and in this connection his carefidly considered 
remarks on pp. 12 and 13 on the shooting or collecting of 
rare wanderers will provide food for reflection and some 
for criticism; but it must be remembered that Ogilvie 
made exceptionally good use of every rare bird he shot, 
and judged from his own standpoint, his arguments are 
perfectly sound. No finer working series of British 
Birds has ever been made, as the reviewer can testify from 
personal examination of the Ogilvie Collection in the 
British Museum. 

In a book in which accuracy seems to be the keynote, 
it seems a pity that the Latin names occasionally employed 
should not, in a number of cases, have been brought up 
to date : for instance, on p. 107, out of four of the scientific 
names there mentioned, three are incorrect according to 
modern nomenelatural methods. An editorial note to this 
effedt would liave been a simple matter. Perhaps the editor 
has long since gi^en up attempting to march with the 
constant changes in nomenclature to which we are subjected. 



168 Recenthj imblished Ornithological Works. [Ibis, 

The B. O.U. List of British Birds (1915) might, however, 
have been consulted witli advantage, if only for the sake of 
that uniformity whieh we are all striving to reach. 

At the time of liis death Ogilvie was engaged in writing 
an important ornithological work which will now, unfor- 
tuiiateiv; never be published. If iiis " Fiekl Observations 
on J^iitisli J?irds^^ are anything to judge by, ornithology 
has, by the author's untimely death, been robbed of an 
exceptionally valuable contribution, even in these days of 
accurate observers and accomplished writers. 

Ornithologists and sportsmen alike owe a debt of gratitude 
to Mr, Henry Balfour, who has edited this volume "as a 
tribute," we are told in the Preface, "to one whose death 
involved a great loss to ornithological science,'' how great 
a loss only those who read Mr. Ogilvie's book for themselves 
can properly appreciate. — D. A. B. 

Ritchie on the Iiiffuence of Man un Animals. 

[The lutlueiice of Man on Animal Life in Scotland : A study in faunal 
evolution. By James IJitcliie, M.A., etc. Pp. xvi+o50, many illustr., 
and 8 maps. Cambridge (Univ. Press). 1920. Laige 8vo.] 

This work is based on a series of lectures delivered by 
the author in Aberdeen in 1917, and deals at length 
with the effects produced by man and his manifold works 
on the various forms of animal life. The author endeavours 
to trace the ditterent ways in wliich man's power has worked 
and is working, and to realize to what degree a fauna of 
to-day owes its character and composition to his interference 
with nature. 

For the purpose of this study a fauna of a manageable 
compass «as necessary, and Scotland was found to be most 
suited to form a basis. An introduction deals with the 
arrival of man in Scotland, which did not take place till 
comparatively late, as the whole country appears to have 
been covered with an ice-sheet long after man inhabited the 
south of England, and the earliest S(!ots belonged to the Neo- 
lithic period of culture. Part I. deals with the deliberate 
iuterference by man with animal life under the headings 



1921.1 Recently published Ornithological Works. 169 

of domestication, destruction for safety, food or sport, 
protection, and the deliberate introduction of new animals. 
Part II. recounts man's indirect interference with animal 
life by the destruction of forest, the increase of cultivation, 
and other minor factors. 

As regards birds, the author traces the history of the 
Domestic Pigeon in Scotland, and also of two ancient 
Scottish breeds of fowls, the Dumpy and tlie Scots Grey. 

The history of the destruction of tiie larger birds of prey 
and the Great Auk are told with considerable detail, and 
of the introduction and spread of the Pheasant and Caper- 
caillic ; the gradual extension of the range of the latter is 
illustrated by a map. 

The woik is written in charming style with many quota- 
tions fiom the okler Avriters and poets, and the illustrations 
are numei'ous and well chosen, and though it is on the larger 
mammals that the effects of man's influence has been mostly 
felt, it is remarkable how human civilization has affected 
even the less conspicuous and more humble forms of life. 
We can thoroughly recommend the book to ornithologists 
and otlieis as full of information and interest. 

RoblnsGii and Kloss on Sumatran Birds. 

[On a Collection of Birds fioai N.E. Suiuatra. lly J J. 'C. Robinson 
and C. Boden Kloss. Journ. Straits Brancli 11. Asiatic Soc. no. 80, 11)19, 
pp. 73-1 o3; 1 map.] 

In this paper Messrs. Robinsou and Kloss deal with a 
collection of birds made by a Dutch planter, Heer A. C. F. A. 
van Heyst, in the Deli district of north-eastern Sumatra. 
The country in which the collection was made ranges from 
the mangrove forest of the coast, tlirough the low-lying 
districts planted with tobacco, and thence to the central 
mountainous couutrv, rising to elevations of 4000 to 
5000 feet, llepresentatives of 2VZ species were obtained and 
four new forms are described, namely — Macropygia rujiceps 
sumatranus, BracJiyloplms chlurolophus vanlieysti, Cyornis 
vanheysti, and Bachanga leucophcca batakensis. Four other 
species are recorded from Sumatra for the first time. A good 



170 Recently publuhed Ormlhologkal Works. [Ibis, 

outliiie-ina|) shows very clearly the exact situation of each 
collecting-station. 

Stresemanri on the Birds of Macedonia. 

[Avifauna Macedonica. Die ornitliolooischen Ergebnisse der Kor.-ch- 
uno-sreisen unternommeu iiacli Alazedouieii durch Prof. Dr. Dofleiii und 
Prof. L. Miiller-Mainz in Ann Jahren 1917 imd 1918. Von Dr. Erwin 
Stresemann. Pp. xxiv + 270; G pis. Mlinclien (Diiltz), 1920. 8vo.] 

During the occupation of the greater part of Macedonia 
by the German forces a Survey Commission was formed for 
tlie zoological exploration of the country, which was up to 
that time hardly known. Some 3258 bird-skins, repre- 
senting 168 species and subspecies, were collected by 
Professors Uollein and Miiller during a period of about 
sixteen months in 1917 and 1918, and these were all 
deposited in the State Museum at Munich. 

A very full and complete report on these collections has 
been drawn up by Dr. Stresemann. Many of the species wore 
collected in long series of often over 50 specimens. This 
has enabled him in many cases to give detailed accounts of 
the development of the different plumages and of the moult. 
There are also paragraphs on individual and geographical 
variation, and on distribution and biology or habits in 
Macedonia, these last being compiled chiefly from Prof. 
Miiller's notes. A complete list of the specimens of all the 
species with Ming-measurements and other details is given, 
and the nomenclature is of the most adi^anced character. 
We notice only two new names — Galerida cristata muhlei 
uom. nov. pro G. c. ftrriiginea Miihle for the Crested Lark 
of Greece, and Budytes fiavus macronyx subsp. n. for the 
Yellow Wagtail of north-eastern Siberia; but several foruis 
mentioned in the account of the collection, such as Carduelis 
c. balcunica, Cettia cetti miilleri, Cinclus cinclus orientalis, 
Bryobutcs wujor balcanicus, Picas viridis dojleini, have been 
described as new m a previous publication. Following the 
description of the collections is a notice of other species 
recorded from Macedonia, and finally a complete systematic 
list of all the birds hitherto known Irom that country. 



1 92 1.] Recently published Ornithological Works. 17 1 

Four of the plates contiiiu pliotographic views of some of 
the localities where collections were formed, and on two 
others, illustrated l)y a graphic method, the variation of 
the wing-lengths of several forms. 

Wc must congratulate Dr. Stiest-mann on having acoom- '' 
plished a fine piece of work, which will be essential for all 
future students of the fauna of south-eastern Europe. 

Tdverner's recent papers on Canadian urnithuloyij. 

[Birds of ]']astern Canada. By P. A. Taverner. Canada, Geological 
Survey Memoir 104 (no. 3, l^iological series), pp. iv + 297; 49 col. pis., 
G8 text-ligs. Ottawa (Govt. Printer), 1919. 8vo.] 

[The Birds of tlie lied Deer River, x\lberta. By P. A. Taveruer. 
Auk, xxxvi. 1919, pp. 1-21, 248-205 ; 4 pis.] 

[Bird-houses and their Occupants. By P. A. Taverner. Ottawa 
Naturalist, xxxii. 1919, pp. 119-126.] 

[The Jiirds of Shoal Lake, Manitoba. Id., ibid, xxxii. pp. lo7-144, 
157-104 ; xxxiii. pp. 12-20.] 

The first and most impcH'taut of Mr. Taverner^s publications 
is his handbook of the birds of eastern Canada. It contains 
a large amount of concise information packed into a com- 
paratively small com{)ass, and deals with 766 species of 
Canadian birds, all those likely to i)e met with in C-anada 
from the woodlands of the eastern half of IVTanitoba to the 
Atlantic coast. 

The species are emphasized at the expense of the subspecies, 
which are merely mentioned in a paragra])!!. Under each 
species is given the recognized English name, other vernacular 
names in use, the French-Canadian name, and the scientific 
name from the A. 0. U. Check-list. Tiien follow short 
[)aragraphs on distinctive characters, field-marks, nesting 
distribution, subspecies, and economic status. The coloured 
illustrations, two on each plate, are necessarily somewhat 
small, but are on the whole very successful, and will be 
found most useful for identification. They are prepared 
by Mr. Frank Hennessey, of Ottawa, and reflect great credit 
on the artist. 

In the first part of the work is a good key, based on that 
in Mr. Chapman's ' Handbook of the Birds of Eastern North 



172 Recently published Ormthologicctl IVorks. [Ibis, 

America/ which will be of great lielp to the beginner. 
In fact, the book is essentially a popular one in the best 
sense of the word, and is just such a one as should be placed 
in the hands of any newcomer with ornithological tastes 
I arriving in Canada. 

The second publication has already been mentioned in our 
notice of the 'Auk/ in which it was published. The third 
paper gives directions and nseful hints for the constrnction 
and fixing-up of nesting-boxes^ especially for the Purple 
JNlartin {Frogne subis), for which a very elaborate construction 
resembling a pigeon-house is often built in America. The 
last pai)er deals with the avifauna of Shoal Lake, situated 
about 35 miles from Winnipeg, a favourite resort oL' many 
different kinds of water-birds and ducks which breed there 
in considerable numbers. 

7 odd on new Colombian Birds. 

[Descriptions of apparently new Colombian Birds. ]5y W. Vu. Clyde 
Todd. Proc. Biol. Soc. NVashiugton, vol. 32, 1919, pp. 113-118.] 

Nineteen new forms are characterized, all with one 
exception obtained Ijy Mr. M. A. Carrikcr, jr., in dilferent 
parts of Colombia. The list of these will be found in the 
' Zoological Record/ and it does not seem worth while 
repeating them here. It would appear that the ornitliological 
riches of the northern portion of the South American 
continent are even yet unexhausted, so constant is the 
stream of new species and sul)species still being described. 

Townsend and Wetmore on Pacific Island Birds. 

[Reports on tire scientific results of the expedition to the tropical 
Pacific in charge of Alexander Agassiz, on the U.S. Fish Commission 
steamer 'Albatross' from August 1899 to March 1900, Commander 
Jefferson F. Moser, U.S.N., commanding. XXI. The Birds. By Charles 
Haskins Townsend and Alexander Wetmore. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 
Cambridge, Mass., Ixiii. 1919, pp. 151-225.] 

The voyage of the 'Albatross' in the winter of 1899-1900, 
under the direction of the late Mr. Alexander Agassiz, was 
made for the purpose of studying the formation of coral-reefs 



1 92 1.] Becently published Ornithological JVorks. 173 

and making investigations in the marine fauna, especially of 
the deeper parts of the Pacific, and the collection of birds 
was quite a secondary consideration. Nevertheless, some 
390 skins, 93 species and subspecies, were collected from 83 
different islands ; and this report, though somewhat belated, 
is of considerable importance, and must be consulted by 
anyone interested in the Pacific avifauna. 

The land-birds, though few in number, have been subjected 
to isolation, and a study of their variation, due doubtless to 
this cause, is of very great interest. 

The first portion of the paper by Mr. Townsend, who 
accompanied the expedition, contains a journal of the islands 
visited, with remarks on their physical characters. The 
groups where collections were made included the Marquesas, 
Paumotu, Society, Tonga, Fiji, Gilbert, Caroline and Ladrone 
archipelagoes. The second half of the paper by Mr. A. 
Wetmore contains an annotated list of the sjiecies obtained, 
with a good many interesting remarks on taxonomy and 
classification, and descriptions of a certain number of new 
subspecies. Mr. Wetmore apj)ears to have been somewhat 
hampered in his determinations by the absence of sufficient 
material for comparison in the Museum at Washington, and 
in some cases his views by no means coincide with those of 
Mr. G. M. Mathews, especially in regard to the name of the 
E/ed- footed Booby, which he believes must retain Linna^us's 
name, Sula piscator. 

It is interesting to learn that on some of the Pacific 
Islands the Frigate-birds are domesticated, and used like 
Carrier Pigeons for carrying messages from one island to 
another. 

Wetmore on lead-poisoning in Ducks. 

[Lead-poisoning iu Water-fowl. By Alexander Wetmore. Wash- 
ington, D.C., U.S. Dept. Agr. Bull. no. 7i>3, 1919, pp. 1-12; 1 pi] 

Mr. Wetmore finds that in many parts of America, where 
duck-shooting is carried on on a large scale, the mud-fiats 
become full of shot, which are eaten in considerable quantities 
by the water-fowl, and cause a distinct sickness, the symptoms 



174 Recently published Ornithological Works. [This, 

of wliicli lie describes. As lead is known to be an aborti- 
facient in the females of mammals, it is probably also so in 
birds, and some experiments confirming this have shown that 
lead has a powerful effect on the virility of domestic fowls. 

No suggestions for the alleviatiou of this trouble is pro- 
posed by Mr. Wetmore at the present time, but the cause 
and symptoms of the jioisoniiig are described in order to 
bring it under wider notice, in the hope that some method 
may be discovered iu the future of preventing this malady. 

JT'ood on the eye of the Burroiving Owl. 

[The eyes of the Burrowing Owl [S2)eoti/to cuniciilaria liypocicea], with 
special reference to the fundus oculi. By Casey A. Wood, M.D. Extr. 
from ' Contributions to Medical aud Biological research,' dedicated to 
Sir William Osier, in honour of his seventietli Ijirtliday, July 12, 1919, 
by his pupils and co-workers. Pp. 818-823 ; 1 col. pL] 

This short paper by Dr. Wood, who has made the special 
study of the avian eye (see 'Ibis,'' 1920, p. 306), shows that 
the structure of that organ of the Burrowing Owl is very 
distinctly adapted to nocturnal vision, aud that this is 
correlated with its habits which are distinctly nocturnal, 
though it is sometimes seen in daytime. 

The paper is illustrated with a beautiful coloured plate, 
showing the appearance of the eye when viewed with the 
oi)hthalmoscope. This was prepared from a drawing made 
by Mr. A. W. Head in the Zoological Gardens in London. 

As the paper aj)pears in a special volume of memoirs 
dedicated to Sir Wm. Osier, it is not likely to be seen by 
many ornithologists, and for this reason we have drawn 
special attention to it. 

Aquila. 

[Aquila : Periodical of Ornithology. Vols, xxi.-xxv. for the years 
1914-1918. Ikidapest.] 

The annual volumes of 'Aquila,' the official journal of 
the central government office for ornithological studies in 
Hungary for the yeai's of the war, have recently reached us, 
and the troublous times do not appear to have diminished 



192 1.] Recently published Ornithological Works. 175 

the activity of the Hungarian ornitliologists, or to have re- 
stricted the publication of the results of their investigations. 
Otto Herman, the original editor and foinider of the 
organization, died on 27 December, 1914, and was suc- 
ceeded by Titus Csorgey for the 1915 volume; since then 
the responsible editor appears to be Stefan Chernel von 
Chernelhaza. The volumes are bilingual, in Magyar and 
German. 

Here we can do little more than indicate the principal 
contents. The 1914 volume has a sympathetic memoir on 
Dr. Herman, Avith a portrait and a bibliography of his 
published work. Tliere are papers on the osteology of the 
Occllated Turkey [Agriochoris ocellatd) by Dr. Shufeldt of 
Washington, on the morphology of the avian metacarpus 
and on some Pleistocene bird-bones by Dr. Lambrecht, 
Messrs. J. Schenk and K. Hegyfoky report on migration in 
Hungary during the previous year ; while Dr. J. Greschik 
writes on anatomy and histology, and Messrs. E. Csiki 
and G. Bittera on the food and economic status of various 
Hungarian birds. 

Tlie other volumes contain papers on the same or similar 
topics, all more or less closely concerned with Hungarian 
ornithology. 

The last volume of the series contains an account of the 
historical development of the study of Hungarian Orni- 
thology by Mr. J. Schenk, and two appendices. The first 
of these, b}' the Editor, is a Nomenclator Avium Regni 
Hungariae, a checklist drawn up on the lines of the B.O. U. 
List, but without any distribution, followed by notes on the 
nomenclature in disputed or doubtful cases. Dr. Chernel 
does not follow the International rules altogether. He will 
not use the same generic and specific names, and calls the 
White-eyed Pochard Nyroca ferrnginea instead of Nijroca 
nyroca. He also sticks to Anas buschas for the Mallard and 
Turdus musicus for the Song-Thrush, and gives his reasons 
for so doing. The second supplement to the 1918 volume 
contains an elaborate memoir on the former and present 
breeding places of the two White Egrets, He.rodias alba 



176 Recently published Ornithological Works. [Ibis, 

.'ind H. garzetta, in Hungary, illustrated with maps and 
jdaiis in view of their possible preservation by special legis- 
lation in the near future. 

The Auk. 

[Tlie Auk : A Quarterly Journal of Ornithology. Vol. xxxviii. for 
1920.] 

The volume of the ' Auk' for last year contains a good 
many articles of general interest as well as many faunal 
papers which are more attractive to those living on the 
other side of the Atlantic. 

Mr. H. n. Beck writes on the occult senses in birds, 
one instance of which is the "homing" sense which exists 
to a remarkal)le degree not only in the homing pigeon but 
also in certain sea-birds. The experiment undertaken at 
the marine laboratory of the Tortugas in releasing Sooty 
Terns many hundreds of miles away from those islands and 
the return of these marked birds, has proved the existence of 
one of these. An instance of another mysterious sense is the 
food-finding instinct. A carcass of a dog hidden in a hole 
and quite invisible from above was discovered within three 
hours by a pair of Buzzards (Cathartes), although there 
were known to be none of these 1)irds within many miles, 
and Mr. Beck believes that it would have been impossible 
to detect the carcass either by sight or smell. 

In an article entitled " sequestration notes " Mr. J. 
Grinnell develops a thesis that among certain non-Hocking 
foraging birds, such as Ruby- crowned Kinglets [Regulus) 
and Audubon Warblers (Deiidroica), a special note exists to 
warn other birds to keep out of territory already occupied; 
while Mr. J.T. Nichols writes at length on the voices of the 
Wadeis or Shore-birds, of which he has made a life-long 
study, especially on Long Island. 

A valuable paper on the generic and specific characters of 
the Ceryline group of Kingfishers is contributed by Mr. W. 
de W. Miller. Tiiesc he groups in three genera, Megaceryle, 
Ceryle, and Chloroceryle. Mr. Loomis identifies Procellaria 
alba of (xmelin, fouiulcd on a bird obtained during; Cook's 



1 92 1.] Recently published Ornithological Works. 177 

second voyage, as the species now known as Pterodroma 
parvirostris (Peale) from Christmas Island of the Fanning 
group. Mr. W. E. Clyde Todd monographs the South 
American Crested Quails of the genus Eupsychortyx, and 
illustrates their distinctive characters by a coloured plate 
and tlicir distribution by two maps. Dr. J. Dwight, wlio 
has long been engaged in the study of moult and change of 
plumage, has an interesting and instructive article on the 
Gulls. He believes that the smaller gulls attain their adult 
dress in the second year, while in the largest forms this 
process is prolonged until the fourth year. He also points 
out that younger birds can be detected by the more pointed 
shape of the primaries and by the more rounded ends of the 
tail-feathers. The successive plumages of Larus philadelplda 
and L. argentatus are described at length and illustrated on 
five carefully drawn plates. The question of tlie distinctive 
characters of the Common and Barrow's Golden-eye are 
discussed at length by Mr. Allan Brooks, as well as some 
other points in regard to the ducks of British Columbia ; 
his remarks are illustrated by some fascinating drawings 
from his own brush. 

The Killdeer Plover {Oxyechus vociferus), a common 
North-American bird, has long been known to range to 
South America, but was supposed to go there oidy during 
the winter months as a migrant. Recently Mr. Harry 
WatkinSj who has been collecting for the American Museum 
in New York, has sent to Mr. Chapman fourteen examples 
of the Killdeer which he found breeding on the coast of 
Peru. The bird turns out to be separable from the North- 
American one, and is named Oxyechus vociferus peruvianus 
by Mr. Chapman. 

Another new bird described is a duck of the Mallard 
group found in New Mexico and named by Mr. W. Huber 
Anas 7iovimexicana. 

Of the faunal papers, Mr. S. Cobb writes on the birds of 
the Catskill Mountains in New York, Mr. L. Griscom on 
those of Texas, and Mr. P. C. Lincoln on Colorado* birds, 
Messrs. Fleming & Lloyd on Ontario birds, and Mr.Wetmore 

SER. XI. VOL. III. N 



178 Recently puh/islied Ornithological Works. [Ibis, 

on tlie birds of Lake Buvford in New Mexico. Mr. G. D. 
Hauna, who has spent six summers and four winters on tlie 
Pribilof Islands in Beliring Sea, has added a good many 
species to the list of birds occurring there, including four 
species new to the North American list — the Falcated Teal 
{Eunetta falcatn), the Sea-l*^agle [T/ialassoaetns jtchu/icns)^ 
a Wader {Heteroscelus brevipes), and a Pipit {^Antlius spino- 
letta joponicus) . 

The frontispiece of the volume is a fine portrait of the 
late William Brewster, whose memory is honoured in a 
sympathetic appreciation by Mr. H. W. Henshaw. There 
is also a long notice, with a portrait, of Lyman Belding the 
Nestor of Californian ornithologists, who died in 1917 at 
the age of eighty-eight years, by Mr. A. K. Fisher. 

El Hornero. 

[El Ilornero. Revista de la Sociedad Ornitologica del Plnta. Vol. i. 
1917-1919.] 

The first volume of 'El Hornero,' consisting of four 
parts, is now com})lete, and we must congratulate the 
editor. Dr. B. Dabbene, and his contributors on the success 
of their venture. Each number contains several good 
articles on some subject of Argentine ornithology, many 
shorter notes, and some personal paragraphs. The illus- 
trations are chiefly from photographs. 

Dr. Dabbene himself has an article running through 
three numbers on the Laridse of Argentina, in which all 
the species are listed, with distribution and keys for the 
determination of the species, and useful outline sketches 
of bills, wings, and feet. 

Sefior L. Dinelli has some field-notes on the niditication 
of birds collected by him in the north-west of Argentina 
some years ago, which were worked out by Dr. Hartert and 
Senor Yeniuri in the ' Novitates Zoologicse' in 1909. 

In an article on "The fantastic ornithology of the 
Conquestadorcs," Senor Carduso recalls the observations 
and records of the earlier explorers from Magallanes in 
1520 onwards, and reproduces some of their quaint 



1 92 1.] Recently published Ornithological Works. 179 

illustrations ; Senor Serie gives ample directions for 
tlie preparation and conservation of bird-skins ; Avhile 
M. Doello-Jurado writes a special article on the curious 
nests of the two species of Oven-bird (Furnarius cristatus 
and F. rufus), called Hornero in the Spanish vernacular, 
from which the journal takes its name. 

Several new forms are described : Batara cinerea argen- 
tina from the Jnjuy Province^, by Mr. Stewart Sliipton; 
Penelope nif/rifrons and Spinas icterus magiiiroslris, also from 
the mountainous regions of the north-western Argentina, 
by Dr. E,. Dabbene. 



List of other Ornithological Publications received. 

Baktsch, p. Tho Bird Rookeries of the Tortugas. (Smiths. Hep. for 

1917, pp. 409-500.) 
Chapman, F. M. Uuiisiuil types of apparent geographic variation in 

colour and of individual variation in size exhibited b^"^ Ostinops 

decumanus. (Proc. Biol, Soc. Wash. vol. 33, pp. 25-32.) 
Christian!, A. Den Vestnorske Skaerpiber [Anthus iietrosns schi<plcn, 

subsp. nov.). (Dansk. Ornith. Fur. Tids. 1920, pp. 157-162.) 
CowABD, T. A. The Birds of the British Isles and their eggs. 2nd ser. 
Fletcher, T. B., and 1nc4Lis, C. M. Some Common Indian Birds. 

No. 4. Tlie Cattle Egret. (Agr. Journ. India, xv. pp. 373-375.) 
Hautkut, E. Die Vogel der pal. Fauna. (Ileft. 11-12.) 
Laubmann, a. Kritische Untersucluingen iiber die Genotyp- 

fixierungen in Lesson's " Manual d'Ornithologie," 1828. (Arch. 

Naturges. vol. 85, 1920, pp. 137-168.) 
Mc( iitEGOR, R. C. Some features of the Plulippine Ornis. (Philippine 

Journ. 8ci. vol, 16, pp. 301-437.) 
Murphy, R. C. The Zoological Park of Lima, Peru. (Zool. Soc. Bull. 

xxiii. pp. 05-100.) 
Skovgaard, p. Den Sorte Stork saerlig i Danmark. (Viborg, 1920.) 
SwARTH, H. S. Revision of the avian genus Passerclla. (Univ. 

California Publ. Zool. vol. 21, pp. 75-224.) 
SztELASKO, A. Die Gestalteu der normalen und abnornien Vogeleier. 

(Berlin, 1920.) 
WiTHERBY, II. F. A Practical Handbook of Briti.9h Birds. (Part ix.) 
Avicultural Magazine. (Vol. xi. nos. 10-12.) 
Bird-Lore. (Vol. xxii. nos. 5-6.) 
Bird-Notes. (Vol. iii. nos. 9-11.) 
British Birds. (Vol. xiv. nos. 5-7.) 



180 Letters, Extracts, and Notes. [Ibis, 

Brooklyn Museum Quarterly. (Vol. vii. no. 4.) 

Canadian Field-Naturalist. ("Vol. xxxiv. no. 4.) 

Cassinia. (No. 23 for 1919, issued Oct. 1920.) 

Club van Nederlandsclie Vogelkundigen. (Vol. x. pts. 3-4.) 

Condor. (Vol. xxii. no. o.) 

Danske Fugle. (Vol. i. no. 1.) 

El Ilornero. (Vol. ii. no. 1.) 

Emu. (Vol. XX. pts. 1-2.) 

Fauna ocli Flora. (1920, pts. 4-5.) 

Gerfaut. (lO'' aim., pt. 3.) 

[rish Naturalist, (Vol. xxix. nos. 10-12.) 

Journal of tlie Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. (Vol. xxvii. no. 1.) 

Journ. Fed. Malay States Museums. (Vol. ix. pt. 2.) 

Journal fUr Ornitliologie. (Jahrg. 64-G8, 191(5-1920.) 

Ornithologische Monatsbericlite. (Jabrg. 28, nos. 11-12.) 

Revue Fran^aise d'Ornithologie. (12^. ann., nos. 138-139.) 

Revue d'Hist. nat. appl. L'Oiseau. (1920, nos. 10-11.) 

Scottish Naturalist. (1920, nos. 105-108.) 

Verliandluugen Orn. Ges. Bayern. (Vol. xiv. pts. 1-3 & suppl.) 



X. — Letters, Extracts, and Notes. 

The Birds of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. 

Sir,— In the last jiart of their paper (Ibis, 19.^0, p. 815) 
Messrs. Sclater and Mack worth- Praed write of Steplianibyx 
nielanopterus melanopterus : "" liUppell records a specimen of 
tliis bird from ' Nubia.' We should not regard it as 
admissible to the Sudanese list witliout further confirma- 
tion.'^ There is a recent aud confirmatory record. Mr, J. 
C. Phillips (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool, Cambridge, Mass., 
vol, Iviii, no. 1, p, 6) obtained a female example at Sennar 
on the 27th of December, 1912, 

As my record of the Sanderling Crocethiu alba alba appears 

to be the only one from the Sudan, I would like to add that 

the bird was shot in the early spring on the White Nile at 

Khartoum and was in partial breeding-plumage. I mounted 

it myself aud left it, labelled with sex and date, in the 

Gordon College Museum. 

Yours truly, 

St. Leonard's Park, Horsham, A, L. BuTLER. 

28 October, 1920. 



1921,] Letters, Extracts, a7ul Notes. 181 

Breeding-places of the Black-headed Gull. 

Sir,— In a notice of Mr. Robert Gurney's paper on 
" Breeding-stations of tlie Black-headed Gull iu the British 
Isles/' you quote a statement made therein that "there appear 
to be no breeding colonies in any of the central counties 
south of Yorkshire." This is not the case, however, for a 
flourishing colony of some 20 or 30 pairs has existed for two 
years past on the moors not far from Baslow, in Derbyshire. 
I may add that Mr. Gurney's assertion that " the only 
[central] counties in which this Gull has formerly bred are 
Staffordshire and Shropshire " is also incorrect, as there has 
never been a colony in Shropshire. 

Yours truly, 
7 November, 1920. F. C. R. JoURDAIN. 



Nestling Birds. 

SiRj — A regrettable error occurs iji my paper, " A Con- 
tribution to the Study of Nestling Birds," published iu the 
last number of 'The Ibis.' On p. 857, under my definition 
of the term " Mesoptile," the Baru-Owl, instead of the 
Tawny Owl, is given as a typical example of a species 
possessing this form of plumage. The mistake arose, 
I believe, from an editorial misinterpretation of Aluco — 
a pardonable mistake in view of the recent nomenclatorial 
changes in the use of this word. The error is, however, 
very misleading and, as it largely vitiates my definition of 
Mesoptile, I would be very much obliged if m_embers 
of the B. O. U. would kindly correct it by making the 
necessary MS. alteration in their copies of ' The Ibis.^ 
The Baru-Owls, it may be noted, are among the few 
species of Owls that possess little or no trace of this 
peculiar juvenile plumage. 

I remain, &c., 
Beneuden, Collingavood Ingram. 

29 October, 1920. 



182 Letters, Extracts, and Notes. [Ibis, 

Meeting of the American Ornithologists' Union. 

Tlie mectinji- of the American Ornithologists' Union in 
Washington, D.C., on 8-11 November, 1920, was one of 
tlie hirgest in the liistory of the Union. One-half of the 
Fellows and aljoiit 10 per cent, of the entire membership 
were in attendance. The business meetings on Monday were 
held at the Cosmos Club, and the other sessions at the 
U.S. National Museum. The election of Fellows and 
Members included Ilobert Cushinan Murphy of Brooklyn, 
N.Y., as Fellow ; E. C. Stuart Baker and Dr. Percy Lowe 
of London, Honorary Fellows ; 13 Foreign Corresponding 
Fellows, among whom were Miss Dorothea Bate, Major 
Claude H. B. Grant, Miss Maud H. Ilaviland, Cai)t. Colling- 
wood Ingram, David Seth-Smith^ and Miss Emma L.Turner; 
5 Members and 307 Associates. The election of officers for 
1921 resulted as follows: — President, Dr. AVitmer Stone, 
Philadelphia; Vice-Presidents, Dr. George Bird Grinnell 
and Dr. Jonathan D wight. New York ; Secretary, Dr. T. S. 
Palmer, 1939 Biltmore St., Washington, D.C. ; Treasurer, 
W. L. McAfee, iiiological Survey, Washington, D.C. The 
single vacancy in the Council was filled by the selection of 
Dr. W. H. Osgood of Cliicago, and the other six members 
were re-elected. The program of nearly forty papers, five of 
wliicli were illustrated by motion pictures, covered a wide 
range of subjects relating to North American birds, and also 
included papers on the birds of Argentina, Nicaragua, Peru, 
Europe, and Madagascar. In connection with the meeting 
an exhibition of drawings, paintings, and photographs of 
birds by American artists, supplemented by a series of prints 
showing the development of zoological illustration as applied 
to birds from the earliest times down to date, was arranged 
in the Division of Prints in the Library of Congress. 

T. S. Palmer, 

Secrettn'y . 



1 92 1.] Letters, Extracts, and Notes. 183 

Wild Birds Protection Acts. 

The following committees have Ijceii appointed to advise 
the Government in connection with tlie administration ot" 
the Wild Birds Protection Acts : — 

B}' tlie Home Secretary for England — 

His Grace the Duke of Rutland, K.Or. {^Chairman).. 

Mr. II. G. Maurice, C.B., of the Ministry of Agricul- 
ture. 

Dj". Percy R. Lowe, O.B.E., of the Natural History 
Museum. 

Dr. Montague Sharpe, K.C., Chairman of the Ivoyal 
Society for the Protection of Birds. 

Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker, O.B.E., F.Z.S., Secretary ot 
the liritish Ornithologists' Union. 

By the Secretary for Scotland — 

Mr. Hugh S. Gladstone, E.R.S.E. {Chairman). 
Mr. VVm. Eagle Clarke, LL.D. 
Mr. Walter E. Collinge, D.Sc. 

Mr. H. M. Conacher (representing the Board of Agri- 
culture for Scotland). 
Mr. H. J. Crowe (representing the Fishery Board for 

Scotland). 
Professor J. Arthui" Thomson, liL.D. 



Enssian Ornithologists. 

In the list of members of the Union will be found the 
names of six Russian Oinithologists, and we have recently 
made several attempts to find out what has become of them 
since the revolution in Russia. From vaiious sources we 
learn the following, tliougli the evidence is not altogether 
satisfactory in any single case. Michael Menzbier is believed 
to have been murdered in the streets of Moscow early in the 
revolution. Sergius Buturlin is also reported to have died. 
Valentine Bianchi is alive and still at the Museum of the 
Academv of Sciences at Petro<rrad. Peter Suskiu was 



184 Letters, Extracts, and Notes. [Ibis, 192 1. 

recently at Simferopol in the Crimea^ where lie was acting as 
a professor in the so-called " White University.''^ What has 
liappened to him since the invasion and occupation of the 
Crimea by the Bolshevist forces we have not heard. AVe 
have no news of Gregory Poliakov or Sergins Alpheraki. 
Baron Loudon, a well-known ornithologist though not on 
our list of members, was robbed and plundered of his 
possessions and driven out of Livonia by the Bolshevists, 
and is now living in Berlin. 

The Editor or Secretary of the Union would be very glad 
of any further information in regard to the fate of our 
unfortunate Fellow-Ibises in Russia. 



Personalia. 



Mr. A. F. R. WoLLASTON, M.A., B.Ch., D.S.O., M.B.O.U., 

has recently been elected to a Fellowship of King^s College, 
Cambridge. Mr. Wollaston is well known to us for his 
explorations, both geographical and ornithological, of 
Ruwenzori and Dutch New Guinea, and is now organizing 
another expedition to the latter. He has recently completed 
a life of the late Professor Alfred Newton. 

Mr. N. B. KiNNEAR, M.B.O.U., has recently been ap- 
pointed a First Class Assistant in the Natural History 
Museum, and is working in the bird-room under Dr. P. 
R. Lowe. 

Capt. Hubert Lynes, C.B., C.M.G., R.N., who spent 
some months last winter in Dafur, has recently returned 
there accompanied by Mr. Willoughby P. Lowe. He pro- 
poses to spend at least eighteen months in the Sudan 
collecting birds and making observations. He will also 
devote some of his time to other branches of Natural 
History. 

Mr. Georgk L. Bates of Cameroon fame, who has been 
in England for some months during the past season, has 
returned to Bitye in southern Cameroon, and hopes to make 
further explorations in Nigeria as well as in Cameroon. 



rv 



THE IBIS. 



ELEVENTH SERIES. 



Vol. III. No. 2. APRIL 1921. 



XI. — Field Notes on the Birds of Macedonia, With special 
reference to the Struma Plain. By F. N. CHASEN,~Castle 
Museum, Norwich. 

Introduction. 

The present paper is offered as a small contribution to our 
knowledge ot" the ornithology of a comparatively unknown 
part of Europe. In spite of the existence of more than 
forty original papers dealing with the birds of the Balkan 
Peninsula, the Struma plain still remains terra incognita to 
the ornithologist. The earlier publications contain little 
more than scattered references to the birds of this very 
interesting district, and more recent investigators have, like 
myself, carried out their work whilst subject to military 
discipline. 

Dr. Erwin Stresemann's new book, ' Avifauna Macedonica,' 
for the loan of a copy of which I have to thank Mr. W. L. 
Sclater, is exhaustive in its way, but as it was compiled 
largely from material accumulated during the war it — 
naturally enough — does not deal at any length with the 
Struma plain, which was either in Allied occupation or 

SEil. XI. VOL. m. o 



186 Mr. F. N. Chasen oji the [Ibis, 

well within the sphere of hostilities for the greater part of 
the war. 

There is no need to dwell on the geographical nature of 
the country, its vegetation or other issues likely to affect 
its ornithology, for all this information is available — in a 
concise form — in a paper by Capt. Alan G. Ogilvie, O.B.E., 
})ublished in the ' Geographical Journal ' (vol. Iv. no. 1, 
Jan. 1920). 

The observations from which the following notes were 
compiled were made during a period extending over a little 
more than eighteen months spent with the Allied Army in 
Macedonia. The writer was stationed for the greater part of 
this period on the Struma plain, but the long excursions 
that ordinarily fall to the lot of a mounted soldier, gave 
ample chances for bird-watching in the hill district that lies 
between the swiftly flowing river and the coast. 

The area with which we are concerned in this paper may 
be said to form a crude triangle with its base along the line 
Lake Doiran-Seres and its apex at Salonica. 

Opportunities for detailed or continuous observation are of 
necessity very limited when on active service and all dates 
given are inclusive, that is to say, they do not necessarily 
imply the absence of a species at other times. Most of the 
birds mentioned below ai'e very familiar species, and only 
those are included the identification of which was certain. 
I was not in a position to collect skins, although I skinned 
quite a number of birds simply through inability to let a 
good specimen waste. What few I did get together were 
lost — with a mule — during the blizzard at Lahana, in 
March 1918. For this reason I have made no attempt to 
discriminate subspecies, and all doubtful records — however 
interesting — have been ignored. 

I have to thank my very kind correspondent. Major Alex. 
G. L. S laden, for the infinite amount of trouble he has taken 
in reading through my paper. In some cases we worked 
over the same ground, and Major Sladen has let mo have 
some most interesting notes which have come to hand since 
the publication of his own papers. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Macedonia. 187 

The bird-life of Macedonia is varied and plentifiiL Tlie 
Struma plain abounds with large Accipitres ; Vultur(!S, 
Kagles, Buzzards, Kites, and Harriers may be seen. In the 
winter there are good numbers of Ducks and Geese. On the 
(Struma itself are Grebes, Cormorants, and Coots, and in 
the summer, Terns. The level ground is haunted by Crested 
Larks and their kindred, the thickets by Warblers, and 
Buntings of several species are conimon evei-y where and at 
all seasons. In the autumn there are flocks of Wagtails, 
Finches, and Pipits, and hordes of Redstarts and Flycatchers 
a))[)ear in their season. Late in the year huge assemblies of 
Crows can be seen near the Struma. In the snrino; hand- 
some species from the south arrive and pre[)are to nest, 
including the Hoopoe, Roller, Bee-eater, Black-headed 
Bunting, and White Stork. The Magpie, Little Owl, and 
Tree-S[)arrow are characteristic resident birds. 

There are very pronounced local movements at nearly all 
seasons, and these complicate the real migratory events. 
These local movements are caused mainly by the withdrawal 
of resident species from their winter quarters to their breeding 
grounds, by severe weather compelling the birds on the hills 
and high ground to descend to the level of the river and some 
species to the coast, and by the gregarious habits of young 
birds of the year and attendant shitting from the locality of 
birth. In the case of the Jackdaw and Hooded Crow there 
was always the ditficulty of distinguishing" between residents 
and their broods, and migrants. Isolated pairs of Wagtails 
and Finches seen throughout the summer in selected 
localities were also confusing. I think, however, that the 
main features of migration as seen in the concerned area 
could be summarized as follows : — 

(1) The arrival of breeding species in the spring accom- 
panied by a "■ through '' passage of other birds on their way 
to the north. It was not easy to distinguish migrants during 
the vernal movement, but there was a stream of Martins, 
Swifts, and W^hinchats at any rate. The return journey in 
autumn is more pronounced — Redstarts, Spotted Flycatchers, 

o 2 



]88 Mr. F. N. Chasen on the [Ibis, 

Warblers (especially of tbe genns PJti/Jloscopys), Whiuchats, 
Hirundiiies, and Wagtails passing in large niinibers. 

(2) The departure of wintering birds to the north in early 
spring. The Chiifchaff and Rook may be taken as examples. 
There is also a withdrawal of Geese, Ducks, wintering 
Thrushes and Finches. It would appear that — in the case of 
the ChiffchafFat least — this movement was completed before 
birds of the same species arrived in the country as spring 
miorants from the south. 

(3) The autumn influx of birds seen throughout the next 
winter, e. g., Siskin, Serin, other Finches, Meadow Pipit, 
Woodlark, Skylark, Groldcrest, Great Grey Shrike, Robin, 
Merlin, Sparrow-Hawk, Ducks, Geese, Rooks, and Wood- 
cock. The movements of the Brambling and Fieldfare were 
very spasmodic. 

The undermentioned migrants were first seen on the dates 
given : — 

Black-headed Bunting 28 April. 

Red-backed Shrike 8 May. 

Whitethroat 12 April. 

Lesser Whitethroat 7 April. 

Black-throated Wheatear i;> April. 

W^ieatear 29 March. 

Nightingale 7 April. 

Swallow 21 March. 

House-Martin 1 April. 

Bee-eater 4 May. 

Hoopoe '6 April. 

Roller 17 April. 

(yuckoo 6 April. 

Lesser Kestrel 8 March. 

White Stork 13 March. 

The following species were found breeding : — Jackdaw, 
Magpie, Hooded Crow, Starling, House-Sparrow, Tree- 
Si)arrow, Rock-Sparrow, Corn-Bunting, Cirl Bunting, 
Black-headed Bunting, Calandra Lark, Crested Lark, Lesser 
Grey Shrike, Woodchat, Whitethroat, Lesser Whitethroat, 



1 92 1.] Birds of Macedonia. 189 

Cetti's Warbler, Blackbird, Nightinoale, Wlieatear, Night- 
jar, Roller, Little Owl, Kestrel, Lesser Kestrel, White 
Stork, Turtle- Dove, Collared Dove, Stone-Curlew, and 
Little Ringed Plover. To these Major Sladen has added 
Spanish Sparrow (Karasuli and Hirsova), Short-toed Lark, 
Nuthatch, Bee-eater, Hoopoe, Black Tern, Osprey and 
Kingfisher, as well as a few more species included in his 
own papers. 

Other species were seen continually throughout the 
breeding-season or showed other signs of having nests, e. g., 
Raven, Chaffinch, Ortolan, White Wagtail, Grey Wagtail, 
Red-backed Shrike, Stonechat, Kite, Common Buzzard, and 
(yommon Snipe. Some of these have been recorded as breed- 
ing in Macedonia, but as localities are not mentioned — and 
the occupied territory was so vast — the nests may have been a 
great, distance from the area with which we are concerned — 
anywhere, in fact, between the Adriatic and Black Seas. 

[CoRViD^. — Vast flocks of Jackdaws, Rooks, and Hooded 
Crows frequent the Struma j)lain during the winter months. 
From December 1916 to January 1917 the numbers were 
truly terrific, but the comparatively milder v\ inter of 1917— 
191^5 did not witness such laroe conoregations. During the 
summer months very different conditions were in force, 
some Ravens, scattered pairs of Hooded Crows, and a number 
of Jackdaws representing the Corvidae. 

Generally speaking, there was a withdrawal of Crows in 
the very early spring. The numbers diminished before 
March, during which month a marked movement of Rooks 
to the W. and N.VV. took place. After this Rooks were 
not seen at all — although some may have bred beyond the 
area of observation. (There are nests by the side of the 
Orient railway line between Salonica and Larissa.) 

A daily increase in the number of Hooded C-rows and 
Jackdaws in September and October may have been due to 
the gregarious habits of young birds bred in the preceding 
months. A large influx of "foreign" Jackdaws and 
Hooded Crows occurred in late autumn, and with these 



lUO Mr. F. N. ClKiscii on th,t [Ibis, 

Ciiiiie tlic Hi^lits of Uooks that were to })0[)iilate tlie dirty 
acres of the phiiii for the ^vinter. My diaries contain 
frequent notes concernino- the entire absence of Crows from 
sundry localities during tlie period April to Ano'ust. One of 
the laro-est C'orvine movements was during tlie first few days 
of October liU7. when immense flocks of high-flying birds 
(s|i. ?) passed over Orljak, but I'roni such varied points 
that I could not nauie the general trend of the movement by 
the compass. 

A point worth}^ of notice was the unsuspiciousness of the 
wintering Crows in Macedonia. In the winter of 1910 my 
duties frequently caused me long rides across the plain, and 
I often walked my horse quite through flocks of Rooks, 
flocks cliat on occasions could almost be measured by the 
acre, without disturbing any but those birds in the direct 
path. They were certainly far more approachable than the 
Crows in Western Europe.] 

Corvus cor ax. Raven. 

Often seen on the hills, but not evenly distributed. It is 
resident and usually met within pairs, although small flocks 
of anything up to fourteen individuals were noted. The 
road leading from Orljak to Kohcan-Mah wends througli 
several good places for Ixavens. Several seen at Paprat in 
autumn. In the case of unsavoury meals the Ravens would 
often be at the feast before the Vultures had them located. 

Corvus cornix Hooded (Jrow. 

Abundant in winter, but less numerous than the Jackdaws 
or Rooks, During the spring odd birds were seen about the 
hills, where I located a few nests. On 13 January a Goose 
was shot from the bank of the Struma. It fell in a very 
awkward position, just on the edge of some ice piled up 
auainst the opposite bank. It was scarcely an hour before 
this Goose was retrieved, but when I did get it, it was 
comjiletely spoiled by the Hooded Crows, who bad pulled it 
about most audaciously. I was within thirty yards of the 
Goose from beginning to end, but in spite of this no amount 
of stone-throwing or shouting would shift the birds. The 



1 92 1,] Birds of Macedonia. 191 

cranium had been broken open and the brain-cavity com- 
pletely cleared. After this a large hole had been made in 
the region ol: the clavicles, and finally the Crows had devoted 
themselves to the large and fleshy pectoral muscles. On 
7 April I found three pairs breeding at Aracli. One nest 
had certainly been built in the same spring. The nests were 
about fourteen feet from the ground, in the forks of slender 
oak-trees, and two of them were quite accessible to a fairly 
active man. The new nest, to which I paid particular 
attention, appeared to be finished by 12 April. During the time 
that building-operations were taking place, the birds roosted 
at night in a tall fruit-tree (in full blossom), about two 
hundred yards away from the nest. On 18 April there was 
one egg in the nest. Both parents were very demonstrative 
when I was getting up the tree, flying round and cawing 
loudl}^ but later they showed great cunning in not loitering 
in the vicinity of the nest when I was about. The hen bird 
always slipped away at the first sign of danger. The nest 
itself was very conspicuous, composed of twigs, and neatly 
lined with horse-hair and a few feathers. 

Corvus cor one. Car r ion-Crow. 

I found a dead bird in December, but could not be sure of 
further occurrences. 

Corvus frugilegus. Rook. 

Large flocks about the plain during the winter of 1916-17. 
Especially numerous in December, 1916. On 19 March, 
1916, a steady stream of Rooks was seen flying across the 
plain in a westerly direction at mid-day. Some of them 
(I am sure very weary birds) stopped for a rest in a clump 
of trees, and resumed their journey at dusk. The majority 
of the birds left their winter quarters at the end of February 
or beginning of March. The general direction of the 
movement seemed to be towards the N. and N.W., in which 
case it may be assumed that the flocks seen on 19 March 
were birds from a region to the S.E. of my area, following 
a line similar to that taken by the Macedonian Rooks. As 



192 Mr. F. N. Cliasen on the [Ibis, 

nea/as I could judge, this line crossed the mountains some- 
where to the W. of Rupel. There was a complete absence of 
Rooks in spring and summer — at any rate from the places 
visited. The evening flights of Rooks on the Struma plain 
are sometimes of stupendous size and easily mistaken for 
genuine migratory movements. An immense flock passed 
overhead on the 2nd of March, and the number of birds was so 
great that for several minutes there was a noise like the 
whirr of a sharp breeze. The movements of some flocks 
observed in early spring would lead one to believe that there 
is some justification for the old saying that Rooks go mad in 
the spring. Thirty or more would separate themselves 
from a larger flying flock and swoop towards the earth, 
performing the most wonderful antics for a short time. 
They would twist about, and on occasions topple over in 
most extraordinaiy style. When the whole crowd suddenly 
dropped to the earth, the noise was not unlike that of an 
approaching shell. 

Corvus monedula. Jackdaw. 

This is one of the most common birds in the country, and 
large numbers breed. Some of them paired as early as the 
middle of February, but there were flocks about several 
weeks later. A great deal of competition took place in 
Macedonia for available nesting-sites. This was due to the 
large number of Jackdaws inhabiting the country. Some of 
them did not breed at all, and flocks composed of from six 
to ten birds were roaming over the country, without showing 
signs of pairing, all through the spring and summer. 
The Jackdaws showed great adaptability in their choice of 
nesting-sites, and within a short radius from where I was 
living there were nests in the following sites : — In the 
minaret of a mosque and also somewhere in the ruinous 
roof of the same building, under the eaves of native houses 
(otherwise unoccupied), and in holes in a steep bank. The 
most interesting nest of all was [)laced in the lower branches 
of a Stork's nest. The Storks and Jackdaws seemed to be 
on the most amicable terms, but the advantages of this 



1 92 1.] Birds of Macedonia. 193 

strange union are rather liard to divine. One thing is 
certain, however, and that is the Storks must have been 
indebted to the Jackdaws for one thing, because the hitter 
birds were constantly bringing sticks and re-arranging the 
twigs about their own nest. Storks do but little nest- 
building on their own account, and the Jackdaws' efforts 
undoubtedly made the home of this particular pair more sub- 
stantial, as it was in a precarious state after weathering the 
previous winter. When both Storks were away from home, 
and then only, the Jackdaws would sit on the edge of the cnp- 
like mass, i. e., in the larger birds' domain. Some interestino- 
possibilities presented themselves, but I never got any 
farther into the matter. The Jackdaws surely had to 
restrain themselves where the Stork's eggs were concerned ; 
but then, again, supposing this difficulty to have been over- 
come, I should, imagine that the Storks would have found 
newly hatched Jackdaws a nice change from frogs. I 
noticed the act of mating on 29 March. Eggs 23 May. 
Newly hatched young at the latter end of April and 2o May. 
Young were being fed in the nest at the beginning of June. 
A bird of the year was flying on 1 June, and several broods 
flying about in the neighbourhood of their home by the end 
of the month. By the 1st of September flocks of sixty or more 
birds were common, and these had already associated them- 
selves with their companions for the coming winter — the 
Hooded Crows. 

A battle that took place at noon on a sunny day in 
February seems fairly typical of the methods adopted by 
this species when fighting. One bird was lying on its back 
on the ground with its beak directed at its opponent's head. 
It fought primarily with its feet, which were entamded in 
the feathers of the abdomen of the uppermost bird. The 
second bird stood bodily on the under bird, and balancing 
itself on out-stretched wings, it repeatedly pecked at its- 
opponent's head. These two birds fought in a methodical 
manner. They wrestled for a few moments and then, as if 
by mutual agreement, separated and flew up to a low bouoh 
hanging over the chosen arena.. On this occasion there were 
five distinct " rounds.'* The same bird was undermost each 



194 Mr. F. N. Cliasen on the [Ibis, 

time, niid, indeed, it seemed as il: it preferred to adopt this 
tactic throuiihout tlie fis^t, because each time the strife 
commenced anew it vohintarily assumed the position 
described. It was, however, a bad choice, because the upper- 
most Jackdaw was undoubtedly the conqueror. 

Another point worthy o£ mention, although it has been 
remarked upon many times before, is connected with the 
feeding of the young. When the parent birds are returning 
from a long foraging expedition, their mouths are frequently 
so full of food that the space between the rami of the lower 
mandible is distended to form a very visible pouch, which is 
conspicuous enough to be noticed when the bird is fljing 
past. This fact did not prevent the Jackdaws from making 
as much noise as usual. The only differences were, firstly, 
that the call was produced with the beak closed instead of 
ga[)ing, as it usually is, and secondly, that the note was, in 
consequence, rather throaty in tune. The Jackdaws at 
Orljak used horsehair, grass, native cotton, and string 
(among other materials), for their nests. At Ormanli twigs 
were collected with great energy for repairing purposes, and 
hunuin hair (found under the tiles in native houses) was a 
favourite building material. 

Regarding the identity of Macedonian Jackdaws, many 
birds were certainly very light on the neck, but others 
a})pcared quite normal, and as near as I could say from 
observation alone, they were typical examples of Corvus 
monedula monedula. Major Sladen, however, has much 
better grounds to work upon, for be shot a number and 
writes : — " All that I examined appeared to belong to the 
subspecies 6". monedula collaris Dxummond, and all of them 
had more white above the neck than the tyjjical bird. 
I found that it was not unusual to come across individuals 
which had a rusty red tinge all over. I remember an 
instance of one in a flock near Snevce, which was almost 
mahogany colour, but I was unable to secure it. 1 noticed 
the same thing to a lesser degree in individuals of Corvus 
cornixy 



1 92 1.] Birds of Macedonia. 195 

Pica pica. Magpie. 

A very coninion bird and rarely out of one's sight, being- 
found pretty well everywhere. In Macedonia it certainly 
does not show any preference for the wooded districts. 
Magpies were numerous at most of the places, visited, and 
only occasionally scarce or absent, as at Baisili, in August. 
The large numbers that frequent the plain in winter, often 
feeding in the company of Jackdaws and Rooks, do not stop 
to breed in their winter quarters, although quite a number 
do nest in the country. There was a decline in numbers 
during the summer months, and an influx in the autumn. 
During cold weather in Decemlier there were chattering flocks 
of Mag[)ies in nearly every leafless tree near the river. On 
the hills in the autumn, flocks of from twelve to twenty birds ■ 
could be seen leading the life of true Crows, foraging for food 
on the stony ground. A good many kept in pairs throughout 
the winter. Nests were fairly common but often well hidden, 
some in trees, others in tall dense bushes. Several pairs 
bred in the neighbourhood of Ormanli ; none actually in the 
village. Young birds were seen in the nest during the first 
week in May. Broods flying 19 May. The peculiar hal»it that 
the Magpie has of jei'king- its tail upwards when alighting- 
served the species in good stead on the muddy Struma 
levels. I feel sure that the movement is accentuated when 
the bird alights on wet or dirty ground, and possibly there 
is a clue to the origin of the habit to be found here. The 
Magpies in Macedonia were fond of roosting in old nests, and 
a stone flung into an old Stork's nest in the evening would 
often cause as many as eight birds to leave in single file. A 
partiality for selected roosting-places was a noticeable habit, 
and a regular flight to these places, often groups of trees of 
a o-ood heiuht. in the evenino- reminded one of the Rooks' 
evening flights. The Magpies would settle down to rest 
with many chuckles, but once settled they sat close. I 
witnessed a good demonstration of this habit on 16 June 
at Kopriva. At sunset a large number of Magpies passed 
over the village from the direction of the hills. They 
went towards a clum[) of trees half-way across the plain, and 



196 Mr. F. N. Cliasen on the [Ibis, 

I judged them to be birds that had spent tlie day wanderiiig 
about at the foot of the hills and banded toirether in the 
late afternoon. Later, I saw several Hocks leave the ground 
and mount high into the air — they always fly high on these 
occasions — and take a straight line for the roosting-place, 
exactly like a mob of Rooks. Small flocks of about a dozen 
birds followed at intervals, from various points, for some 
time. I rarely saw more than thirty Magpies in one compact 
flock. Several times during the latter end of May — when 
some of the young were beginning to fly — I saw cases of 
what appeared to be lack of parental affection in this species. 

Garrulus glandarius. Jay. 

Seen in the wooded districts which are few and restricted 
in area. A local bird, not straying over the country like the 
Magfiie. After severe weather and snow on the hills, odd 
birds appeared on the Struma plain, especially in December. 

Sturnus vulgaris. Starling. 

A common resident. Flocks on the open ground in winter 
and also other birds in the villages. The Starlings diminished 
in numbers in July and August, when I noticed a comp'ete 
absence from certain haunts. They breed mainly in the 
villages. There were evening flights to roosting-places 
near the Struma — usually large clumps of reeds — which 
reminded one of the Starling's habits on the Norfolk 
Broads. Starlings breeding in Elisan had purple heads. 

Oriolus oriolus. Golden Oriole. 
Several seen in June. • 

[FiiiNGiLLiDiE. — Very few Finches of any species were 
seen in the spring, and I found no nests other than those of 
S[)arrows.] 

Coccothraustes coccothraustes. Hawfinch. 
One record only. 2o January, near Lozista. 

Chloris chloris. Greenfinch. 

Small flocks common from October to February, but this 
was by no means a conspicuously abundant species. A few 
seen in the spring. 



IQ2I.] Birds of Macedonia. 197 

Carduelis carduelis. Goldfinch. 

Not seen during the breeding-season, but ver}^ connuon 
for the rest of the year. The small villaoes situated at 
the foot of the hills were strongholds for this bird. The 
once cultivated patches of tobacco, cotton, and vegetables, 
but now only patches of weeds with a remnant of the 
original crop showing through here and there, always attracted 
the Goldfinches in winter. They drank regularly, even 
in the most severe weather, and had qaite a novel method 
of doing so. Small parties would fly to the reed-beds, and 
the birds would cling to the bases of the reeds about two 
inches above the water and drink by bending over to the 
surface. After this they would often alight on the snowy 
flotsam and flutter in the water to their content. A Marsh- 
Harrier attended one of these particular watering-places day 
iifter day, and levied a regular toll on the birds as they came 
to drink. 

Spinus spinus. Siskin. 

Several seen in sheltered corners of the plain from 
December to March. One pair frequented a small patch 
of reeds near a pond for at least nine consecutive weeks 
in the cold weather. I took some pains to find out the 
nature of the food, and found that it consisted of the seeds 
of half rotten " blackberries " which were still hanging 
on the bushes. The Siskin's confiding habits were most 
pronounced. 

" To-day a pair of Siskins were feeding in some pink 
ground-nettles only a yard or so from my feet. Another 
little hen sat on a small bush, beside the stream. I stood 
quite by the side of the bush but she was not in the least 
disturbed. I seized a twig and gently pulled it until the 
whole bush was swaying, but still the bird remained. 
At last I took a step nearer and stretched out a hand 
to seize her, upon which she fluttered away.'^ (Diar}', 
17 March.) 

Acanthis cannabina. Linnet. 
Snudl flocks in autumn and winter. 



198 Mr. F. N. Chasen on the [Ibis, 

Serinus serinus. Serin. 

Floclvs in earlj October at Cakirli. A few remained 
(actually in the village) at Orljak through the winter. 
Severe weather alwavs had the effect of brinoing more into 
the village, where they found shelter and food. 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula. Bullfinch. 

A few seen in the winter, usually alone or in pairs. A 
curious feeding habit was noticed on 7 February. A male 
[)lucked a berry from a slender twig overhanging the water, 
while it was on the wing. Tlie bird remained for a few 
seconds fluttering, or rather hovering, by the side of the 
berry before snatcliing it. The twig would have been 
scarcely stout enough to bear the weight of the bird. 

Fringilla ccelebs. Chaftinch. 

Extremely numerous in winter. The common Finch of 
many districts, in some cases outnumbering the Tree-Sparrow. 
Most of the Chafhnches withdrew from their winter haunts 
in March. The nest was not found, but a few birds, 
obviously j)aired, were seen through the spring. An influx 
in October. 

Fringilla niontifringilla. Brambling. 

On 4 January a number were mixed u ith the Chatflnches 
in Orljak. The weather was severe and there was snow on 
the ground. There were also some independent flocks of 
considerable size near the river. These birds went as 
suddenly as they had appeared, and a few days later not one 
was to be seen. One or two others identified at odd times 
during the winter. 

Passer domesticus. House-Sparrow. 

Passer montanus. Tree-Sparrow. 

Both species common almost everywhere. I\ montanas 
predominates in a large number oF districts, and I should say 
is numerically superior in most parts of Macedonia. Both 
species breed freely. Although both kinds could be seen 
in mixed flocks during the day, there was a strong tendency 
to roost in specific bauds. P. montanus preferred willow- 
trees for this purpose. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Macedonia. 199 

Passer hispaniolensis. Spanish Sparrow. 

Seen occasionally with other Sparrows, but apparently- 
very local in distribution. Several could usually be found 
in Elisan. 

Petronia petronia. Tiock-S{)arrow. 

I have only one record and that concerns a pair breeding 
at Orljak. I found a nest with young in a high bank. Tbe 
nest was in a hole about fifteen feet from the ground, and 
there is but little doubt that the hole was found ready made. 
The behaviour of the female and the loud wheezv chiri'uping 
of the young made the detection of this nest inevitable by 
every person who passed by. Otherwise it would have been 
difficult to locate on account of the many similar but 
unoccupied holes in the same bank. Whenever I approached 
both parents were somewhere near the hole. The male 
would fly off to a wire fence about 15 yards away and remain 
watching. It would call incessantly using a double note, but 
nevertheless this parent would not excite itself unduly. The 
female, however, would hopelessly betray the nest. It 
would remain at the hole till the last moment in a very 
agitated state. It would also return to the brood at the 
earliest possible moment, and more often than not fly straight 
into the hole. 

Emberiza calandra. Corn-Buntinir. 

Very common. Abundant in winter, and twittering 
little flocks were seen everywhere. The gregarious habits 
continued well into March, but when I went along the Orljak- 
Kopriva road on the llth of April they seemed to have settled 
down a bit. At Karamatli they nest side by side with the 
Sjn-ikes and E. melanocephala. Nests were also plentiful at 
Gramatna, at which place I found eggs up to the end of 
June. Young birds at the beginning of July. A favourite 
site for the nest was in a low bramble-bush growing near 
the headland of a poor wheat or barley crop. In February 
mixed flocks of (■orn- Buntings and Goldfinches were 



200 Mr. F. N. Cliasen on Ike [Ibis, 

Emberiza citrinella. Yellow Bunting. 

Two records only, and, curiously enough, both on 12 Janu- 
ary (1917 and 1918). The former a small number near the 
Struma, the latter a single bird. 

Emberiza cirlus. Cirl Bunting. 

Common. Found in flocks all the winter, and in some 
districts the predominating species as at Oakirli in October. 
Small flocks could be seen along the road from this place 
quite up the hills to Sivri, over a scrubby broken area, 
where the ascent was very rough, and few other birds could 
be seen. I found some nests at Karamatli and eggs during 
the latter half of April. Flocks were seen again on the 1st 
of September, although broods were still being fed on that 
date. 

Emberiza hortulana. Ortolan. 

Seen in summer. Common at Aracli and Karamatli in 
April. Mixes freely with E. cirlus. 

Emberiza cia. Meadow-Bunting. 
Seen commonly in winter and spring. 

{E. schooniclus, a bird at Ormanli in February, was almost 
certainly a female.) 

Emberiza melanocephala. Black-headed Bunting. 

A common summer bird. Seen 28 April, but I think 
there were earlier arrivals. It was usually found fre- 
quenting the cultivated or more or less open stretches of 
ground. Its chosen haunts were usually where fruit was 
growing, a patch of currant-bushes, a group of fig-trees, or a 
vineyard, for instance. The pleasant little song has more 
music in it than that of most other Buntings. It commences 
with a " Chit-chit-chit,'^ which is followed by a short musical 
bar, nicely warbled and repeated twice or, perhaps, three 
times. The introductory notes may be faltering with a good 
pause between each note, but the final part of the song comes 
out with a rush. The introductory notes were omitted by 
many males heard singing in June. 

I found nests at Mirova, Kurkut, Karamatli, and 



1 92 1.] Birds of Macedonia. 201 

Grainatna. The rolling hills between the two last-named 
places were especially good breeding-grounds. These hills 
are very bare. The ground is stony and clothed with short 
grass, with uneven clumps o£ l)rambles here and there 
which are in some places so dense that they constitute a 
thicket. There is only an occasional group of trees or any- 
thing that resembles a hedge. It is, in fact, ideal country 
for Shrikes, Bantings, and Whitethroats. I was not in time 
for early eggs, but on the 1st of July there were five nests 
each containing four eggs, and in all cases well incubated. 
Youns birds seen in the nest at the end of June and begin- 
ning of July. The nests were fairly well made, not models 
of neatness exactly, and usually placed in the thickest part 
of an individual spray on a low bush. None of the nests 
were down in the centre of the bushes, and they were all 
easy enough to find. The male would sit on a top twig 
near the nest, singing. The hen would dart off the nest 
when you had started to poke the bush about with a stick, 
and rarely before. The bushes chosen were mostly below 
the waist in height. 

Lullula arltorea. Wood-Lark. 

Seen from September onwards. A few in August. Small 
parties of from four to six birds at Baisili in autumn. 

Alauda arvensis. Sky-Lark. 

Frequent, but not found breeding. The level ground 
between Orljak and the river was a good place to find them 
in winter. 

Melanocorypha calandra. CJalandra Lark. 
Oonnnon, but not nearly so numerous on the Struma plain 
as (jralerida rristata. Eggs at intervals in April. 

Calandrella brachydactyla. Short-toed Lark. 

A pair near the Struma on 26 May were probably breeding, 
but I could not find the eggs. Other pairs seen in June on 
the hills (Mirova and Kurkut). Found breeding at Kara- 
suli and Dadular (a camp quite near to Salonica) by Major 
Sladen. 

SEB. XI. — VOL. III. P 



202 Mr. r. N. Cliasen on the [Ibis, 

Galerida cristata. Crested Lark. 

The commonest Lark of the districts I visited and a 
resident bird. No pronounced migration was notice 1, but a 
good deal of local movement took place. In one case this local 
movement was very decided — namely, the withdrawal of the 
birds from their winter quarters {e.g.^ the interior of 
the villages) in the early spring to the vicinity of their 
breeding-grounds. In the winter small parties of from six 
to twelve birds were met with in a variety of places. Unlike 
many other species of birds they showed no extreme gre- 
oarious habits in severe weather, and rarely more than a 
dozen were seen together. Immediately the weather im- 
proved the small flocks broke up, and signs of pairing were 
evident at an early date. Indeed, a fair ])ercentage of birds 
had remained in pairs all the winter. As early as 13 Feb- 
ruary, one of these Larks was making a laudab'e attempt to 
sine-. It was a sunny day and the blue sky was quite sj)i-ing- 
like, but there was a bitter wind blowing that ruffled the 
sonoster's plunuige to confusion as it sat on an old mud wall! 
hi the villages they are fond of running about the rough 
roads and rolling about in " sand-baths,*' their vigorous 
actions in the^e raising little clouds of dust. 

Some bred on the level grountl near the liver. During 
the breeding-season they were very tame^ running about in 
the long grass about twelve feet away and only reluctantly 
takiniT wing. Far more, however, nest on the hills, and in 
favoured places 'a good many nests may be found in a' small 
area. There were plenty of nests between Mirova and 
Kurkut in June, but the most [)rolific district seems to have 
been the country included by a radius of, say, four kilo- 
metres from Karamatli. I saw eggs during the third anil 
fourth week in June and first week in July, but lack of 
observation is responsible for absence of earlier dates. Most 
of these were placed in the middle of a tussock of grass and 
stumbled iij-on when hunting for the eggs of Black-headed 
Buntings. 1^'ive nests found in one day each contained 
three eggs, but tliese may have been inconiplete clutches. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Macedonia. 203 

Some of; the nests situated on the hillsides had very little 
cover. The young bii-ds enjoyed themselves in the tobacco 
patches after leaving the nest and ke{)t in broods even when 
full-grown. The high-pitched voice [i.e. the call-note) was 
lieard never so commonly as when the snow was deep. In 
the winter the species estiiblished very intimate relations 
wiih the troops, and we had regular visitors to our bivouacs 
and huts for the table-scraps. 

Like AUuida arvensis this bird mounts into the air 
and sings aloft, but its performance on these occasions 
ditfers a good deal from that of the better-known bird. 
The Crested Lark does not soar in a steadfast manner, 
nor does it remain for a long period poised on quiver- 
ing wings. It appears to wander into the air rather 
aindessl}^ and does not attain the altitude usual to the 
Skylark. It does not remain in the air for any length of 
time, nor does it mount with any great frequenc3% Jn one 
point, however, the two species are almost alike, for both 
birds drop abruptly when nearing the ground — cutting the 
song sliort. In the hot weather these Larks run about 
with dragging wings and gaping beaks. The hea})S of mule 
duno- and associated clouds of insects attract laroe numbers. 
A word as to the usual tactics employed in battle. First, 
the two birds face each other and make sundry " feints^' in 
a manner that is good to see. Both then jump upwards and 
meet in the air with a slight collision. A short chase 
follows. Some of the combats last a considerable time and 
take the principals a long way from the starting-point. The 
voice is very Lark-like with a specific note easily detected. 
The syllables used and the tone of the voice are not unlike 
those of the Skylark, but when compared with this bird the 
Cresled Lark is very unmusical. There is no ])ei'sistence or 
quality in the song. When the bitter Vardar winds were 
blowing across the plain and the piissing skeins of Geese 
were the onl}^ other signs of bird-life, the Crested Lark could 
always be seen running along the snowy parapet searching 
for our table scraps ; at times the little bird would squat right 
down on its tarsi, and with crest ei'ected to its fullest extent 

p 2 



204 Mr. F. N. Chasen on the [Ibis, 

and beak pointed abnost vertically to the sky, would chatter 
its cheery little bar so near to us that ue could see its 
throat bubbling with every note. 

Motacilla boarula. Grey Wagtail. 

Seen throughout the year, but most plentiful in autumn 
and winter. In the latter season they were observed in the 
evacuated villaoes runnino- about the roofs and mud-brick' 
walls, searching under tiles where possible and commonly 
entering houses. The Grrey Wagtails fell an easy prey to 
the troops with their primitive bird-traps, but weve so 
unsuspicious that it was considered bad sport to catch theui. 
Tiie same bird would walk into the most obvious trap 
time after time. 

Motacilla alba. AVliite Wagtail. 

Very common in October and seen tliroughont the winter. 
Much less plentiful in spring, and very few seen in summer. 
Some young birds on 5 July and a pair of adults at Baisili, 
5 August. 

Motacilla flava flava. Blue-headed Wagtail. 
Several adults at Cakirli 24 September {circa). They 
came with crowds of Redstarts and Spotted Flycatchers. 

Motacilla flava rayi. Yellow Wagtail. 

Large numbers in flocks of from thirty to sixty birds, or 
even more, appeared in the vicinity of Karamatli during 
the last few days in August and beginning of September. 
Some of them loitered about for several days. These flocks 
were largely composed of immature birds, i. e. birds of the 
year. Adults of the present race were seen, and for this 
reason [ have included all these Yellow Wagtails under the 
heading of M. f. raijL Further discrimination of species 
without skins would be impossible. I could not identify the 
adult of i1/. melanocephala to my satisfaction, but Mnjor 
Sladen has skins obtained at the mouth of the Vardar. 

Anthus campestris. Tawny Pipit. 

Some noticed simultaneouslv with the increase of AVjiotails 
in the autumn. 



1Q2I.] Birds of Macedonia. 205 

Anthus trivialis. Tree-Pipit. 
Aracli, G April. 

Anthus pratensis. Meadow-Pipit. 

Struma plain in winter. When the snow fell these 
Pipits came to our tents for food, mixing with the White 
Wagtails and Crested Larks. 

Sitta europsea. Nuthatch. 

Common on the hills, hut local in distribution. In spring 
at Aracli. Particularly plentiful in small woods near 
Lahana in October. 

Regulus regulus. Groldcrest. 

Some on the hills in October. One at Grumisdere, 
7 November ; another at Kopriva, 24 December. 

Parus major. Great Titmouse. 

The commonest Titmouse, Found on the hills wherever 
there is a trace of cultivation, and often in the scrub in quite 
desolate places. Most frequent from October to January, 
but numerous in April. 

Parus cseruleus. Blue Titmouse. 
Practically as P. major, but not so common. 

Parus lugubris. Sombre Titmouse. 

Two records. A pair haunted some pear-trees on which 
the fruit was rotten, in October and November at Paprat. 
Another pair at Aracli in April. 

.ffigithalus caudatus. Long-tailed Titmouse. 
A few on the hills in autunm. Common in April and 
May. 

Lanius excubitor. Great Grey Shrike. 

Seen near the Struma in winter, especially in January. 
I remember one bird of a pair keeping in front of my horse 
for more than a mile, darting from its perch and skimming 
low over the ground, a short distance ahead, and then sud- 
denly rising and perching on the top of a bush again. 



206 Mr. F. N. Chascu on the [Ibis, 

Lanius minor. Lesser Grey h>hrike. 

Plentil'ul enon<j;li in June and Julj-. Breeds freely. A 
number of nests in the (ininiatna area. 

Lanius senator. A\ oodcliat. 

A numerous summer bird to be seen in most localities — 
the Struma plain^ tiio hills near Lake Doiran, and the woods 
at Mirova alike. Not so abunihant as the next species. The 
dapper black and white plumage with rich sienna cap that 
glows brick-red when the sun hits the bird's poll, renders this 
Shrike very conspicuous. AVhen they first arrive in the 
country and prior to nesting (I have no dates likely to be 
first arrivals), they roam about in pairs, flying from one 
}>ramble l)ush to another, keeping close to tlie ground in 
their short flights. The Woodchat is by no means a restless 
bird. A pair will take up their position on a clump ot: tall, 
woody and thorny undergrowth, post themselves about tew 
yards apart, and wait for coming events with great jiatience. 
They will crouch on a hough wdth their white breasts towards 
you and remain inactive for as long as six minutes by the 
watch. I say " inactive,'.^ but really the birds are very 
alert. The head is constantly moved, being cocked at every 
conceivable angle as the bird looks for passing insects. If 
an insect is caught by one of the pair, the less fortunate 
bird will flit over to its mate to watoh the }»rocess of thrashing 
the insect to death against a small twig, and then return to 
its own " look-out " and resume the same seemingly indolent 
but really alert position. The short note is pleasing, but the 
call-notes are harsh. The white rump is very conspicuous 
in flight. Nests between Karamatli and Gramatna. 

Lanius coUurio. Red-backed Shrike. 

A common summer bird. First seen 8 May. There were 
plenty near our camp during the second week in October. 
A diary note remarks their absence on 9 October, but I 
expect the last birds had gone before I ap[)reciated the fact. 
Stagnant water near the river, the extensive beds of red 
popi)ies, and, above all, the high ground on the hillsides, 
where there were no hedges but acres of short thorny 



1921.] Birds of Macedonia. 207 

vegetalioii, were their f;ivourite haunts. I was siiiguhirlv 
unfortiiiiate with i-eiiaril to nests, but had noted flvini'- 
broods — in barred juvenile [)luniaoe — bjthe 1st of September. 
Quite a number frequented the country in the vicinity of 
our camp, and it was not surprising that their familiar 
habit of impaling insects on the thorns of bushes should be 
l)rouoht to notice quite commonly. 

I fancy the Shrike's butchering habits have been pretty 
well worked out by now, but I should like to include a tield- 
note that describes the whole performance : — 

"12 September, noon and very hot I was lying under a 
bivouac-sheet thrown over a short tig-tree, persuading myself 
that 1 was in the shade, when I noticed a Shrike operating 
only a few yards away. It was a young bird, but it had 
already learnt the dexterous manipulation of large insects 
and the family method of treating them. The bird caught 
a large grasshopper, on the wing. (The grasshopper was 
about li inches long and had bright red under-wings.) It was 
then carried in the beak — and it looked a large bundle com- 
pared with the size of the bird — to a tali bramble bush, 
where, seated on the topmost bough, the Shrike p;insed for a 
minute. Then descending to a twig about half-way down 
the bush and on the outside, it thrust the insect, back 
upwards, on a long slender thorn. A slight shuflBing pre- 
ceded the impaling, and was evidently the attempt to kill 
and to get the grasshopper into a convenient position. The 
thorn was pushed into the middle point of the under surface 
of" the thorax. The point penetrated about one-third of an 
inch and thus did not protrude through the insect's back. 
When I examined it a little later the prey was appnrently 
quite deiid. There were no more insects on this particular 
bush, but a search of the neigiibouring brambles revealed 
three more plentifully-stocked larders of which large grass- 
hoppers formed a prominent part."' 

[Sylviid.e. — The geograi)hical conditions of many parts of 
Macedonia are unsuited to the habits of Warblers, but never- 
theless quite a goodly number do frequent the more likely 



208 Mr. F. N. Chasen on the [Ibis, 

places, and in the antumn, when birds of passage are in the 
country, the vineyards and streamsides literally teem with 
little Phylloicopine birds. In June also there were plenty ot" 
Warblers in the vicinity of the villages, bnt, as 1 was not in a 
position to use a gun, I could only identify the more familiar 
species. I found the hillside vegetation well worthy of notice 
during the last week in Auoust. The bushes were loaded 
with blackberries, and Warblers of a dozen species could be 
seen dodging about, little birds, yellow, grey, or brown in 
colour, all slipping through the undergrowth here and there 
and rarely giving a good chance of observation. Flujlloscoints 
was usually the predominating genus. On 7 September 
Warblers were still common, — thronos of Whitethroats. 
Garden- Warblers, and Blackcaps (these last still in pairs) 
being found wherever there was a scanty hedgerow or wooded 
corner. On 12 September 1 made the following note : — 
'^ It would be diflftcult for any person who has not witnessed 
such a sight to credit the number of ' Willow-wrens^ — I 
used the word loosely — in the district where we are camjied 
at present (C'akirli). The ground is very rough, there are 
no habitations, cultivated patches, or roads, but simply the 
hills, broken by gullies and rough tracks. The ground is 
covered with a kind of dwarf oak — at present bearing 
acorns, prickly bushes, and brambles. This scrub is 
haunted by scores of Warblers." Without means of verifi- 
cation I shall not attempt to describe species, but the (!hi£f- 
chaft" and Willow-wren were certainly there. These were 
still common on 3 October. I have added a few notes on 
the species I could actually name.] 

Phylloscopus collyMta. ChitFchaff. 

The Chifichatf winters in Macedonia, althouoh in no oreat 
numbers, and no bird can be more reserved in its choice of 
winter quarters. The Struma plain is intersected by tiny 
waterways which follow a tortuous course, eventually finding 
their way into the river. These irregular waterways, 
together with many isolated ponds, are overgrown with 



1921.] Birds of Macedonia. 209 

aquatic ve(2;etation. Beds of reed-mace usually fill the 
centre oE the |>onds. In these thick masses of reeds and in 
the half-rotten and wind-hruised " flags " oTowino- on the 
banks the (.Jhiffchatt's spent the winter months. There was a 
certain phice near Ormanli where I could always rely on 
finding one or more of these birds, even in the most severe 
weather in January and February. In windy weather 
they would be difficult to see and would spend the day 
creeping about the undergrowth near the ground or water. 
At the end of March they disappeared, but immigrants 
arrived very earlv. I infer that the birds wintering in 
Macedonia go north to breed and move before birds that 
winter farther to the south appear in their place, but as 
birds of passage only. Not seen in summer. 

Phylloscopus trochilus. Willow-AVarbler. 

Cettia cetti. Cetti's Warbler. 

Numerous in the summer. The nests were extremely 
difiicult to find. I was unsuccessful in the breeding-season, 
but have no doubt that this Warbler breeds in suitable places 
between the Seres Road and Kopriva. A nest at Orljakwas 
situated quite in the middle of a dense mass of brambles ; 
another in a tall and very thick hedge corner. Both these 
were found in the autumn, long after the birds had gone and 
the leaves fallen, although I had searched diligently for them 
in the previous May. 

Acrocephalus schcenobaenus. Sedge-Warbler. 

Sylvia borin. Garden Warbler. 

Sylvia atricapilla. Blackcap. 

Sylvia communis. Whitethroat. 

Seen 12 April ; heard singing the same evening. Found 
commonly over the country by 14 April. Breeds commonly. 
According to other observers my first date is a late one, but 
although there may have been Whitethroats in the country 
before 12 April I never saw them on the Struma plain. 



210 Mr. F. N. Chaseu on the [Ibis, 

Sylvia cuiTUca. Lesser Wliitethroat. 

Seen 7 April. Still in pairs 20 September. On 3 August 
a brood s})eiit tlie greater j)art of the day picking up ants a 
few yards from the door of my bivouac. 

Turdus pilaris. Fieldfare. 

Seen from the beginning of January to the middle of 
March. l)ut never in very large numl)ers. A small move- 
ment, a[)[)arently to the south, in January, small flocks flying 
over Orljak in an intent manner. Single birds seen later were 
not at all shy. They spent their time grubbing about on the 
ground under cover of the bramble bushes iind were loath 
to take wing. When poked out with a stick they would 
merely skim along the ground to the next cover. 

Turdus philomelos. Song-Thrush. 

Occasionally in February and March on the Struma plain. 

Turdus inerula. Blackbird. 

Resident, but not very common. Several pairs bred near 
Karamatli. A nest with four eggs at Aracli, 14 April. 
This nest was in an extraordinary position. It was con- 
spicuously placed on a projecting root on the side of a gully, 
which was about three feet deep^ the nest being therefore 
really below ground-level. This nest was subsequently 
destroyed by reason of the gully assuming its original 
function of a waterway after some heavy rain. 

Phcenicurus phcenicurus. Redstart. 

(Common in summer and especially numerous in Sep- 
tember ; 14 October and 1 November at Orljak. 

Phcenicurus gibraltariensis. Black Redstart. 

Frequent from November to March. At the beginning 
of December a number near the sea at Salonica (some tired 
Buzzards and a coasting-movement of Finches noted at the 
same time). November was the best month for them on 
the plain, but they rarely stayed in a given place for long 
and were usually met with alone or in pairs. 



1 92 1 . ] Birds of Macedon ia. 211 

Erithacus rubecula. Uedhreast. 

Sufficiently rare to be noted when seen. A few near the 
Butkova River, 23 January. Others at intervals in winter. 
One at Sivri, 2 October. 

Luscinia megarhyncha. Niglitingale. 

Oonnnon sunnner bird. Noticed 5 A})ril, 191G at Kopriva. 
Siiioinu well, 14 April. Several nests in June, a lar^e pro- 
portion of the eggs being light in colour. By 4 July broods 
in s[)otted plumage were hopping about the thickets. In 
1917 the first record was 7 April, on which date a bird was 
singing lustily in the evening. I was much impressed with 
the very sedentary habits of this species. In several cases a 
pair appeared in April in a small piece of cover, quite 
isolated from other vegetation^ reared their young there, and 
could always be seen in the same small area until the time 
for departure arrived in the autumn. The Nightingales at 
Kopriva were still in their secluded corners on 15 September. 

Saxicola rubetra, Whinchat. 

Plentiful in autumn, es})ecially the first week in September, 
when they outnumbered the Stonechats. 

Saxicola rubicola. Stonechat. 

A common resident, wintering in selected localities at 
intervals along the Seres Road an& on the border o£ the 
plain. All the birds I saw in winter were quite adult and 
in pairs. I formed the opinion that birds of the year 
did not stay in the country. The parents of a brood seen 
on 5 August were very dark in colour and not in the least 
brown or reddish on the underparts. The voice was that of 
the present species. 

(Enanthe cenanthe. Wheatear. 

A common bird in Macedonia^ where there are large tracts 
of country suited to its requirements. It spends the greater 
part of the year in the country, being seen from the end of 
March to October. In the blizzard of the 29th of March 
Wheat-ears were i-unnino- about in the snow at Lahana. 



•212 Mr. F. N, Chasen 07i the [Ibis, 

Several nests were found. The number of adult birds was 
augmented in September, but by 9 October the species was 
absent from some places where it had been common during 
the preceding months. 

CEnanthe hispanica. Black-eared Wheatear. 

A pair at Orljak, 26 May. C)ne — an adult male of the 
l)lack-t!iroated variation — at Aracli, 13 x4pril A few others 
throughout May. 

Accentor modularis. Hedge-Sparrow. 

Only three records. l\vo seen in February and one in 
January, all on the Struma plain. All observers seem 
agreed as to the scarcity of the Hedge-Sparrow in southern 
Macedonia. 

Cinclus cinclus. Dipper. 

Found in a few widely scattered localities, but the country 
is not at all suited to their requirements. In October heavy 
rains had the effect of changing the dry pebbly river-bed at 
Gumisdere into a torrent, and a few Dippers appeared. 
They stayed until the water ceased to rush down from the 
hills, which was only a matter of a fev/ days. 

Troglodytes troglodytes. Wren. 

Frequently seen, but not common. Noticed on the banks 
of the Struma in February and January, and at Aracli 
in April. 

Muscicapa striata. Spotted Flycatcher. 

Oonnnon in spring and autumn, especially so at the latter 
season. Seen 16 April. For the last half of August and 
first tew days of September they were very numerous, the 
increase in numbers corresponding to similar increases in 
the ranks of the Redstarts, etc. I have rarely seen so many 
as in the fruit-growing district of Sirt Dere on 8 September. 
In fact, a jiair or more seemed a necessary adjunct to each 
fig-tree or vine. On 20 September they were still common, 
but there was a decrease by 3 October. These Flycatchers 
would ignore the butterflies swarming about them, but would 
dart at the largest of the Hynienoptera, giving each a sharp 



1921.] Birds of Macedonia. 213 

nip before swallowing them. I saw one bird catch an insect 
which was far too large for it to treat with its accustomed 
neatness. The Flycatcher battered it against a twig with a 
great show o£ fury, flattering from bush to bush with its 
burden, and was still working at the insect in terrier-fashion 
when it passed out of sight. 

Muscicapa hypoleuca. Pied Flycatcher. 
Karamatli in April (first date 12 April). 

Hirundo rustica. Swallow. 

The most common of the Hirundines. First dates 9 and 
21 March (1017), 27 March (1918). Mating, 7 April ; nest- 
building, 1 April. Eggs well incubated, 21 May. Breeds 
in most of the villages on the plain — if not all. 

Delichon urbica. Martin. 

Seen 1 April, but not in any nuudjers until the end of the 
season (19 September). Some passing flocks, 21 August. 

Riparia riparia. Sand-Mariin. 

Abundant along the Struma. Crowds at Kopriva Bridge 
in May. 

Picus viridis. Green Woodpecker. 

Struma plain in January. Karamatli in September. 

Dryobates major. Great Spotted Woodpecker. 

Seen at all seasons of the year. Paprat was a good locality 
for them. Some would be met with on the open hills, 
nudving their way across country from one copse to another, 
the loud ^^ j>ic-pic-j)ic"' announcing when they settled. They 
were particularly attracted by the leafless fig-trees in winter. 
A pair seen at Aracli in April may have been nesting. I 
have no record of J), medius, although it is stated to be the 
common Woodpecker of Macedonia. 

Cuculus canorus. Cuckoo. 

Seen G April, and numerous through the spring of 1918. 
Very few seen in 1917, but from all accounts 1916 was a 
good year for Cuckoos. 



214 Mr. F. N. Chasen on the [Ibis, 

Micropus apus. Swift. 

Seven at Oriuaiili, 22 May. They stayed about two hours. 
Not seen again till August. ' On 21 August some flocks 
appeared in eouipan}^ with Martins and were evidently on 
passage. 

Caprimulgus europseus. Niglitjar. 

28 May. On Struma plain in September. At Salonica 
in October. Two eggs found by a friend about last week 
in June on the hills near Gramatna. 

Merops apiaster. Bee-eater. 

Common in summer. Present 4 May in pairs, and 19 Sep- 
tember. One of the commonest sounds on the Struma ])lain 
in Slimmer is the strange cry of the Bee-eater. I was never 
fortunate enough to find a nest myself, but had eggs brought 
to me from a native cemetery. Major Sladen tells nie that 
he has found them breeding near Janis and Dudular in hobs 
in the ravines. 

TJpupa epops. Hoopoe. 

Common in summei'. In the spring of 1017 I was not in 
a favourable position to observe, and the first Hoopoe was 
not seen till 10 April. In 1918 six were seen, 3 April. Still 
numerous, 19 September, Tlie Hoopoes were very shy birds, 
but their preference for particular localities ofi'ered oppor- 
tunities for observation. One or two could usually be found 
in the dense foliage of a line of willows fringing a small 
stream near the Struma. It was quits useless to try to stalk 
these birds at midday. Tliey were most vivacious, and would 
fly from tree to tree forbidding a close approach. They' 
were seen under the most favourable conditions on the hills, 
but even there their solitary, shy habits were well marked. 
I usually contented myself with listening to their peculiar 
voice. The call of the Hoopoe is a clear " coo-coo/" or 
" coo-roo-foo." In tone it is between the monotonous 
cooing of the Doves and the clear penetrating voice of the 
CuL'koo, and with both these it might be very well confused. 

Unlike the note of the Dove, in which tlie last syllable is 



1921.] Birds of Macedonia. 215 

accentuated and sometimes raised in tone, the Hoopoe's notes 
are quite uniform. The double or triple note — or perhaps 
bar is the best word to use — is repeated a varying number of 
times. There may be a short " song " of only a dozen or 
even less bars, and these may be all of the triple or double 
kind. In a spirited bird the song is long, and t)ie bird may 
be said to " coo " continuously for ten minutes or so. At 
first I was inclined to think tiiiit there was some method or 
significance in the use of the double or triple call, but a mass 
of statistics — if I may use the word — com])iled later, gave 
poor results. For instance, a song of 02 bars included 
<S triples, another of 69 included 12 triples, another of 145 
bars included 99 triples and these scattered sjiasmodieally 
through the song. Some charts I prepared showed little 
except that the triple bar is more constantly used by some 
individuals than by others. A pair of Hoopoes love making 
at Arachli made quite a different noise. They were fluttering 
about like gaudy butterflies on the edge of a small clearing. 
The n^.ale chased his mate from tree to tree. Both birds 
were very active, their tails spread and their crests mobile. 
During their gambols a succession of low harsh notes were 
heard. 

Alcedo ispida. Kingfisher. 

Seen commonly during the winter. According to Major 
Shiden it breeds near Hirsova. 

Coracias garruliis. Roller. 

Common in the summer. Seen 17 April. Its marked 
characters are the hoarse voice, erratic flight, and quarrelsome 
dispositio!'. The outstanding feature with regard to its 
pugnacity was the antipathy shown towards the Jackdaws. 
Early arrivals in the spring were mobbed incessantly by 
smaller birds, and it was interesting to note the long 
processions of Starlings and Sparrows moving from tree to 
tree in the wake of a Roller. Quite a feud existed between 
the Rollers aud Jackdaws wherever the two S])ecies were 
found together. The Roller is very active and fierce in the 
chase^ and its clamour is even great enough to overwhelm 



216 Mr. F. N. Chasen on the [Ibis, 

thf noise made by tbe Jackdaws, wbich is quite an 
acbievement wben one considers the latter bird's capabilities 
in this direction. The Roller was always dominant in these 
atfairs and usually the aggressor. The Jackdaws showed 
great skill in their attempts to escape from the Rollers. 
They would dart and topple about in every possible manner, 
and often doui)le back alono- their own line of flioht. 
Sometimes thoy would dive headlong into thick grass or 
into the foliage of trees. Such doings, however, were of 
little avail. The pursuing Roller would keep about a yard 
behind and forestall each caprice of the Jackdaws — even to 
the precipitous downvvard swoops. Later in the season, 
when the Rollers had progressed further with their domestic 
arrangements, they were not so quarrelsome. It should be 
noted that the Jackdaws had ])aired and settled down by the 
time that the Rollers commenced their activities, and I think 
that the valiant Daw of early spring would show a more 
determined front to the intruder. I found two nests in the 
ravine at Orljak in June. The birds showed the greatest 
craftiness in concealing their movements to and from the 
nests, which were in holes near the top of a cliff, and about 
fifty yards from the bottom of the ravine. 

Bubo bubo. Eagle-Owl. 

One remained in the vicinity of the river at Orljak for 
several days, at the beginning of Januiiry. This is the only 
personal record I have, but from all accounts I have no 
doubt that this Owl is frequently met with near Lake Doiran. 

Asio accipitrinus. Short-eared Owl. 

Seen from December to March on the Struma plain. 

Carina noctua. Little Owd. 

A common resident, and one of the most noticeable of 
Macedonian birds. This Owl is distributed over the country 
in haunts th;it ditfer widely in character. It is common on 
the Struma jdain, especially in or near the villages, on the 
hills, and in the woods. I saw plenty on the outskirts of 
Salonica, and, indeed, this is one of the first birds to attract 



1 92 1.] Birds of Macedonia. 217 

attention on landing in the country, for several are almost 
sure to be met witli whilst wandering over the boulder 
strewn land in the vicinity of the coast. A nest at Elisan on 
1 June contained young a few days old. 

[Harriers. — Harriers were very abundant on the plain, 
but they are most perplexing birds to a field naturalist, and 
only in cases of adulls or birds in very characteristic phases 
of plumage could there be sure identification. The adult 
female of ('ircus cijanens " Ringtail," and the immature 
C. ceruyinosus in that phase of plumage once designated 
" Moor Buzzard,''' i. e. dark brown wdth light head, were the 
most commonly seen.] 

Circus cyaneus. Hen-Harrier. 

Salonica (on the Seres road), in October. At Cavdah 
Mah and other places on the plain in December, January, 
and February. A pair suspected of nesting seen through 
July. 

Circus pygargus. Montagu's Harrier. 
Several times in the winter. 

Circus seruginosus. Marsh-Harrier. 

Noticed in December, January, and March, but found 
breeding by Major Sladen. 

Circus macrurus. Pallid Harrier. 

An adult male shot at the end of October. 

Accipiter nisus. Sparrows-Hawk. 

Not uncommon in winter, and most frequently seen in 
December. The outskirts of deserted villages at the edge of 
the plain were good localities for this species. 

Buteo buteo. (Common Buzzard. 

Numerous in winter, and seen at intervals during the 
spring. Observed in a variety of situations : scattered over 
the hills (pairs were frequenting the wooded country at 
Paprat in October), on the plain, round the town of Salonica 
itself, and on the coast to the east of the town in December. 

SER. XI. VOL III. Q 



218 Mr. F. N. Cliasen on the [Ibis, 

Milvns milvus. Kite. 

A common resident, and as numerous on tlie level oround 
near Salonica as anywhere in the conntry. 

The Allied troops who occupied Macedonia during the war 
had a very different method of living to the former 
inhabitants. The roads, which were strewn with the carcasses 
of ponies and mules etc. when British troops arrived in the 
country, were speedily cleared up, and as all refuse was 
afterwards destroyed with military precision, the country 
rapidly became more clean. Such a state of affairs was not 
congenial to the Kites, and their numbers seemed to decrease 
as the camjiaign proceeded, but some could usually be seen 
near the villages retained by the inhabitants. 

Falco peregrinus. Peregrine Falcon. 

Seen several times on the Struma plain in January and 
February. 

Falco subbuteo. Hobb}'. 
Frequent in the summer. 

Falco sesalon. Merlin. 

Seen occasionally in winter (December and January). 

Falco tinnunculus. Kestrel. 

Resident and far from uncommon, but less numerous than 
the smaller F. naumanni. It is evenly distributed over the 
whole district, and could be seen on tlie plains, hills, and near 
the old walls of Salonica. Like other Accipitres, it was 
especially numerous in the Struma valley. A i)air nested in 
the ravine at Orljak, the nest being placed on a receding 
ledge of the cliff, about fifty yards from the ground, and 
quite unapproachable from the top. It was my experience 
that this species did not breed in the villages and that the 
next species was the bird which bred commonly under the 
roofs of native houses. 

Falco naumanni. Lesser Kestrel. 

This is one of the most conspicuous of the Macedonian 
summer birds. It is quite common and breeds freely, is 



1921.] Birds of Macedonia. 219 

confiding and so noisj that it can scarcely escape notice. 
It was not seen in the winter months. This species is very 
partial to the villages on the Struma plain for the purpose of 
breeding. As early as 8 March a pair showed signs of 
settling down in the mosque at Ormanli. Mating was first 
noticed during the first week in April, but most frequent 
about 19th of the month. One nest contained two eggs 
on 22 April, 

Falco vespertinus. Red-footed Falcon. 
Common in the summer, and much more numerous than 
F. suhhuteo. 

[Eagles. — These birds were a prominent feature of the 
bird-life on the Struma plain — in winter especially. It was 
not unusual for every post or bare tree within vision to 
be occupied by a lumpy looking Eagle, whose head was for 
ever turned in the direction of the river, watching the Ducks 
flying uneasily up and down. In severe weather in January 
1917, Eagles were particularly numerous along the banks of 
the Butkova river. I could not identify A. clirysaetus to my 
satisfaction, although I examined scores of large Raptores 
through a good telescope.] 

Aquila heliaca. Imperial Eagle. 

The most numerous Eagle. Resident. Conspicuous white 
scapulars denoted a fair proportion of adult birds. I skinned 
one bird (killed with a service bullet) and found the remains 
of a (Joot in the stomach. 

Aquila clanga. Spotted Eagle, 

Small Eagles seen commonly on the plain were no doubt 
of this species, but it cannot be stated with certainty. An 
immature bird seen at close range on the hills at Karamatli 
(22 July) could have been no other. On 4 May a Spotted 
Eagle was having a great deal of trouble with a writhing 
snake which it was carrying. The snake was eventually 
dropped, but the Eagle did not descend for it again. Small 
Eagles could be seen at almost anytime on the Struma plain. 

Q 2 



220 Mr. F. N. Chasen on the [Ibis, 

Haliaetus albicilla. White-tuileJ Engle. 
A fair proportion of the Eagles seen wore of this species. 
Most numerous in winter, but seen in spring. 

Hieraaetus fasciatus. Bonelli's Eagle. 

Common on the left bank of the Struma in winter. The 
light breast, which looks quite yellow at long ranges, is a 
good field point. I suspect that the "Ospreys" of my 
sportsman friends were usually examples of this Eagle. 
I kept a close watch for Ospreys, but was unsuccessful ; but 
Major Sladen tells me in a letter that he has eggs — taken by 
an officer — from the hills to the south-east of Lake Doiran. 

Neophron percnoptenis. Egyptian Vulture. 

Flocks consisting of a score or more of these birds were 
quite common in the summer. The species seemed to be 
most numerous in the direction of the Serbian frontier, where 
the state of the country must have been more congenial to 
their wants than the cleaner area occupied by the British 
forces. One sultry afternoon in April a flock of these 
Vultures remained in the air through a thunderstorm. The 
downpour of hail, which was particularly violent, made no 
appreciable difference to their easy manoeuvring aloft. 

Gypaetus barbatus. Bearded Vulture. 

Single birds seen on three occasions on the hills at Paprat 
in November. At close range the wedge-shaped tail is very 
conspicuous, and a uniform grey appearance serves to dis- 
tinguish the species afar. The closest investigation of all 
large llaptores failed to reveal this species on the plain. 

Gyps fulvus. Griffon Vulture. 

Common, but usually seen at a great height over the 
Struma plain. Bursting shrapnel (anti-aircraft) caused 
them to mount to an even greater altitude. This species was 
only once seen under really favourable circumstances. This 
was in August, when a flock of eight birds descended into 
the valley at Baisili, attracted by the assembling of a large 



1921.] Birds of Macedonia. 221 

number of Ravens and Egyptian Vultures ; but even on this 
occasion the Griffons remained well above the other birds 
present — circling round on practically motionless wings. 
Looking at them from my dug-out, high up on the adjoinino- 
hillside, it appeared to me that their light colour was their 
best distinguishino- mark. 

Vultur monachus. Black Vulture. 

Probably more connnon than my few clear cases of 
identification would suggest — as most of the larger Vultures 
seen were very dark. 

Phalacrocorax carbo. Cormorant. 

Seen in January on the Struma. One shot. 

Phalacrocorax pygmaeus. Px^gmy Cormorant, 
Often seen in winter. One frequented the stream near 
Ormanli throughout February. This stream was shallow, and 
for the most part overgrown with vegetation. The Cormorant 
was very persistent in its habits, but very shy. It would take 
flight whenever there was a suspicion of danger, always flying 
quite away from the place. 

Anser albifrons. White-fronted Goose. 

Anser finmarchicus. Lesser White-fronted Goose. 

I spent the greater part of the winter of 1916-17 on the 
Struma plain, and had plenty of opportimities for watching 
the Geese. Skeins were first commonly seen in October, and 
the numb(!r increased daily, regular flight-lines being 
established across the plain. At the end of February the 
number of Geese taking part in the daily flights was vastly 
in excess of that seen at the beginning of winter. On 
a few days I estimated that at least five thousand Geese 
passed over Ormanli (j. e. in one direction). I kept a daily 
record of the Geese seen. There was a great falling off in 
numbers 11 March {circa), and from 13 March onwards there 
were frequently blank days — days on which not a Goose was 
seen or heard. As late as 5 May, however, flocks could be 



222 Mr. F. N. Chaseii on the [Ibis, 

heard at nigbt. Seven birds were examined during the 
winter. Four o£ these were Whitefronts. The other three 
were undoubted examples of the Lesser White-fronted Goose 
(all in February). They were very small and showed the 
characteristic features of A. finmarcldcus. Blost of the 
Geese seen on the plain seemed to be pietty well marked with 
black on the underparts. I have no evidence to support 
Major Sladen's notes as to the breeding of Grey Geese in 
Macedonia, nor have I any records of the Grey Lag Goose. 

[UuCKS. — Good Duck-shooting was to behadon the Struma 
plain in winter. The majority of the fowl that came to the 
water near Ormanli in February were Mallard and Pintail, 
but a lot of Wigeon and Smew were killed during the month 
with a fair sprinkling of Pochards. I examined a good bag 
of Garganey and Shovelers on 20 March. The Ducks fell off 
in numbers in March, but a few could be seen on the plain 
right through the spring, and these comprised both diving 
and surface-feeding fowl. T left the plain in May. A large 
percentage of the Ducks on the Strunia in January 1918 
were Smew. During the day small parties of from two to 
four birds could be seen paddling about like Moorhens on 
the river. One or two fine adult males came to hand for 
identification at various times. The following species of 
waterfowl were common, but I can do little beyond giving a 
list as my dates are discontinuous.] 

Anas boschas. Mallard. 
Anas strepera. Gadwall. 
Cluerquedula querquedula. Garganey. 
Mareca penelope. Wigeon, 
Spatula clypeata. Shoveler. 
Daflla acuta. Pintail. 
Nyroca ferina. Pochard. 
Nyroca fuligula. Tufted Duck. 
Mergus albellus. Smew. 



1921.] Birds of Macedonia. 223 

Platalea leucorodia. Spoonbill, 

A consiilcrable number crossed the Struma — going east — 
on the evening oE 23 May ; they were travelling in parties of 
from 6 to 20 birds. Seen again in June. It is quite probable 
that I had overlooked these high flying Spoonbills for several 
weeks. At a good height, the flocks are very liable to be mis- 
taken for flocks of Geese or Storks. This may seem rather 
ridiculous, but when the air was thick, the light failing, and 
the sky full of passing skeins of AVhitefronts, it was a very 
easy mistake to make. 

Ardea cinerea. Heron. 

Seen in no oreat numbers along the course of the Struma 
and Butkova rivers, December and April. 

Ardea purpurea. Purple Heron. 
Odd birds seen near the Struma at intervals. 
(I did not meet with any " White '^ Heron, but should say 
that I never visited the lakes.) 

Botaurus stellaris. Bittern. 
Occasionally on the Struma plain. 

Ciconia ciconia. White Stork. 

Noted on 13 May in the springs of 1917 and 1918. Breeds 
plentifully on the plain — ahnost always in trees. There were 
numerous nests at Kopriva, Orljak, Elisan, Dragos, and 
Ormanli. Some of the villages on the hills were not so 
I'avoured. At Ormanli there were 26 occupied nests on one 
side of the village alone. There were very few chimney-top 
nests in my district, although a few birds had nests on the 
church towers. Odd birds seen late in October. 

Otis tarda. Great Bustard. 

I only saw one, but from all accounts w\as unfortunate in 
not seeing more. A single bird flew over our camp on 
7 April, at Alexia. 

Otis tetrax. Little Bustard. 

Seen commonly when once the right localities were found. 
On 4 May, one of these birds jumped out ot" the long grass 



224 Mr. F. N. Chasen on the [Ibis, 

within twenty yards of a train, but all the others seen were 
extremely shy. 

Burhinus cedicnemus. Stone-Curlew. 

A common summer bird in some districts. Broken eggs 
at Gramatna on 18 June were well incubated. 

Charadrius dubius. Little Ringed Plover. 

Noticed in the dried-up river beds in April and May. 
Always alone or in pairs. Eggs during the first week.in June. 
First bird seen 7 April at Orljak. All the Ringed Plovers 
seen were of this species. One bird suspected of having 
eggs was observed chasing a Swallo"^' and was without doubt 
the ao'gressor. 

Vanellus vanellus. Lapwing, 
(/ommon in winter, 

Erolia alpina. Dunlin. 
Struma plain in winter. 

Tringa ochropus. Green Sandpiper. 

Seen near the Struma in January, February, and March, 
but never really common. Other Sandpipers not noticed on 
the Struma plain. 

Tringa totanus. Redshank. 
Plenty seen in winter. 

Tringa nebulariiis. Greenshank. 

Fairly numerous near the Struma between Kopriva and 
Orljak in January. 

Numenins arquata. Curlew. 
Connnon in winter. 

Gallinago gallinago. (.^ommon Snipe. 

Numerous in winter. Pairs seen during the first week in 
April near Kurkut. 

Limnocryptes gallinula. Jack Sni})e. 
Common in winter. 



1921.] Birds of Macedonia. 225 

Scolopax rusticola. Woodcock. 

In winter this bird is as numerous as the keenest sports- 
man could wish it to be. 

Hydrochelidon nigra. Black Tern. 

Terns seen on the Struma from June onwards were mostly 
of this species. I was shown eo-gs, taken from islands in the 
river, but could not identify them from memory as being 
assuredly Black Tern's. Major Sladen met with thousands 
of these Terns at Luke Ard/an, preparing to breed in May, 
and later had eggs sent to him from this place. 

On the 4tli of May — when travelling by train from Salonica 
towards Larissa — I passed two places well stocked with Terns. 
One place was on the marshes, near the point at which the 
railway crosses the Vardar (Karasuli, appnrently where they 
are common, according to Major Sladen), and the other — a 
smaller colony — yet further from Salonica. From their 
behaviour at both these places I should say that the Terns 
contemplated breeding. 

[GuLLis. — Black-headed Gulls on the Struma from 
December to March were — I am almost sure — Larus 
ridilmndus. Larger Gulls at Salonica throushout the 
winter (sp. ?).] 

Gallinula chloropus. Moorhen. 

A few that frequented a reed-bed near Ormanli in winter 
were the shyest birds I have ever met with. 

Fulica atra. Coot. 

Abundant on the rivers in winter. Li January 1917 the 
Butkova Biver was swarming with ('oots. 

Puffinus kuhlii. Mediterranean Shearwater. 
Gulf of Salonica in October. 

Podiceps cristatus. Great Crested Grebe. 
Plenty on the Struma in January. 



226 Mr. F. N. Chasen on the [Ibis, 

Podiceps griseigena. Red-necked (Irebe. 
A ptiir seen several times in the Gulf of >Salouica in 
November 1*'1G. 

Podiceps uigricollis. Black-necked Grebe. 
A pair on a pond near Salonica, 4 May. Small Grebe on 
the Strnnia in January were probably of this species. 

Colymbus sp. ? 

Seen from the shore at Salonica in November. 

Columba palumbus. Wood-Pigeon. 
One record only, Hamzali in October. 

Columba cenas. Stock-Dove. 

Small flocks in winter. A large flock of Doves — attributed 
to this species — travelling north on 4 March, were flying 
rather low. 

Streptopelia turtiir. Turtle-Do ve. 

Common in summer, but avoiding the villages, thereby 
differing greatly from the next species. Quite a number 
bred in the Gramatna area. In many cases the nests were 
out on the hills a good distance from the villages. As late 
as 1 July I found several nests with eggs — in one case three 
eggs in the clutch. In the majoi'ity of cases the nests were 
built on branches that sprang out directly from the mnin 
trunk of a tree. They were often very accessible, being 
sometimes about six feet from the ground. Tvro nests were 
found, only separated by a distance of about as many yards, 
and one of them was so exceptionally frail that it was really 
wonderful that the eggs di<l not drop through it. 

Streptopelia risoria. ( hollared Dove. 

A common resident,, but inclined to be local in distribu- 
tion, which fact probably ex})lains why Major Sladen did not 
meet with it. This Dove is most domesticated in its habits, 
s[)endiiig the day pottering about the housetops and roosting 
in trees near by. When roosting they are easy to approach 
and could be knocked oflp the boughs by means of long sticks. 



I921.J Birds of Macedonia. 32* 

It isintereslino- to note tluit the present species and *S'. turtur 
were rarely found together in the same district — i. e., in any 
niinibei-s. A curious little trick associated with the courtship 
was noticed at the end of February. One bird — no doubt 
the male — would leave its mate sitting on a branch of a tall 
tree, and then flutter u[)\vards for a few yards. The back 
would be turned towards the female, and the tail S[)read to 
its fullest extent. This dis[)lay was always of short duration. 
The act of mating (in March) often took place on the very 
slender twigs at the top of tall trees. The male would abso- 
lutely pounce on the female, and then flutter round her in a 
small circle, after which he would alight on her back again 
with poised wings. In the spring it is difficult to find nests, 
for they are placed in large and very leafy trees. Later in 
the season, when the boughs are quite bare, they can be 
located with much greater ease. 

Coturnix cotumix. Quail. 

Some in Februar3^ Plenty in April and May. There is 
little doubt that a few Quails winter near the foothills. In 
May several pairs frequented an acre or so of very densely 
vegetated ground on the jdain. There were huge thistles, of 
a kind that grows to the height of a man, growing in this 
place, and they were so thick that getting after the Quails 
was out of the question. 

Perdix perdix. Partridge. 

Common at all seasons, and more numerous in most 
districts than the next species. 

Alectoris sp. ? Partridge. 

In some localities a red-legged Partridge is connnon at all 
seasons, but I often went over wide stretches of country 
without seeing a single bird. As I have no specimens irom 
the Struma plain I hesitate to call these birds A. grceca. 

Phasianus colchicus. Pheasant. 

Seen in a few favoured localities only. 



228 Col. K. Meiuertzhageii on the [Ibis, 



XII. — ^onie. preUmhiary remarks on the Velocity of Migratory 
Flight among Birds, tvith special reference to the Pala- 
arctic Region. By Colonel R. ]\Ieinertzhagen, D.S.O., 
M.B.O.U., F.Z.S.' 

Thk question arises at once as to whether migratory flight 
is of a different nature to daily Higlit in search of food or to 
escape enemies. We have some interesting opinions on this 
subject. Gatke tells us that the speed of birds during 
their daily locomotions in the air has not an approximate 
relation to the wonderful velocity of flight attained by them 
during their migrations. He accounts for such enormous 
speed by the fact that birds migrate in the more elevated 
layers of the atmosphere, in which more uniform conditions 
prevail, and which are less subject to powerful meteorological 
disturbances. 

Cooke (' Bird Migration '), on the other hand, thinks that 
migrating birds do not fly at their fastest. He believes that 
their migrating speed is usually from 30 to 40 miles an hour, 
and rarely exceeds 50. Flights of a few hours at night, 
alternating with rests of one or more days, make the spring 
advance ver}^ slow\ He goes on to say that during day- 
migration the smaller land-birds seldom fly faster than 
20 miles per hour^ though larger birds move somewhat 
more rapidly. 

I believe Gatke's theory to be based on faulty evidence, 
as 1 hope to show later. Moreover, birds would experience 
greater difticulties in flying in the " more elevated layers of 
the atmosphere,'' as the atmosphere is rarer and therefore 
oft'ers a less suitable mixture on which their wings can beat. 
They would experience the same difficulties as a man trying 
to swim in froth. 

jNIy own observations fend to show that migratory flight 
differs very little in its velocity from the flight of daily move- 
ment, and I see no reason why it should or how it can be so. 
I believe ujigratory flight to be steady and unhurried, and 



1 92 1. J Velocity of Migratory Flight among Birds. 229 

that birds only ^y at tlieir fastest when pursuing or when 
pursued. Anyone wlio has watclied a Falcon being flown 
at a Rook will be struck by the speed which the usually 
leisurely-flapping Hook can attain from the moment he 
realizes he is the quarry. 

I have seen Rooks travelling on migration, and accurate 
observation gives their pace as from 38 to 40 miles 
per hour. Now these migratory Hooks were travelling 
in their iisual leisurely fashion, and not at anything like 
the speed they can use when attacked by a Falcon. All 
other migrations which I have witnessed in many and various 
parts of the world confirm my belief that migrator}^ flight 
diff'ers in no way from every-day movement, except tlxat it 
is steadier and possibly a trifle slower. 

So in dealing with this question, 1 shall consider estimates 
of any normal fligiit as the normal velocit}^ which birds 
attain on migration. That birds can hurry I do not doubt, 
but such effort could not belong sustained, and would be of 
little use to them in the long-distance migratory journeys 
they are accustomed to take. 

I shall first deal with those estimates of velocit\> which 
previous writers have recorded, but which cannot be regarded 
as reliable. Gatke claims that -Hoddecl Crows fly at 
108 miles per hour ancl, IJluethroats at 180 whilst on 
passage, and especially in the spring. lie claims that 
Bluethroats pass from between 10 and 27 degrees of 
northeru latitude to the 54th degree of northern latitude 
in nine hours. He also assumes that the American Golden 
Plover takes but fifteen hours from Labradoi- to northern 
Brazil, supporting this theory by his personal observations 
on Godwit and Curlew covering over 7000 yards in sixty 
" seconds, or at the rate of over 4 miles a minute ! 

His estimate of Hooded Crow flight is based on the 
assumption that their line of flight is from east to west 
over Heligoland, and that they make for the east coast of 
England. This apparently is not the case, for their line 
of autumnal flight over Heligoland is from north-east to 
south-west, and these are probably not the birds which 



230 Col. K. Meinertzliagen on the [Ibis, 

arrive in such numbers on our central east coast. The 
Bluethroat estimate is based ou the assumption that birds 
fly direct from Egypt to Heligoland in one nigiit, which is 
certaiuly not the case. His estimate of the flight of Godwit 
and C'Urlew, on \yhich he bases his estimate of the flight of 
the American Golden Plover, is, I fear, but an example 
of the tremendous enthusiasm of this charming character 
for his subject. 

But Gatke is not alone in over-estimating the velocity 
of fliglit. Many other writers have erred through basing a 
theory on bad evidence or no evidence at all, one of the 
most remarkable of these being Crawfurd (' Round the 
Calendar in Portugal^), who convinced himself that Turtle- 
Doves flew at such an astonishing pace that by leavinsr Kent 
at (hiwn they would be in Portiigai a few hours later ! 

As regards more accurate data, it was my fortune during 
the recent war to have the opportunity of using anti-aircraft 
arrangements for my purpose. It was excellent practice for 
the men, and the results can be taken as accurate for all 
practical purposes. In conjunction with observations of an 
accurate nature from other sources, I have compiled the 
following table. 

Unless the authority is stated iu brackets, the observations . 
are my own. 

The following notes refer to the table : — 

Note A, Observations taken at Quetta b_y two persons with stop- 
watches over a measured distance varying from 400 to 
660 yards. All birds were below 1000 feet, and in no 
case were they migrating'. 

NoTR B. Observations taken in East Africa in the autumn of 1915 
on migrants by using theodolites on a base of ll!00 feet. 

NoTK C. Observations made at Dar-es-Salaaui bj a system of two 
persons with stop-watches stationed 440 yards apart f.nd 
timing birds fljing between points aligned by two stakes. 
All observations taken on still evenings when birds were 
flying to and from their breeding-grounds. 

Note D. Observations made near Rata in sonthern Palestine during 
the autumn of ]917 by means of theodolites at two anti- 
aircraft gun-stations on a base of 3926 feet, the stations 
being connected by telephone. 



I92I.] 
Note E. 

Note F. 



Velocity of Migralnry Flight among Birds. 



231 



Observations taken in southern Palestine by stop--^atclies at 
440 yards distance and timing birds Hying' between two 
points aligned by posts. 

Observations made near Moutreuil in nortli-east France by 
means of theodolites on a 1420-foot base and small 
balloons to ascertain the velocity of the wind at the 
altitude of flieht. All birds believed to be on misration. 



Ground 
Species. Place. speed : 

m.p.h. 

Ravens S.Palestine. 32-39^ 

Eooks N.E.France. *4.5 

Rooks do. 39 

Rooks do. 



Rooks and Jack- do. 
daws. 

Rooks do. 

Hooded Crow Rossitten. 

Jackdaw do. 

Chough Quetta. 

Starling do. 

Starling S.Palestine. 

Starling Rossitten. 

Rose-coloured Quetta. 

Starling. 

Finches Rossitten. 



38 

40 

39i 

31-5 
39-6 

in 

43-49 

45-48.i 



46-5 
38, 40i 



33 



Remarks. 

Eleven observations. Birds pass- 
ing to and from roosting. Wind 
calm. Altitude of flight 310- 
840 feet. See note D. ^ 

Taken with air-sjieed indicator 
from aeroplane. (R.A.F.) 

Altitude of flight 1740 feet. 
Wind 17 m.p.h. side. See 
note F. 

Altitude of flight 2120 feet. 
Side wind of 31 m.p.h. See 
note F. 

Altitude of fliglit 690 feet. 
Slight side wind on ground. 
See note F. 

Altitude of flight 2008 feet. 
Head wind 12 m.p.h. See 
note F. 

Average of observations on 
20 birds. (Thienemanii.) 

Average on several birds. ( Th ie- 
aemann.) 

Very strong head wind. See 
note A. 

Thirteen observations. Wind 
calm. See note A. 

Twenty-two observations. Alti- 
tude of flight 120-325 feet. 
Wind calm. See note D. 

A single bird. (Thienemann.) 

Two observations. Weather 
calm. See note A. 

Six observations. {Tliiene - 
mann.) 



Air-speed. 



232 



Col. R. Meinertzhasren on the 



[Ibis, 



Species. 

Crossbill 

Corn-Bunting's 

Calandra Lark 



Red-throated 

Pipit. 
Red-throated 

Pipit. 



Place. 

Rossitten. 
Palestine. 

do. 

East Afi'ica. 
Palestine. 



Pipits Tuscar Rock. 

Wagtails East Africa. 

Wagtails do. 

Swallow France. 



Swallow East Africa. 

Swallow do. 

Swifts Mesopotamia. 

Roller East Africa. 

Lanner Falcon ... S. Palestine. 
Kestrel East Africa. 

Kestrel do. 

Kestrel do. 

Marsh-Harrier ... Qnetta. 

Marsh-Harrier ... S. Palestine. 



Ground 

speed : Remarks. 

m.p.h. 

37*5 Average of two observations. 

{Thienemann.) 
20| Average of two observations, 

Birds flying to water. See 

note E. 
34 Average of three observations. 

Birds coming from water. See 

note E. 
2r,-,5 Altitude of flight 2in feet. Wind 

calm. See note B. 
20^ Birds coming to water. Average 

of two observations. See 

note E. 
20 (Patten, ' Zoologist.") 
30-1 Altitude of flight 160 feet. Slight 

following wind. See note B. 
29 Altitude of flight 240 feet. Calm. 

See note B. 
100 A Swallow was taken from 

Roiibaix to Paris, distance 160 

miles, and returned to Roubaix 

90 minutes after its liberation. 

{' Zoologist; 1887, e.r ' Globe.") 
37j| Altitude of flight 235 feet. Wind 

calm. See note B. 
34 Flying at ground-level. Strong 

head wind. See note B. 
well over Large flock at 6000 feet, feeding 
68 over Mosul. They circled round 

machine and easily overtook it. 

Flying speed 68 m.p.h. (R.A.F.) 
38-7 Altitude of flight 720 feet. Slight 

head wind. See note B. 
48 Bird not hunting. See note E. 
40i Altitude of flight 210 .feet. 

Weather calm. See note B. 
43-9 Altitude of flight 310 feet. 

Weather calm. See note B. 
22 Altitude of flight 150 feet. 

Strong head wind. See note B. 
31, 36 Observations on two males 

hunting. Weather calm. See 

note A. 
37^ Single bird hunting. See note E. 



1 92 1.] Velocity of Mhjratory Flight among Birds. 



2S3 



Species. Place. 

Lammergeier Quetta. 

Lammorgeier Italy. 

White Stork Mesopotamia. 



Grey Heron France. 

Gannets Eastbourne. 

Pelican S. Palestine. 

Geese ? 



Ground 
speed : 
m.p.h. 

79| 



*110 



Remarks. 



*48 



under *45 

*48 

51 



44-3 



Geese 


. . France. 


*55 


Geese and Duck . 


.. Mesopotamia. 


42-48, 
slightly 
faster. 


Geese 


. France. 


50| 


Duck 


? 


47-8 


Duck 


. Quetta. 


51-59 


Brent Geese 


. Scotland. 


*45 


Mallard 


? 


*50 


Mallard 


. France. 


under *50 


Teal 


. S. Palestine. 


44 



Houbara Bustard . Quetta. 



42i 



Gliding to food at angle of 
12 degrees to horizontal. 
Strong side wind. See note A. 

Bird nose-diving to escape from 
a pursuing aei-oplano. Obser- 
vation taken with air-speed 
indicator. (E.A.F.) 

Birds on spring passage at 4200 
feet over Baghdad. Birds drew 
in their necks and legs when 
machine was near. (E.A.F.) 

By air-speed indicator. (E.A.F.) 

By air-speed indicator. (E.A.F.) 

Altitude of flight 1240 feet. 
A side wind of 15 m.p.h. See 
note D. 

Altitude of flight 905 feet. 
Measured by theodolite. (Clay- 
ton, ' Science,' n. s., vol. v. 
No. 105.) 

By air-speed indicator. (E.A.F.) 

Frequent observation by air- 
speed indicator. Birds usually 
on passage, biit all below 3000 
feet. (E.A.F.) 

Altitude of flight 4210 
Head wind of 9 m.p.h. 
note F. 

Altitude of flight 958 
Measured by a sj^ecial 
dolite. (Clayton, ibid.) 

Eleven observations, 
calm. See note A. 

By air-speed indicator. (Wynne.) 

By air-speed indicator. Birds 
believed to be on passage. 
( Wynne.) 

By air-speed indicator. (E.A.F.) 

Single bird flying low and 
leisurely. See note E. 

A single bird. Wind calm. 
See note A. 



feet. 
See 

feet, 
theo- 

Wind 



* Air-speed. 



SER. XI. VOL. 111. 



234 



Col. R. Meinertzhagen on the 



[Ibis, 



Species. Place. 

Stock Dove S. Palestine. 

Turtle-Dove Sinai. 



Geoffrey's Plover Palestine. 
(C'/i. geoffroyi). 



Kentish Plover . . . do. 

Caspian Plover East Africa. 

(Ch. asiaticus). 
Caspian Plover . . , do. 



Dotterel S. Palestine. 



Golden Plover ... England. 



Ground 
speed : 
m.p.h. 

37 



Sand-Grouse 


Quetta. 


43| 


(Pi. orientalis). 






Sand-Grouse 


S. Palestine. 


47* 


(Pt. senegallus). 






Pheasant 


— 


33-8 


Pheasant 


— 


38-1 


Partridge 


— 


32-1 


Partridge 


— 


*40 


Quail 


Mediterranean. 


57 



34 



34 

51 ~ 



47 



46, 50i 



*60 



Remarks. 

Fairly strong head wind. Bird 

flying to water. See note E. 
Several tests made on birds 
flying their best alongside a 
train. Speed of train obtained 
from kilometre posts. No 
record of wind. 
Bird flying from water. Slight 

head wind. See note A. 
Bird flying from water. Altitude 
of flight 460 feet. Weather 
cahn. See note D. 
Experiment in covered gallery. 

('Field; Feb. 1887.) 
Experiment in the open. ( ' Field,' 
Feb. 1887.) 
Experiment in the open. (' Field, ' 
Feb. 1887.) 
By air-speed indicator. (R.A.P.) 
Timed at sea over 500 yards 
distance. Birds on passage. 
(Lynes, Brit. B. vol. iii.) 
Timed by speedometer in the 
Bay of Acre, birds flying 
directly in front of the car. 
Birds could , be pressed up to 
39 m.p.h., after which the car 
could overtake them. Wind 
calm. 
Same as for Geoffrey's Plover. 
Birds flying very low on passage. 

Wind calm. See note B. 
Birds flying at 480 feet. Strong 
side wind. Birds on passage. 
See note B. 
Two observations. Birds flying 
very low. Strong side wind of 
11 and 21 m.p.h. respectively. 
See note D. 
Birds being pressed. By air- 
speed indicator. {Wynne.) 



* Air-speed. 



1 92 1.] Velocity of Migratory Flight among Birds. 



235 



Species. 



Place. 



Pacific Plover Pacific. 
(Gh. domiulcus). 

Lapwing S. Palestine. 

Lapwing France. 

Lajjwing do. 

Lapwing do. 

Little Stint East Africa. 

Terek Sandpiper... do. 

Greenshank do. 

Marsh-Sandpiper .. do. 

Oystercatcher . . . do. 

Ciirlew do. 

Whimbrel do. 



Grronnd 
speed : 
m.p.h. 

50-75 



37 

50 

*40-45 
42 



49 
48-51 
46,49 
48,51, 51i 
45-49 
42-48:^ 

43-52 



Remarks. 

Not founded apparently on accu- 
rate observation. {Henshatv, 
Smithson. Inst. Eep. 1910.) 

Single bird, flying against head 
wind of 12 m.p.h. Altitude of 
flight 860 feet. See note D. 

Altitude of flight 5500 feet. 
Flying against a north wind 
on spring passage. Means of 
estimate imknown. {Portal, 
'Field,' 17.iii.l7.) 

Observation by air-speed indi- 
cator. (E.A.F.) 

Altitude of flight 1410 feet. 
Slight side wind at ground- 
level. See note F. 

One observation. See note C. 

Four observations. See note C. 

Two observations. See note C. 

Three observations. See note C. 

Seven observations. See note C. 

Seventeen observations. See 
note C. 

Nine observations. See note C. 



* Air- 



So much for observations on the flight of wild birds. 
I shall now briefly record some of the more accurate 
observations on the rate of flight of Carrier Pigeons. 

Tegetmeier declares (' Field/ 22. i. 87) that the average 
speed of Carrier Pigeons is 36 miles per hour, whilst on 
two occasions a speed of 55 miles per hour was maintained 
for foiir hours in succession. 

From experiments carried out in a covered gallery 
(' Field,' 1887, p. 242) it was shown that a Pigeon flew 
at 33*8 miles per hour, whilst in the open another flew at 
27'9 miles per hour. 

In the ' Homing Fancier's Annual ' of 1892 it was recorded 
that in covering 82 miles in good weather a bird maintained 



23G Col. R. Meiaertzhageii on the [Ibis^ 

just over 71 miles per hour. From the Scilly Islands to 
Wiltshire (315 miles) a bird kept up a speed of 50^ miles 
per hour. In 170 miles a bird made 54 miles per hour, and 
in 104 miles it made 57^ miles per hour. In a race from 
Banff to Hampshire a bird maintained 6.2 miles per hour in 
very favourable weather. Finally^ a celebrated bird called 
" Volonel " on two occasions maintained over 60 miles 
per hour. 

Doubtless other figures have been published, but I have 
been unable to trace them. From the data available it 
appears tliat the normal velocity o£ a Carrier Pigeon is 
from 30-36 miles per hour, but that when '' homing " they 
can attain up to 60 miles per hour or over. Again arises 
the question as to whether migrants can accelerate their 
speed when actually migrating, in the same manner that a 
" homing " Pigeon can hurry on its way when " homing. '^ 
For reasons already given, I do not think they do, and there 
is (.'ertainly no evidence which even suggests it. The cases 
of Rooks in the above table were certainly those of migrating 
birds, and indicate no hurry. The Rossitten birds were all 
on passage, and show no excessive speed. In fact, the only 
excessive speeds we have in the table are those of the two 
Lammergeier which were taken under abnormal conditions, 
tlie (jrolden Plovers which were escaping pursuit, and the 
Roubaix Swallow. It is remarkable that this bird was also 
" homing," which may account for such an abnormal speed. 
But Swallows are most deceptive birds as regards their 
Hight. They are in locality neither strong nor rapid fliers, 
and personally I do not attach too much reliance in the 
data of the Roubaix Swallow. I do not believe any Swallow 
is capable of anything approaching that speed unless assisted 
by a tail wind of 30 or 40 miles an hour, which, as is well 
known, is a hateful condition to a travelling bird. 

The case of the Mosul Swifts is interesting. The birds 
were probably not on passage, but simply feeding. It is 
known that Swifts travel great distances in search of food 
and ascend great altitudes. In the Middle Atlas of Marocco, 
in the Himalayas, in Crete and Palestine, 4000 or 5000 feet 



1 92 1,] Velocitij of Migratory Flight among Birds. 237 

and 50 miles or so in distance seems nothing to these 
incomparable fliers. I have had splendid opportunities of 
observing botii the Alpine, Common, and Spine-tailed 
(Chcetura) Swifts, and it has been a great disappointment 
to me that I have never been able to get a satisfactory- 
estimate of their rate of flight, as they never continue 
on an even course. On a small island off the coast of 
Crete, I was recently given a good exhibition of what an 
Alpine Swift can do. I was watching some of these birds 
feeding round cliffs in which several pairs of Eleonora's 
Falcon were about to breed. Now, this delightful Falcon is no 
mean flier, and as these Swifts passed their cliff, the Falcons 
would come out against them like rockets. The Swifts 
would accelerate, and seemed to be out of sight before the 
Falcons were well on their way. So confident were the Swifts 
in their superior speed, that every time they circled round 
the island they never failed to " draw '' the Falcons, and 
seemed to be playing with them. I may add that these 
same Falcons have little difficulty in overhauling and striking 
a llock-Pigeon — itself no mean performer. I have also 
seen on record the case of Falcons and Swifts somewhere 
in India, when the former failed time after time to come 
up with his quarry. I unfortunately cannot trace the 
reference. 

I hesitate to even guess at the speed to which a Swift can 
attain when the necessity arises, but the main point is that 
this, the fastest of birds, can increase his ',' feeding " speed 
of, say, 70 miles per hour to a velocity which must exceed 
100 miles per hour. There is little doubt that the speed of 
the Golden Plover in the table is an accelerated speed. 
Pilots in Mesopotamia have told me that whereas Geese 
cannot to any great extent accelerate, Duck, when pressed, 
could attain a speed of about 60 miles per hour. 

To conclude, 1 find that birds have two speeds — a normal 
rate which is used for every-day purposes and also for 
migration, and an accelerated speed which is used for pro- 
tection or pursuit, and which in some cases nearly doubles 
tiie rate of their normal speed. Some of the heavier birds 



238 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

can probably only accelerate to a slight extent. In this 
conclusion I am naturally excepting " courtship " flight, 
which is usually of an accelerated nature. 

I also find, after eliminating abnormal conditions and 
observations based . on meagre evidence, that the normal 
and migratory rate of flight in miles per hour is as 
follows : — 

CorvidEe 31-45 Starlings 38-49 

Smaller Passeres. 20-37 Falcons 40-48 

Geese 42-55 Ducks 44-59 

Tame Piiieons ... 30-36 Sand-Grouse ... 43-47 
Waders 34-51, but mostly from 40-51. 



XIII. — Field Notes on the Birds of Lower Egypt. By 
W. Raw, M.B.O.U. With Contributions hy Colonel R. 
Sparrow, G.M.G., D.S.O., M.B.O.U., and the Rev, 
F. C. R. JouRDAiN, M.A., M.B.O.U. 

From August 1915 until April 1919 I was resident at the 
Wireless Station of Abu Zabal. The village of that name 
is situated some twenty miles nortli-east of Cairo, and my 
quarters were a further mile in the same direction, right on 
the Cairo-Ismailia canal, where it skirts the edge of the 
desert. Thus I had easy access to the cultivation, desert, and 
palm-groves, while some two hundred acres of useful swamps 
(known as the Birket Accrashi) were within half-an-hour's 
walk. The locality was therefore ideal for ornithological 
observation. 

Throughout my stay I kept a daily diary, and the follow- 
ing notes are culled from its pages. I endeavoured to secure 
as much information on the breeding birds of Egypt as I 
could, and for the purpose of putting my observations and 
other information on record, I propose to include all my 
oological data in this paper, although much of it was secured 
outside the six-mile area included in the Abu Zabal district. 
Due reference will be made to such divergence. 

To my friend Mr. J. Lewis Bonhote, M.A., F.L.S., F.Z.S., 



1 92 1.] Birds of Loiver Egypt. 239 

M.B.O.U., I am deeply indebted for much kindly assistance 
in many ways. His thorough knowledge of the Birds of 
Egypt, his genial hospitality, and advice were ever at my 
disposal, and I shall always associate him with any success 
which fell to my lot. Mr. M. J. Nicoll, M.B.O.U., and 
Captain S. S. Flower, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., of the Egyptian 
Zoological Service, also rendered me many kindnesses which 
I gratefully acknowledge. 

I must also pay tribute to Lieut. D. Paton, Major P. H. 
Manson-Bahr, D.S.O., M.B.O.U., Captain W. Shipton. 
M.B.O.U., Captain W. Bigger, M.C., M.B.O.U., Major F. W. 
Borman, M.B.O.U., Lieut. D. W. Musselwhite, M.B.O.U., 
and Dr. Beven, all of whom assisted me in many ways, and 
in whose company much of my work was done. 

The Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain, M.A., M.B.O.U., has kindly 
revised the nomenclature and furnished the list of literature. 

The supplementary notes in square brackets on the breed- 
ing of Egyptian birds are from observations made by 
Col. Sparrow in the yeajs 1893-94, 1908-09, and refer with 
few exceptions to the Delta or the desert bordering it. As 
these notes agree closely with my own, it was not thought 
necessary to confirm my observations in all cases, but his 
remarks are confined to those instances in which additional 
information was available or some divergence of habits 
noted. 

The nomenclature adopted is that of the International 
Rules, and in the main we have followed Hartert's ' Vogel 
pal. Fauna,' with some necessary modifications. 

The order followed is that of this work, and a list of the 
principal notes and papers on the Ornithology of Lower 
Egypt is also appended. It is not intended to be exhaustive, 
and only those papers which are likely to be useful to British 
ornithologists and are readily accessible are included : — 

1859. E. Cavendiijli Taylor. Ibis, pp. 41-55. Ornithological Reminis- 

cences of Egypt. 

1860. „ „ Ibis, p. 199 (Corrections). 

1861. J. Cavafy. Ibis, p. 210 (Letter on Bnch/tes cinereo- 

capillus and Chettusia leucura). 



240 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

18G2. S, Stafford Allen. Ibis, pp. 357-361. Notes on the Birds of 

Egypt. 

1863. ,, „ Ibis, pp. 32-34, 156-7. Notes on the Birds 

of Egypt. 
„ ,, „ Ibis, pp. 363-4 (Letter on CMce</2<5//ZancZrtr««s). 

Idem by J. H. Cochrane (pp. 361-3). 

1864. „ „ Ibis, pp. 97-8. On Acrocephalus stentorius 

(pi. I.). T. c. pp. 233-243. Remarks on 
Dr. A. L. Adams's Notes and Observations 
on the Birds of Egypt and Nubia. 
,, A. Leith zVdams. Ibis, pp. 1-36. Notes and Observations on 

the Birds of Egypt and Nubia. 
„ J. H. Cochrane. Ibis, pp. 183-184. Note on the Nesting of 

the Lanner Falcon (pi. IV.). 

1867. E. Cavendish Taylor. Ibis, pp. 48-73. Egypt revisited. 

1869-74. T. v. Heuglin. Oruithologie Nordost- Afrikas. 2 vols. 

Cassel. 

1870. R. B. Sharpe. Ibis, pp. 421-435. Critical Remarks on 

Dr. v. Heuglin's " Ornithologie N.O.- 
Afrikas." 
„ G. E. Shelley. Ibis, pp. 149-150, 445-448 (Letters on Elanus 

cceruleits and Cypselus pallidus, etc.). 

1871. „ „ Ibis, pp. 38-54, 131-147, 309-319. Contri- 

butions to the Ornithology of Egypt. 

1872. „ ,, A Handbook to the Birds of Egypt. London. 
1874. T. V. Heuglin. J. f. O. pp. 46-54. Bericht iiber " A Hand- 
book to the Birds of Egypt." 

1876. J. H. Gurney. Rambles of a Naturalist in Egypt and other 

Countries [pp. 84-245]. London, n.d. 

1878. E. Cavendish Taylor. Ibis, pp. 368-374. A few additional Notes 

on Birds of Egypt. 

1886. „ „ Ibis, pp. 378-380 (Letter on visit to Egypt). 

1889. Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria (transl. by C. G. Danford). 

Notes on Sport and Ornithology (pp. 229 
etc., 503 etc.). London. 

1891. E. Cavendish Taylor. Ibis, pp. 473-475 (Letter on 6th visit to 

Egypt). 

1892. G. Schrader. Orn. Jahrb. pp. 41-54. Ornitholog. Beo- 

bachtungen auf meinen Sammelreisen. V. 
1896. E. Cavendish Taylor. Ibis, pp. 477-482. A few Notes on Birds of 

Egypt from observations made at Cairo, etc. 

1905. W. L. S. Loat. Ibis, pp. 452-461. On a small collection of 

Birds from the Wadi-en Natrun. 

1906. ,, „ Ibis, pp. 113-124. On a small collection of 

Birds from the vicinit}- of Lake Menzaleh. 



I92I.] 



Birds of Lower Egypt. 



341 



1907. A. Koenig. J. f. 0. pp. 59-91. Die Geier Aegyptens. 

T.c. pp. 391-469, 549-582, Die Falcouideu 
Aegyptens. 
Ibis, pp. 490-510. Contributions to the 
Ornithology of Egypt, No. 1. Loke 
Menzaleh. 
Ibis, pp. 285-302, 471-484, 623-G49. Con- 
tributions to the Ornithology of Egypt, 
No. 2. Birds of the Province of Giza 
(3 parts). 
Egyptian Birds for the most part seen in tlie 

Nile Valley. Loudon. 
Zool. pp. 41-59. The Birds of Lower Egypt. 
Ibis, pp. 405-453. Contributions to the 
Ornithology of Egypt, No. 3. The Birds 
of the Wadi Natron. 
Ibis, pp. 121-187. Field Notes on a Collec- 
tion of Birds from the Mediterranean 
[partini]. 
Ibis, pp. 539-557. Birds of the Suez Canal 

Zone and Sinai Peninsula. 
The Principal Species of Birds protected by 

Law in Egj'pt. Cairo. 
Hand List of the Birds of Egypt. Pub. 
No. 29. Cairo. 
1919. A. Koenig. J. f. 0. pp. 431-485. Die Sperrschnabler 

(Plssirostres) Aegyptens. 
For lists of earlier works on this subject see Ornithologie Nordost-Afrika?, 
Bd. I. pp. xcvii-cviii. 

F. C. R. JOURDAIN. 



1908. M. J. Nicoll. 

1909. „ 

1909. C. Whymper. 

1912. C. B. Ticehurst. 
„ M. J. Nicoll. 

,, II. Lyues. 

1917. A. W. Boyd. 

1918. S. S. Flower and 

M. J. Nicoll. 

1919. M. J. Nicoll. 



1, Corvus corax umbrinus. Brown-necked Raven. 

Abu Zabal was not a suitable place for these birds, but I 
occasionally saw them there. A family party would often 
appear in June, and stray birds at different times during the 
year. I found a clutch of four eggs in a nest on a cliff in 
the Moqattam Hills on 2 April, 1918, and another clutch 
was taken by a native, in my presence, from a nest on a 
rocky scarp near the Pyramids on 2^ March, 1918. 
Captain W. Bigger found fresh eggs in a well on the Suez 
road on 12 March, and another well-incubated clutch in the 
Moqattam Hills on 21 April. He also found fresh eggs at 
Luxor on 22 February, 1917. 



242 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

[This bird was quite common between Ne Fiche and Suez 
on 3 August, 1919. My dates for full clutches of four eggs 
each near Abbassia are 20 April, 1894, and 19 April, 1910. 
Three eggs from Luxor were taken 27 March, 1903. Most of 
these eggs are paler than those of the Hooded Crow. — R. S.] 

[The small size of the eggs of this race as compared with 
those of other forms of Raven is remarkable. Average of 
17 Egyptian eggs : 44*49 x 31".58 mm. British egg's average 
49'8x33'5 mm. Some eggs have a very pronounced blue 
ground, while others are barely distinguishable from the 
paler type of Hooded Crow's egg. — F. C. U. J.] 

2. Corvus comix cornix. Hooded Crow, 

Common and resident. One bird made a hobby of flying 
off with stray tennis-balls from our court, and quickly ruined 
them. Begins to breed early in March, and T have found 
eggs as late as 6 June. Five is the largest number of eggs 
foxmd in any nest. 

[My earliest date for eggs is 7 March, 1909 (2 fresh eggs 
at Helouan). In the Fayum I found fresh eggs on 29 and 
30 March, 1910. Four is the normal clutch, but I have 
twice taken five. Eggs vary from almost pure blue to 
the ordinary type. — R. S.] 

3. Sturnus rulgaris subsp. ? Starling. 

Although this bird was common during the winter months 
I appear to have omitted to secure any specimen at Abu 
Zabal, and cannot say definitely which subspecies those 
seen belonged to. One obtained at Tanua el Fayum in 
February 1919 was identified as S. v. poltaratskyL 

4. Oriolus oriolus oriolus. Golden Oriole. 

This species passes through Abu Zabal about the first 
week in May and again in late September, but is never ver}' 
numerous. 

5. Chloris chloris subsp. ? Greenfinch. 

Observed on one occasion only. This was a single bird 
seen in an apricot-orchard on 16 Februar}-^, 191G, 



1 92 1.] Birds of Lotvei' Egypt. 243 

6. Carduelis carduelis. Goldfinch. 

Uncommon at Abu Zabal. I saw a pair near there on 
20 April, 1916, and several times during the winter near 
Shebin-el-Qauater. Mr. M. J. Nicoll showed me a nest, on 
which the bird was sitting, in a tree overhanging the tram- 
lines outside the Zoological Gardens at Giza, on 6 March, 
1917. 

[Mr. Nicoll showed me a nest with eggs in the Giza 
Gardens on 24 April, 1910.— R. S.] 

7. Carduelis cannabina mediterranea. Linnet. 

Large flocks haunt the stubble-fields throughout the 
winter, usually arriving in mid-October and de[)arting in 
March or April. 

8. Serinus canarius serums. Serin Finch. 

A flock o£ from thirty to fifty spent the winter annually in 
some tall trees near ray quarters, arriving early in November 
and departing early in March. 

9. Erythrospiza githaginea githaginea. Desert Bullfinch. 
[This species was common at Luxor in December 1909, 

and most probably breeds in the neighbourhood. — R. S.] 

10. Fringilla ccelebs ccelebs. Chaffinch. 

Small parties were met with during the winter months, 
being most numerous during January and February. 

11. Passer domesticus niloticus. Egyptian House-Sparrow, 
Abundant throughout the year. Breeds from early April 

to late June. There is a great range of variation in the 
eggs. I obtained three sets of five eggs and took another 
containing six, but four were more common. 

[In the Fayum I took many clutches on 2% March, 1910, 
and at Luxor on 31 March. My earliest date for Abbassia is 
21 March, 1909. Four appears to be the normal clutch, but 
I have one set of six from the Fayura. — R. S.] 

12. Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis. Spanish Sparrow, 
Huge flocks winter at Abu Zabal, roosting in the reed- 
beds. 



244 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

13. Sporaeginthus amandava. Amaduv^ade Finch. 

This species is not, of course, indigenous, but now breeds 
wild in the gardens at Giza, and is numerous at the Barrage 
over the Nile. It appears to be spreading, and breeds 
regularly at Inchas, where I have seen young just out of the 
nest. I took several clutches of eggs at the Barrage on 
14 August, 1917. All were fours except one, which had 
five eggs. 

14. Einberiza calandra calandra. Corn-Bunting. 

A common winter visitor, large numbers roosting in the 
reed-beds. Remains as late as 5 April. 

15. Emberzia hortulana. Ortolan. 

Passes through Abu 'Zabal on both migrations, being- 
most numerous about mid-September and rarer in mid- 
April. 

16. Emberzia caesia. Cretzschmar's Bunting. 

Seen as early as 27 August, and is more numerous than 
the preceding species in autumn and also in spring. 

17. Calandrella brachydactyla brachydactyla. Short-toed 

Lark. 
During some winters this species winters at Abu Zabal, 
when it is to be seen in large flocks. Other years it passes 
through in October, and returns in March on its way north. 
I saw an Italian " sportsman " shoot no fewer than twenty- 
eight at a single discharge. 

18. Calandrella brachydactyla longipeniiis. Long-winged 

Short-toed Lark. 
I have shot specimens of this bird out of flocks of the 
preceding subspecies, and the remarks on it are applicable to 
this also. 

19. Ammomanes deserti isabellina. Desert-Lark. 
Messrs. Bahr, Bigger, and Borman caught some young 

birds of this species which had just flown, on 22 April, 1919, 
in the Moqattam Hills near Abbassia. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Lower E(jypt, 245 

[I only found ibe nest of this species on one occasion — on 
16 May, 1910 — and, unfortunately, the bird deserted. The 
nest was on a rocky ridge not far from the Moqattam Hills, 
and was placed on the ground between some flat rocks, the 
edge of the nest being surrounded by small stones. Young 
a few days old were observed on 25 May^ 1910. and a fully- 
fledged young bird on 2'6 May. This species was common 
in the Wady Hof on 5 May, 1909, but appeared not to have 
then laid.— R. S.] 

20. Ammomanes phcenicurus arenicolor. Gould's Desert 
Lark. 

[I observed this bird near Abbassia in January and 
Februar}^ 1910. Mr. NicoU obtained a fully-fledged young- 
bird in the Wadi Natrun on 25 May, 1910.— R. S.] 

21--24. Galerida cristata nigricans, altirostris, moeritica, 
and caroli. Egyptian Crested Larks. 

Common and resident. Abu Zabal appears to have both 
G. c. nigricans and 6r. c. altirostris, and I have frequently 
observed what appeared to be birds referable to both sub- 
species obviously paired. The latter lighter type was more 
numerous. I have specimens of both forms shot at the 
same place. They breed from the first week in April until 
the end of May, but on one occasion I saw young birds on 
the wing on 10 April. 

I found eggs of G. c. mwritica in the Fayiim Province 
on 14 March, 1917, and saw G. c. caroli feeding young in 
the Wadi Natrun in mid-May, 1918. I never found more 
than four eggs in a nest, and usually only three, but Mr. J. L. 
Bonhote found a five clutch near the coast. 

\_G. c. nigricans. My earliest date is for two eggs at Abu 
Roash on 22. iii. 09 ; my latest date for several clutches is 
Inchas 29. v. 19. Three appears to be the normal clutch, 
though I have two clutches of four. There is great variation 
between different clutches. 

G. c. moeritica. One egg fresh near Lake Qarun, 
30. iii. 10 ; two clutches of two hard-set, 31. iii. 10. — R. S.] 



246 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

25. Alaiida arvensis arvensis. Skylark. 

Occasionally observed in small parties in winter. Usually 
feeding in the growing corn. Two shot on 16 October, 1916. 

26. AlaBmon alaudipes alaudipes. Bifasciated Lark. 

First seen on 27 August, 1916, when I shot a pair of 
young birds. On 4 August, 1917, I shot another immature 
bird. From October until February inclusive, in the winter 
of 1917-18, five or six birds were daily observed from the 
windows of my quarters, feeding on the desert scrub, but 
did not appear to breed anywhere near. 

[The bird was not uncommon in the desert in April and 
June, 1894, and odd birds were observed in February and 
November, 1909. I do not think it breeds near Cairo. I 
am indebted to Mr. Nicoll for two fresh eggs taken in the 
Wadi Natrun on 6. vi. 30 by M. Balboni, which closely 
resemble the eggs of Lanius e. elegans, but are more 
elongated. — R. S.] 

27. Anthus richardi richardi. Richard's Pipit. 

Met with only once, when I saw M r. J. L. Bonhote shoot 
a specimen whilst snipe-shooting on the Birket Accrashi on 
26 January, 1917. 

28. Anthus campestris campestris. Tawny Pipit. 
Numerous during bo'th migrations passing through Abu 

Zabal in September-October and March-April. Single 
birds met with in December. 

29. Anthus trivialis trivialis. Tree-Pipit. 
Uncommon and rarely obtained. One shot on 11-17 

October, and another on 16-18 April. 

30. Anthus pratensis. Meadow-Pipit. 

Rarely observed. A specimen shot on 9 February, 1917. 

31. Anthus cervinus. Red-throated Pipit, 

Very abundant throughout the winter, arriving about 
mid-October and departing about the end of April. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Lower Egypt. 347 

32. Anthus spinoietta coutellii. Alpine Pipit. 

Only less numerons than the preceding species, with 
which it arrives and departs. Roosts in the reed-beds and 
in the long grass bordering swamps. 

33. Motacilla flava flava. Blue-headed Yellow Wagtail. 
This species was noted several times during the autumn 

migration in September. Large numbers of Yellow Wag- 
tails congregated on the reeds in the Birket Accra shi 
during September, but the majority were birds of the year, 
and difficult to identify — even when shot. 

I am not certain, but think that M. f. cinereocapilla 
occurred amongst them. Less numerous in spring. 

34. Motacilla flava pygmsea. Egyptian Yellow Wagtail. 
Numerous throughout the year, but becomes scarcer in 

the breeding-season at Abu Zabal. Numbers breed, how- 
ever, at Marg and Inchas, but I never found their eggs 
myself. I have, however, a clutch of four eggs of this 
species taken by Dr. Beven of Cairo, near the Pyramids, 
on 19 April, 1918. 

[The full clutch of this race appears to be four eggs. 
My dates for fresh eggs are 2^ April, 1894, and 10 April, 
1910. Fully-fledged young 14 April, 1909. Nests com- 
monly in the cultivation, especially near the Pyramids. — 
li.S.] 

35. Motacilla flava melanocephala. Black-headed Yellow 

Wagtail, 
Seen in the spring only. Large numbers were observed 
at the Birket Accrashi on 13 April, 1918, when I obtained 
several which were perched high up in a Lebak-tree. 

36. Motacilla cinerea cinerea ? Grey Wagtail. 
Observed singly and sparingly during the winter months. 

37. Motacilla alba alba. White Wagtail. 

Large numbers of these birds winter at Abu Zabal, 
arriving early in October, and departing about the middle 



2i8 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

o£ April. From two marked birds I was able to satisfy 
myself that they spend the winter in a particular place and 
do not wander far. I obtained an albino specimen in 1919. 

38. Lanius minor. Lesser Grey Shrike. 

I only met with a single specimen in Egypt, which I shot 
at Abu Zabal on 29 April, 1918. 

39. Lanius excubitor elegans. Pallid Shrike. 

This bird was not uncommon at Abu Zabal during most 
of the year, but disappeared during the breeding-season. 
One which wintered near my quarters in 1916-17 got 
extremely tame, but departed in March. 

Through the kindness of Lieut. D. W. Musselwhite I was 
able to get a good insight into the breeding habits of this 
bird whilst staying with him at Kantara during the latter 
part of April 1919, and secured several sets of eggs. 

As this officer is publishing his own notes on this species 
T will confine myself to quoting his earliest and latest dates 
for eggs, viz., 2 March-12 June. 

[L. e. elegans is a fairly common breeding species in low 
thorn bushes between Mahsama-Abu-Sueir. My dates 
are as . follows : — On 6.iii. 10, 4 fresh eggs, 1 fledged 
young ; also 6 new nests and 3 building. On 27. iii. 10 
5 fresh eggs and an incomplete clutch of 3. In the 
Fayum a nest with eggs much incubated was found early 
in February. It is evident all birds nest earlier in the 
Faytlm than in the Delta. — R. S.] 

40. Lanius senator niloticns. Woodchat Shrike. 
Observed regularly but sparingly in spring and autumn, 

passing through from 29 March to 7 May, and from 15 
August to the end of September. All those obtained were 
referable to this form, and none to A. s. senator. 

41. Lanius nubicus. Nubian Shrike. 

Not uncommon during both migrations. Specimens shot 
on 13 September and IG April, which dates are about the 
usual times of their passing. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Lower Effi/pt. 249 

42. Lanius coUurio. Jled-backed Shrike. 

From 10 August to 20 September numbers pass through 
Abu Zabal, being more numerous some years than others. 
Rarely observed in spring. 

43. Pycnonotus barbatus arsinoe. White- vented Bulbul. 

I saw newly-fledged young birds being fed by the parents 
in the gardens at the Barrage on 14 August, 1918, and had 
two old nests pointed out to me by Mr. Marr. One was in 
a creeper on the side of his house. I believe it breeds at 
Palais de Koabeh. 

[This Bnlbiil was common at Abbassia and at other places 
in the.Fayum in 1909, and undoubtedly breeds there, 
probably from March to May. — R. S.] 

[Eggs of this species are extremely rare in collections 
from Egypt, but I have one clutch ol' five eggs taken by 
Major P. E. Vaughan near Cairo.— F. C. R. J.] 

44. Muscicapa striata striata. Spotted Flycatcher. 

A regular bird on passage, being very numerous during 
some s[)rings from the second week in April until as late 
as 23 May. In the autumn this species occurs between the 
middle of September and 19 October. 

45. Muscicapa hypoleuca hypoleuca. Pied Flycatcher. 
Less numerous than the preceding species, but observed 

in both spring and autumn. 

4C). Muscicapa albicollaris. White-collared Flycatcher. 
Rarely seen for certain. Several observed and one shot 
on G May, 1918. 

47. Phylloscopus collybita colly bita. Chiffchaff. 

Very numerous throughout the winter months, arriving 
in October and departing in March. 

48. Phylloscopus collybita albietinus. Eastern Chiflichaflf. 
Amongst the OhiffchafFs there was a sprinkling of birds 

with quite a different call-note. T have com[)ared specimens 

SER. XI. — VOL. in. i> 



250 Mr. W. Raw nn the [Ibis, 

at the British Museum, and refer them to the above sub- 
species. 

49. Phylloscopus trochilus. Willow-Warbler. 
Numerous in spring, but less so in the autumn. 

50. Phylloscopus bonelli, Bonelli's Warbler. 

Seen occnsionally feeding in the sont-trees in both spring 
and autumn. Specimens obtained. 

51. Phylloscopus sibilatrix sibilatrix. Wood-Warbler. 
Observed only in tjie s})ring except a single specimen 

seen on 11 September, 1917. Abu Zabal Avas not an ideal 
spot for observing the autumn migration, as I am certain 
manv species rested near the coast and passed over Abu 
Zal)al in the next lap of their journey. 

[Phylloscopus s. erlangeri ? Erlanger's Wood- Warbler. 
On 17 April, 1916, I saw a bird which I believe was 
referable to this subspecies. It was in my garden, but I 
did not shoot it as I had hopes of trapping it alive.] 

52. Locustella luscinioides luscinioides. Savi's Warbler. 
Large numbers were observed roosting in the reed beds of 

the old canal in April 1917. 

53. Acrocephahis arundinaceus. European Great Reed- 

Warbler. 
I believe this species may occur at Abu Zabal, although 
I never secured one there. I did, however, shoot a specimen 
at Inchas, not far distant, in the spring of 1918. 

54. Acrocephahis stentorens stentoreus. Clamorous Eeed- 

Warbler. 
Connnon and resident in the reed-beds on the Birket 
Accrashi. I found the eggs of this bird on 11 May, 1910. 
Some were 75 per cent, incubated, others fresh, and I found 
several uncompleted nests on the same day. Fresh eggs 
and young birds were also observed in the Wadi Natrim 
late in May 1918. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Lower Egypt. 251 

[Four eggs in the Fayum and three at Inclias appear to 
be the normal chitch ; I never found five. At Lake Qarun 
in the Fayura I took two fresh clutches of four on 
30.iii. 10. 

At Inchas the beginning of June is the best time for 
fresh clutches, though I took fresh eggs between 28. iv. 09 
and 27. vi. 09, but clutches o£ three taken on 15. v. 09 and 
6. vi. 09 were slightly and very much incubated. — R. S.] 

55. Acrocephalus scirpaceus scirpaceiis. Common Reed- 
Warbler. 

On 10 March, 191G, I picked up a Reed-Warbler which 
had been injured by flying against our aerial wires. Also 
observed in the vicinity of the Birket Accrashi in April, 
and again in early September. 

5G. Acrocephalus schoenobsenus. Sedge- Warbler. 

Common during both migrations. Several were observed 
so late in the s})ring — May — that I thought they must be 
breeding, but I never found any trace of nesting, and they 
subsequently disappeared, to return sometimes as early as 
14 August. 

57. Hypolais pallida pallida. Olivaceous Warbler. 

Very connnon from the end of March until the end of 
August. Numbers breed at Abu Zabal, commencing to 
build soon after their arrival. As building-sites they usually 
select lime, orange or tangerine trees, but I found several 
in geranium bushes with the nest neatly built into a fork 
about two feet from the ground. Two broods are reared in 
a season, the second about the end of June ; but I have 
occasionally found young birds still in the nest as late as the 
second week in August. Two to three is the usual clutch, 
and I only once found one of four. I have two sets of very 
pink eggs taken at Abu Zabal on 9. vi. 16 and lo. v. 16. 

[The normal clutch consists of three eggs : only one set of 
four observed. 10 May is the usual date for fresh eggs. 
— R. S.] 

s3 



252 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

58. Hypolais rama. Sykes's Warbler. 

I shot a specimen at Inchas on 30 September, 1917, 
which Mr. M. J. Nicoll refers to this species. It is in the 
Giza collection. Although closely resembling the preceding 
species, I thought its note differed ; and, moreover^ it was 
late for //. p. palVuIa to be seen. 

59. Sylvia atricapilla. Blackcap Warbler. 

Seen sparingly in early spring. A specimen shot on 10 
March. Never observed in autumn. 

00. Sylvia communis communis. Common Whitethroat. 
Common during the spring, migration l)oiiig most 
numerous in mid-April. Observed but rarely in Septomljer. 

(U. Sylvia curruca curruca Lesser Whitethroat. 
Abundant in the s[)ring. Usually first observed about 
16 Februarv. Not uncommon in September. 

62. Sylvia rueppelli. Rueppell's War])ler. 
Common at Abu Zaljal from 8 ]M:ircli to mid-April. 
Rarely observed in autumn. 

G3. Sylvia melanocephala melanocephala. Sardinian 

Warbler. 
Several obtained. One caught alive on 23 March, 191G. 
Also shot on 25 Februarj^ 1917, and in Septend)er. 

64. Sylvia melanocephala momus. Bowman's Warbler. 
The only specimen 1 met with was one which I shot at 
Abu Znbal on 30 October, 1918. 

05. Sylvia melanocephala norrisae. Nicoll's Warbler. 

I secured a sinole addled eii'o- from a nest containino- 
tlu-ee young of this spf^cies on 21 March, 1917. The nest 
was built in a tamarisk bush on the small island in Lake 
Qariin, Fayum, and was about two and a half feet from 
the ground. The nest was well built, and something like 
that of the Greenfinch, but smaller, and a quantity of old 
fish-netting was used in the outside structure. The young- 
were just about to fly when the nest was discovered by 



1921.] Birds of Lower Egypt. 253 

Captain W. Sbipton, who observed the birds hauutino- the 
bush whilst he was hiid up waiting for ducks to flight. The 
female of this subspecies is of a very skulking disposition 
and extremely difRcult ro obtain in the tamarisk thickets. 
I succeeded in shooting two females and several males, and 
also another young bird just on the wing. 

Apart from this locality, I also met with these birds near 
the Moeris Hotel, on the opposite shore of Lake Qarun ; 
and, on a subsequent visit, found it common at the eastern 
end of the lake, where I secured further s|iecimens. I 
believe it to be fairly numerous in suitable places around 
the lake ; but I never met with it at Tamiya or elsewhere 
in the Fayian Province. The egg is very similar to some 
types of the (*ommon Whitethroat, being greenish and 
closely spotted. 

[I can confirm Mr. flaw's notes on this species, as I 
obtained a young bird unable to fly, and found several old 
nests of the year on an island in Lake Qarun on 29. iii. 10. 
I also found a new nest without eoo-g. The nests I saw 
Avere chiefly composed of the stems of tamarisk bushes. 
— R. S.] 

66. Sylvia cantillans albistriata. Subalpine Warbler. 
Observed sparingly in early spring from 15 March to 

12 April. Never identitied in the autumn. 

67. Agrobates galactotes galactotes. Rufcous Warbler. 
This, our only real song-bird, arrives towards the end of 

March; and is abundant and tame until the end of August. 
Two broods are raised annually, and dwarf date-palms are 
frequently selected to build in, although heaps of rubbish 
and clumps of prickly pears are also much resorted to. The 
middle of May is usually the time for the first full clutches, 
and I have found fresh eggs on 18 June. Two to three is 
normally all that one finds in a clutch, but some years sets of 
four are more common. Major F. W. Borman found 
clutches of five not uncommon farther north, near Lake 
Borollos, in June 1018. It also breeds in the Wadi Natrun 



254 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

in May. I once found fre.sh eggs o£ this species in a House- 
Sparrow's nest, eight feet from the ground, in an orange- 
tree. Nothing had apparently been added to the sparrow's 
nest by the Rufous Warljlers. I had previously taken the 
eggs of both pairs of birds. 

[In 1909-10 I found four eggs the normal clutch for first 
layings, and May 10 the best date for fresh eggs. In the 
Fuyuin a nest had four fresh eggs on 5 May, 1910. — R. S.] 

&d>. Scotocerca inquieta inquieta. Scrub-Warbler. 

Although not occurring at Abu Zabal, where the desert 
is too void of rocks and bushes to suit its requirements, I 
found this species breeding in the Wadi Hof, about twenty 
miles south of (Jairo, and it also occurs in the wadis behind 
the citadel. Mr. M. J. Nicoll has found eggs in the Wadi 
Hof as early as the first of March, and Major J. W. Borman 
found them there, I think, equally early. I, however, found 
one full clutch of five fresh eggs, one of four, and a single 
egg in the same place on 24 March, 1918. Several nests 
were then seen, yet unfinished. 

This bird is very tame whilst breeding, and the nuile has a 
pleasing song. The nest, whicli resembles that of a Long- 
tailed Tit minus the lichen trimmings, is lined with feathers, 
pieces of string, or soft rag, and is to be found in the 
largest of the bushes which find an existence in the bottom 
of the wadi. The nest is usually about two feet from the 
ground, and not well concealed, 

[In the Wadi Hof I found two nests wath one and two 
fresh eggs respectively on 13 March, 1910, and another 
with four hard-set eggs on 6 April, 1910. One nest was 
lined entirely with Woodcocks' feathers, probably collected 
from a dead migrant. — R. S.] 

69. Prinia gracilis gracilis. Fayum Graceful Warbler. 

This species does not occur at Abu Zabal, but I secured 
its eggs in the Fayum, where it is abundant, on 14 March, 
1917. The nest, eggs, and habits differ in no way from the 
two following subspecies. 



192 1.] Birds of Loiver Egypt. 355 

70. Prinia gracilis deltse. Delta Giaceful Warbler. 

This bird is coniinon and resident at Abu Zabal, where I 
found its eggs, usuidly about the beginning of March ; but 
they continue to breed throughout the spring, and 1 have 
seen young birds in the nest as late as 14 August. Tamarisk 
bushes, small palius, sont bushes, and creepers like honey-- 
suckle are the usual building-sites for the nest, which is 
generally built of grasses and lined and decorated with 
pieces of raw cotton. 

[The nest of this bird is entered by a hole in the side, 
near the top. The usual clutch consists of 3 or 4 eggs, 
and I never met with 5. April and May appear to be the 
principal breeding months. — 11. S.] 

71. Prinia gracilis natronensis. Natrun Graceful Warbler. 
I secured the eggs of this subspecies in the Wadi Natrun 

late in May, 1918. Beyond one very deep red clutch of 
eggs I saw no difference in the nest, eggs, or habits from 
the preceding race. 

• 72. Cisticola cisticola cisticola. Fantail Warbler. 

( ;ommon and resident. I found the eggs of this species 
as early as 19 February and as late as early June, but April 
is the month when they are most numerous. My collection 
contains a wonderful variety of types, ranging from pure 
white through red-spotted on a white ground to Linnet- and 
even Thrush-like types, whilst the only five clutch 1 found 
consisted of eggs siniilar to those of the Spotted Flycatcher 
in colour. Two to four appears to be the normal number of 
eo-D-s in a clutch. The nest is beautifully built and resembles 
the type of purse which is provided with a string to draw 
tight the mouth. It is usually built in the rank grass which 
borders the fields and canals, and is generally fairly near 
the ground. Occasionady a clump of rushes or other 
herbage surrounded by water is selected. Many nests are 
destroyed by the natives, who burn the grass to destroy 
locusts, etc. Another peculiarity of this species is its habit 
of building more than one nest, for uo apparent reason, in 



256 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

close pvoximiiy to one another. Should the first clutch be 
taken, it immediately utilizes one of these nests for the 
second laying. It never moves far, which I easily proved 
by observing the particular type laid by certain pairs. 

I found one nest built in a stray clump of barley in a bean- 
lield. The stems of the barley were neatly woven into the 
side of the nest. I gave this specimen to the Giza Museum. 

[I have a five clutch of Blue Tit type taken at Inch;is 
;50.iii. 10. My earliest date for a clutch of three at 
Matarieh is 25. iii.09, and my latest 18. vi. 1909. The 
majority of nests found at Inchas between the end of May 
and middle of June contained three eggs, but most likely 
there were several broods. — R. S.] 

73. Tardus pilaris. Fieldfare. 

Two seen at close range on 17 February, 1916 *, were all I 
ever saw at Abu Zabal. 

74. Turdus philomelus philomelus. Song-Thrush. 
Observed every winter, usually singly, in the gardens or 

palm groves. Never seen later than mid-March. 

75. Turdus merula syriacus. Blackbird. 

Observed every winter in the gardens, corn-fields, and 
palm-groves. Five seen together on 10 February, 1916. 

76. Monticola saxatilis. Rock-Thrush. 

Fairly common during the tirst fortnight of April each 
year. I appear to have no record during autunni. 

77. Monticola solitarius transcaspicus. Blue Rock-Thrush. 
Passes thruuiih Abu Zabal between 10 March and 15 

April, being generally seen perched on mud-walls, native 
houses, and old wells. 

[* In Captain A. W. Boyd's paper in 'The Ibis," 11)17, p. 541, it is stated 
that Turdus visci varus had not been previously recorded i'roni Egypt. 
This is a mistake, as Schrader described it as an occasional visitor in 
hard winters as far back as 1892. — F. C. R. .1.] 



tgii.] Birds of Lower By ypt. 257 

78. (Enanthe cenanthe subsp. ? C.*oininon Wheatear. 
Numerous both in spring and autumn. This species 

passes through from hite March until late in May, and 
during the month of Se[)tember. 

I have not yet examined my skins of this bird, so cnnnot 
sa}' to which form they belong. I have frequently seen 
many birds sitting in the sont-trees, in the shade of a 
branch, gaping with the heat, at which time they are easy 
to approach, and are readily caught in a net-trap baited with 
a mealworm. 

79. (Enanthe deserti deserti. Desert Wheatear. 

Seen occasionally throughout the year. A brood of young 
birds usually appeared during August, but I never dis- 
covered the nest. Frequently observed perching on trees. 
Adult males are commoner during the latter part of April. 
An immature bird shot on 8 August, 1917, had a large green 
tick adhering to its eyelid. 

80. (Enanthe deserti albifrons. Eastern Desert Wheatear. 
In, I think, March 1917, I shot an adult male, which Mr. 

M. J. Nicoll referred to (J^. d. atrogidaris { = albifrons). I 
later (8-15 March, 1919) shot other birds which appeared to 
belong to this form when compared w'ith (J^J. d. deserti ; but 
one of them, which Dr. Hartert kindly examined, is believed 
by him to be referable to the latter form. As I have no 
more of my skins by me I must leave the question in this 
unsatisfactory condition. 

81. (Enanthe hispanica xanthomelaena. Eastern Black- 

throated Wheatear. 
Both Black-throated and Black-eared forms of this 
species pass through the Abu Zabal on both migrations 
somewhat later than the (Common Wheatear, the male 
being earlier than the female in each case. 

82. (Enanthe leucomela cypriaca. Eastern Pied Wheatear. 
On 5 November, 1919, I shot the first authenticated 

specimen of this species in Egypt. The skin is in the Giza 



258 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

Museum. It was an adult male, and I tried in vain to 
secure another male ■which liaunted the rocky bed of an old 
canal for several days about the same time. This species 
must have been overlooked, for on 1 November, 191(S, I shot 
another adult male, and during the succeeding week I saw 
upwards of a dozen and shot several, which are in my 
collection and that of Mr. J. L. Bonhote. All the specimens 
shot and seen were males, and, although I kept a good look- 
out, I never saw a single female. 

83. (Enanthe melanoleuca finschii. Araluan C'hat. 

A feauile shot on 12 February, 1*J17, and three males 
during November, l'Jl<S, were all I met with at Abu 
Zabal. 

84. (Enanthe isabellina. Isabelline Wheatear. 

Winters at Abu Zabal, arriving towards the end of 
August and departing in April. None remain to breed. 
Very quarrelsome ; a wounded bird is invariably set upon 
and killed by others of the same species. 

85. (Enanthe lugens lugens. Mourning (;hat. 
Occasionally seen during the winter, and a brood of 

young, together with their parents, annually appeared on a 
piece of waste ground during August. Lack of suitable 
rocky retreats probably accounts for their scarcity at Abu 
Zabal. 

Captain W. Bigger found young birds out of the nest on 
28 April, and a pair building on 2 June^ 191 7, in a wadi 
behind the (Utadel, Cairo. 

I had intendetl to devote some time to this family in the 
spring of 1919, but the riots unfortunately upset my 
arrangements. 

[Although I never found a nest with young or eggs, I saw 
and shot birds which were evidently breeding in the Wadi 
Hof near Helwan on 5. v. 09, and found old nests in holes 
in the rocky sides of small valleys, presumably of this 
species. — R. S.] 



I921.] Birds of Loiver Egypt. 259 

86. (Enanthe leucopyga. Wliite-runiped Chat. 

This bird undoubtedly breeds in the Wadi Hof, Wudi 
Resheid, Wadi el Dejla, and other suitable places. Messrs. 
Bahr, Bigger, and Bornian found a nest containing young 
five days old on 22 April, 1919. This was built under a rock 
in the Moqattani Hills near Cairo, and contained four young 
birds. 

[Old nests, presumed to be of this species, were also found 
in the Wadi Hof in May 1909, and on 6 April 1 910. I shot a 
female with small ovary : the bird was very fat. Mr. Nicoll 
has also obtained young birds in the Wadi Hof, which were 
undoubtedly bred there. A series of eggs of the Egyptian 
Pied Chats is badly needed. It a[)pears probable that first 
nests will be found in early March. — U.S.] 

87. (Enanthe monacha. Hooded CUiat. 

[This Chat was common at Luxor in December 1909, and 
a pair with three fledged young were observed in the Wadi 
Hof on 2.vi. 10.— R. S.] 

d)'6. Saxicola rubetra rubetra. Whinchat. 
Seen sparingly in spring — late March to early May. 
Never observed in the autumn. 

89. Saxicola rubetra margaretaB. Eastern Whinchat. 

On 3 May, 1917, I shot a bird which Mr. M. J. Nicoll 
refers to this race. It is now in the Giza collection. 

90. Saxicola torquata rubicola. Stonechat. 
Stonechats ap|)ear about the second week in September 

and remain until the middle of March. None breed. 

91. Phoenicurus phoenicurus phoenicurus. Common Red- 

start. 
Observed in both spring and autumn ; average dates 
3 April and 8 September. Does not winter at Abu Ziibal. 

92. Phoenicurus ochrurus gibr altar iensis. Black Redstart. 
A pair or so winter at Abu Zabal, arriving in October. 

Latest record 15 March. 



260 Mr. W. Haw on the [Ibis, 

93. Luscinia megarhyncha megarhyncha. Nightingale. 

Seen commonly in the crops when (juail -sliooting in April ; 
also sparingly in the autumn. One heard singing G April^ 
1917. 

91. Luscinia suecica suecica. Red-spotted Bluethroat. 

Numbers winter at Abu Zabal. Frequently seen in the 
damper places when sni[»e-shooting, etc. ; also frequents the 
herbage on the canal sides and the cotton-fields. Sometimes 
remains until May. 

95. Luscinia suecica volgae. White-spotted Bluethroat. 

Less numerous than tlie above form, but obtained annually 
at the Birket Accrashi, where it may be found during the 
winter. 

9(). Erithacus rubecula rubecula. Robin. 
A pair or so wintered every year in our garden. Very 
shy and retiring. Never observed later than 19 March. 

97. Hirundo rustica rustica. European Swallow. 
Numerous in s])ring and autumn. Observed as late as the 

end of May. 

98. Hirundo rustica savignii. Egy|>tian Swallow. 
(Jommon and resident. Usually builds in native houses, 

under verandahs and railway bridges, and has been found by 
Major F. W. Bornian in dug-outs on the Suez Canal. In the 
last week in April I saw a nest under a wharf on the Suez 
Canal within a few feet of the water. I have also seen nests 
in some of the busiest streets in Cairo, such as Mohamed Ali 
Street, just clear of the heads of pedestrians. The eggs are 
usually laid about the beginning of May, though sometimes 
earlier. There is considerable variation in the size of the 
eggs, some specimens being very small, and others as large 
as normal eggs of the European Swallow. 

[My dates are — four eggs incubated oJ . iii. 09 ; nests with 
eggs21. iii. 94, 15. iv. 94 ; eggs and also young 8. vi. 1893 — 
so it is evidently double- or treble-brooded. Four is the 
usual clutch. — R. S.] 



1 92 1.] Birds of Loiver Egypt. 261 

09. Hirundo daurica rafula. ReJ-rumped Swallow. 

Rarely observed at Abu Zabal, but on 1 May, 1917, a 
fair number of these birds were seen hawking for flies over 
the reed-beds at tlie Birket Accrashi. 

•100. Delichon urWca urbica ? House-Martin. 
Never very numerous, but observed at various times in 
spring and autumn. Six seen on 18 April, 191G. 

101. Riparia riparia riparia. Sand-Martiu. 

This species passes through Abu Zabal in fair numbers, 
but is not readily distinguished from the following sub- 
species, and, in consequence, I am not certain of dates. 

102. Riparia riparia littoralis. Shelley's Sand-Martin. 
Abundant from the end of March throughout the summer, 

breeding in colonies in the sand-banks. One large colony 
had their nesting-holes in a sand-bank not more than 
eighteen inches high in a sand-pit near the Birket Accrashi. 

1 took eggs there on 10 April, 19 16, and had difficulty in 
finding a clutch of five. On 8 April, 1918, I found many 
nests containing five eggs. Major F. AV. Borman showed 
me a thriving colony in some trenches at the School of 
Instruction close to a busy camp at Zeitoun. 

[Very large colonies at Shubra Island and in both banks 
of the Nile between Rod-el-Farag and the Barrage. It also 
nests at Abbassia and at Abu Roash. I took many eggs 
between 18-22 March in 1909-10.— li. S.] 

103. Riparia obsoleta obsoleta. Pale Crag-Martin. 
Although this species was never observed at Abu Zabal 

it is not uncommon near the Citadel in Cairo and in the 
clifEs behind. I found a nest there in an old lime-kiln on 

2 April, 1918, on which the bird was sitting. Owing to the 
position of the nest I was unable to investigate it. This 
species also breeds inside the domes of some of the houses in 
the main streets of Heliopolis, and I have seen them feeding- 
young there in Aj)ril. Captain W. Bigger found fresh eggs 
at Luxor on 19 February, 1917. 



262 Mr. W. Kaw on the [Ibis, 

[The only eogs taken of this species were found in a 
buildino- at Abbassia on 80 March, 18114 ; the clutch consisted 
of three, and the eggs are spotted with chestnut brown instead 
of red, and are easily distinguishable from the eggs of //. r. 
savigmi. — R. S.] 

104. Apus murinus murinus. Pallid Swift. 

On 12 February, 1917, several were observed flying over 
the Birket Accrashi, where they were noted until 27 February. 
Single birds observed at various times of the year. I never 
identified the European Swift, but probably it also occurs. 
.1. m. murinus was common near Lake Karim in March 
1917, and I shot several there. 

[This bird is common at Cairo, and nests in the holes of 
walls in the mosques of the Tombs of the Khalifs. I took 
one clutch of fresh eggs on 1. iv. 10, and found young 
fledged on 27. iv. 09.— E. S.] 

105. Capnmulgus europaeus europaeus. European Nightjar. 
The only sj)eciuien ever met with at Abu Zabal was shot 

on 18 April, 1919. I found ( '. e. eurojvius to be not un- 
connnon near Lake Menzaleh in September 191G. 

106. Caprimulgus asgyptius segyptius. Egyptian Nightjar. 
This species was occasionally seen and obtained at Abu 

Zabal. It is extremely abundant between 18 August and 
tlie end of September, when bunches of upwards of fifty 
annually ap[)eared on some rough ground near my quarters. 
^Vlien walking over this place there seemed to be a Nightjar 
to every vard. Of four which I shot on 9 September, 1917, 
two were males and two females. They were deep in 
moult. 

Major F. W. Borman and Lieut. D. W. Musselwhite found 
two pairs of eggs and shot a bird of this species on 29 May 
at Sidi Salem. The eggs were much incubated, and were 
laid under the shelter of a small bush close up to the roots, 
on some uncultivated ground. 

[This species was common in the desert on IG. iii. 09. — 
R.S-] 



192 1.] Birds of Lovjer Egypt. 263 

107. Caprimulgus segyptius saharae. Nightjai-. 

On 20 May, 19 IG, I sliot a female which had well-defined 
incubation patches, at Abu Zabal. T never discovered eoos 
or young, but saw another adult on 25 May near the same 
place — the edge of the desert. In 1917 I again saw a pair 
of birds in the same locality on 30 May and 4 July. A 
systematic search^ however, brought no luck. I shot other 
specimens, but appear to have mislaid the data, and the 
skins are in the collection of the Cliza Museum or that of 
Mr. J. L. Bonhote. 

[A pair shot on 25. v. 10 at Gattah had their reproductive 
organs very much developed, but I failed to obtain any 
eggs.— R.S.] 

108. Merops apiaster. 'European Bee-eater. 

Large numbers pass through Abu Zabal during both 
migrations. Average dates 9 April and mid-September. 
These birds roost in the same clumps of trees every year. 

109. Merops persicus persicus. Blue-cheeked Bee-eater. 
Large straggling flocks annually pass over Abu Zabal, 

sometimes at a great heioht and somewhat earlier than the 
preceding species. It breeds at Iiichas in fair numbers, and 
I have taken full clutches there on 12 May, which date is 
very consistent. 

[This Bee-eater also breeds between Farash-hour and 
Damietta ; also between Abu Hammad and Mahsama. 

In 1904 Mr. Malcolm took fresh eggs between 2-25 May. 

Atlnclias on 12. v. 09 I dug out several nest-holes, but the 
birds had not laid. The last week in May is apparently the 
time for full clutches, which range from four to six. — R. S.] 

110. Merops orientalis cleopatra. Green Bee-eater. 

Five seen on 17 October in the garden at Abu Zabal 
is the only record I have for that place. It is, however, 
fairly numerous round Caii-o in the winfer, and breeds no 
farther south than Mazohouna, where I took fresh eggs 
on 27 April, 1918. If is interesting to note that I found an 
addled egg of the previous year in amongst a fresh clutch, 
thus shov.ing that the same hole is sometimes used again as 
a nesting-site. Some of their holes were on quite flat open 



264 On the Birds of Lower Egy Jit. [Ibis, 

crronnd, but the majority were amongst prickly pears in 
little sand-pits. Five a]ipears to be the full clutcli. 

[Mr. H. Malcolm took a clutcli of seven eggs at Damietta 
on 16 April, and fresh eggs at Minieh on 6. v. 04. 

At Mazghouna I took clutches of 6, 5, 5, slightly 
incubated, on 4. v. 10, and found two fresh eggs and one 
nest in which the birds had not yet laid. — R.S.] 

111. XJpupa epops epops. European Hoopoe. 

This subspecies occurs annually, but owing to its great 
resemblance to the next on tlie list its dates of arrival and 
departure nre hard to judge. 

I have obtained it several times during the winter months, 
and have observed it well out on the desert, obviously 
migrating in April. 

112. TJpupa epops major Brehm. Brehm's Hoopoe. 
(Common ;nid resident. I took a clutch of six fresh eggs 

out of a hole 20 feet up in the wall of our engine-house on 
3 March, 1917. Other dates are : 0/4, 10 April, 1916 ; 
0/6, 3 May, 1917 ; and 0/7, 0/7 at Inchas, 12 May, 1918. 

This bird uses many sites for depositing its eggs, and I 
never found any nesting material in their filthy holes. 

I quote a few sites which came under my observation : — '■ 
Hole inside native hut, hole in a tree, old nesting-hole of the 
Pied Kingfisher nearly flush with water in a deep canal, 
firebox of old obsolete oven which was leaning against a 
wall, drain-pipe carrying water off a roof, and high up under 
the eaves of our engine-house, where presumably the same 
pair rais(^d three broods in 1918. Hoopoes were again 
breeding there when I left in April 1919. 

[The hole in a wall or under the eaves of a native house 
seems to be the usual site of nest. My dates for eggs are : 
Luxor, six fresh and three hard-set, 18. iii. 10 ; Inchas, six 
fresh, three fresh, on 30. iii. 10. At Inchas on 29. v. 09 I 
found seven young fourteen days old and five young ten days 
old ; also four fresh eggs on 27. vi. 09, and it is evidently 
double- or treble-brooded. — 11. S.] 

[To be continued.] 



1921.] Birds of Tasso and aojoining Islands. 265 



XIV. — The Birds of Tasso and adjoininf/ Islands of the 
Rokelle River, Sierra Leone. By Willoughby P. Lowp], 
M.B.O.U. With Notes hy David A. Bannerman, B.A., 
M.B.O.U. 

(Text-figiire 3.) 

Preface. — By D. A. Bannerman, 

The collection of birds obtained by Mr. W. P. Lowe in 
Sierra Leone in the early s])ring of 1920 comprises 207 
skins, representing 118 species and subspecies. As Mr. Lowe 
has explained in his introductor}' remarks, the collection was 
made principally on the three islands — Tasso, Mayahgba, 
and Yatward — M'hich lie in the wide mouth of the Rokelle 
River ; these islands have never been explored, and it has 
therefore been thought advisable to give a complete list of the 
birds known to inhabit each. The position of these islands will 
be seen by referring to the map (text-figure 3) which has 
been specially prepared by Lieut. Mansergh, R.N., of H. M.S. 
' Dwarf.' During his comparatively short stay in Sierra 
Leone, Mr. Lowe was successful in adding a nvimber of 
species to the list of Sierra Leone birds hitherto unrecorded 
from the ( !olony. All were obtained, unless the contrary is 
noted, viz, : — Ortygosjnza atricollis ansorgei, Anticltromus 
miimtns miiuifus, f Cisticola terrestris subsp. undetermined, 
Cisticola rufopileata rufopileata, Penthohea frontalis, Brady- 
ornis murinus modest us, Batis senegalensis togoensis, Tchitrea 
viridis viridis, Riparia riparia riparia, Clamator glandarius, 
Centropus francisi, Micropus ceqxiatorialis loivei, subsp. nov., 
Lophoceros nasutus nasi/tus, Bi/canisies fstidator, Bubo 
africanus cinerascens, *Aquila icahlhergi, * Spizaetus coronatus, 
*Cuncuma vocifer, Circaetus cinereus, *Pandion haliaetus 

* Not obtained, but identified without a doubt. 

t A single specimen only was obtained ; recently we have received a 
further single specimen in breeding-plumage from Miijor Scovil, R.A. 
The bird is most nearly allied to C t. eximia, Heugl., and, when a series 
are obtained, will probably prove to belong to an undescribtd race. 

SER, XI. VOL. III. T 



260 Mr. W. P. Lowe om the [Ibis, 

Jialiaetus, ^Pelenums sj). uncertain, "^Ardea c/oViatJi, Mcht- 
nophoyx ardesiaca, Ardeola ibis Uti.'t, Triiu/a ferruriinea 
ferni(/inea, Totanns tot anus, Rhyacophihis <jlareoJa, *SqiintaroJa 
squatarola, Lams fascus fuscxs, Sterna sp. not yet deter- 
mined, HijdroclteUdon nigra, Ili/droc/udidon hi/Jnida, Nanvda 
meleagris. 

When it is remembered that Mr. Lowe spent nnder three 
months in the Colony, the fact that he could procnre or 
identify without a doubt thirty-two birds, which, despite the 
labours of Mr. Robin Kemp, Major Kelsall, and others, 
had never previously been recorded from vSierra Leone, 
speaks volumes for the work still to be done in West Africa, 
and not a little for the untirino- enerov and discrimination 
with which Mr. Lowe faced his task. 

Special mention must here be made of the new Giant 
Swift, which Mr. Lowe discovered. A single specimen 
was shot at Mahera up the Rokelle River (see Ma])), 
and Mr. Lowe tells me that this Swift was very coniuion in 
the neighbourhood of the village, and had he had more than 
one caitridge he could have secured a fine series. The 
birds were nesting ;it the time of his visit, 21 April. The 
discovery of this bird in Sierra Leone is of very special 
interest, as hitherto no specimen of any racte of the Cliaiit 
Swift has been obtained in this part of Africa. Tiie 
ty[)ical species inhabits Abyssinia and probably extends 
south throuoh the great lakes. More than one race has been 
described, and, almost at the same time as Mr. Lowe shot his 
l)ird, ('apt. Hubert Lynes, R.N., procured yet another race 
in Darfur in almost the same latitude as Sierra Leone. 
I have already described M. a', lowel at length in the 
'Bulletin' of the Brit. Orn. Club, vol. xli., October 1920, 
p. 2. Additional s[)ecimens are badly needed in the British 
Museum. The bird cannot be mistaken for any other Swift, 
as the wing measures 2()4mm. 

Another bird of very great interest, which does not strictl}^ 
come within the scojie of this paper, may, nevertheless, well be 
mentioned here. It is a small Rail which flew on board 
* Not obtaiued, but identified without a, doubt. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Tdnso and adjoviing Islands, 267 

H.M.S. ' Dwarf,' in lat. 10° 0' N., lono-. 15° ^,0' W., on June 
14tli, 1920, wliile the gunboat was at sea off Portuguese 
Gruinea. Mr. Lowe skinned the little bird, and it proved to 
be a new race, which 1 named SarotliruraJiohmi d<mei in 
honour of Lieut. -Commander Dane, II. N., of H.M.S. ' Dwarf 
(c/: Bull. B.O. (J. vol. xli., Oct. 11)20, p. a). 

Another bird, the identification of which has been anything 
but easy, figures in my list as Sterna [species undetermined] 
?<Zr)»r/a///, Mont. The Roseate Tern. This is amostremarkable 
specimen, which has puzzled several ornithologists to whom I 
have submitted it. Dr. Hartert has, I believe, come nearest 
to identifying the bird ; he writes " I should describe it as a 
gigantic specimen of Sterna dongalU with aljnormiillv deep 
cleft feet." He notes that Sterna douf/alli gracilis of Australia 
sometimes has wings as long as this. Unfortunately, the 
Tern under discussion, which Mr. Lowe shot in Freetown 
Harbour on the 5tli May, 1920, is an immature female, 
apparently about eleven months old, with bill and feet black. 
The primaries are very worn, and the shafts broken off at 
the end ; and taking this fact into consideration the wing- 
measurement of 233 mui. is remarkable. Had the wings not 
been damaged, the measurement would have been somewhere 
between 235-240 mm. The bird is in full moult, and has 
attained its new tail-feathers and some of the secondaries. 
K it is indeed a s[)ecinien of the Roseate Tern, its occurrence 
so late as May in Sierra Leone is difficult to exphtin. The 
bird is recorded from one or two localities on the East 
African coast as far as Cape Town, but I know of no example 
having Ijeen taken in West Africa. Mr. Willoughby Lowe 
believes that it will })rove to be a resident and probably 
distinct breeding-race, but until its breeding-oround is dis- 
covered nothing further can be done. I would specially 
draw the attention of any ornithologist who may be quartered 
at Freetown to securing more specimens, and particularly 
o£ ascertaining whether any Roseate Terns visit Freetown 
Harbour. 

Mr. Lowe has reported the existence on Tasso Ishuul of a 
fine Ground-Hornbill (^Bucorvus), which from his description 

t2 



208 Mr. W. P. Lowe on the [Ibis, 

appears to be an iindescribed species. It is an enormous 
h'wd, a pair of wbicb were seen by Mr. Lowe on more than 
one occasion, and is remarkable for the fact that it is entireh/ 
black, lacking the white primaries of JB. ahyssinicus and 
B. cafer. As no example of Biicorviis with black primaries 
is known to exist anywhere in Africa, a specimen should be 
secured at the earliest opportunity. 

T wish to take this opportunity of expressing the great 
appreciation felt by the authorities of the Natural History 
Museum to Commander Dane, R.N., for so generously taking 
Mr. Willoughby Lowe with him as naturalist on his ship. 
Much of the material obtained by Mr. Lowe (including a 
lai-ge collection of birds from Lagos, Southern Nigeria) still 
remains to be worked out, but it will be apparent from a 
perusal of this paper how much Yalual)le work Mr. Lowe has 
accomplished, thanks very largely to the facilities afforded by 
Commander Dane, who spared no pains or personal expense 
to make the trip a success. The new Rail and a fine 
Antelope have been named after him as a small recognition 
of his kindness. 

Introduction. — By WiLLOUGHBY P. LoWE, M.B.O.U. 

Having been kindly invited by Lieut. -Commander A. Y. 
Dane, R.N., of H.M.S. 'Dwarf,' to accompany him in his 
gunboat to the West Coast of Africa, I found myself once 
again off Freetown, Sierra Leone, on 25 February, 1920. 
My first object was to try and complete the collection made 
on my last visit of .1911 Avhilst the guest of Capt. Hardy, 
R.N., of H.M.S. ' Mutine.' It was now arranged that I should 
stay on the high ground at Hill Station, and from this point 
many new additions to my former collection were made, as 
well as new records to the list of known Sierra Leone birds. 
Having about exhausted the birds found in the innnediate 
neighbourhood of Freetown, it was with much interest and 
pleasure that Commander Dane and myself left the ship early 
on March 12 for the zoologically unexplored Rokelle River 
and its numerous islands. We arrived atTasso Island (text- 
fig. 3) about 11 A.M. An empty bungalow was to be had, and 



1921.] Birds of Tasso and adjoininy Islands. 



269 




270 ^h•. \V. P. Lowe on I he [Ibis, 

here f settle! down to work — cliieiiy on Tasso LsUukI, — but 
paying a t"e\v short visits to Yatwurd, Mayahgb;!^ Rotoonibo, 
and other ishinds, as well as a day's sail up the liokelle River 
to Mabile, where the river becomes more narrow and difficult 
of passage on account of the large rocks in the river-bed. 
It was here tliat I saw on 16 April a Kori Bustard, which 
almost without doubt was Otis kori strutldanculus. So far as 
I know, no Kori Bustard has been recorded from the West 
C.'oast, and it is therefore possible that, had I obtained a 
specimen, it would have proved to belong to an nndescribed 
race — possibly a tlark form of the North-African Kori 
Bustard. I also came across a small dry pond where the bird 
dusted itself, and was able to examine many feathers from 
the wings. 

On my return I stayed at IMahera, and it was here I 
discovered the new Giant Swift [Micropus frr/uatorialis lowei), 
which Mr. Bannerman has described, in abundance. 

I shall now confine myself chiefly to Tasso Island. It 
may be of interest to say that the word Tasso means " a 
resting-place," where all the native boats sto[) on their 
journeys up and down the river waiting for wind and tide. 
Mayahgba means " shaky island " — possibly on account of 
tlie wind ; Yatward was named after a chief of the island ; 
whilst the large long island of Rotoomba, which swarms 
with game ami is nearly all covered with thick bush, means 
" Croat island," on account of the so-called "Bush-Goats" 
(^Cej^Jialopus ni<jer), which seem to occur here and not on any 
of the other islands. 

The rather important village of Tasso is at the north- 
west corner of the island, and is one of the few spots not 
surrounded by a dense belt of mangroves. It was, no 
doubt, like Bense Island, a stronghold of the Dutch and 
Portuguese slavers — as the still remaining old cannons half 
buried in sand prove. The island is loughly about three by 
four miles in extent and distant a mile from the mainland 
It is probably about 60 ft. high and, like the mainland, of 
volcanic origin. It has a light sandy soil, and is for the 
most part covered with low scrubby bush, which is burnt 



1 92 1.] Birds of l^assu and udjoiniiiy Islands. 271 

periodically for fanning' ])nrposes. The trees of any size are 
scanty : a few very tine cotton-woods are found around the 
villaoe, the remainder seem to have been all used for maldng 
dug-out canoes. There are, however, some oil-})alm trees at 
the southern end of the island, the favourite resort of bats 
and parrots. 

Tasso may be said to differ in one respect from the other 
islands by having two very large ponds, one of which was 
dry when I arrived and the other nearly so. These seem to 
be the onh natural su[)ply of fresh water, and during the 
autmnn they are frequented by large quantities of water- 
fowl. It is therefore more than probable that Tasso will be 
found to have a tar greater variety of birds than any of the 
other islands. The chief interest to the ornithologist 
respecting these islands lies in the fact that ho many birds 
found on the high mainland are conspicuous by their absence. 
Take, for instance, only two very noticeable ones — the 
Plantain-eater [Turacus inacrorJii/nehrts), whose noisy habits 
and brilliant plumage is at once missed, or again the lovely 
little Blue Flycatcher [Plat/jsfcira c>/anea), so well known 
and loved by all Avhite people who visit the Colony. 

I am here giving a com[)lete list of the birds obtained on 
this and other islands, as well as those seen and whose 
identitication is Ijeyond doubt. 

I am greatly indebted to Mr. David A. Bannerman for 
having named the collection, and for compiling a complete 
list of Sierra Leone l)irds, which will not only be useful to 
compare with the island lists here given, but will also be 
of Hreat service to those who will continue the iuterestino- 
study of Sierra Leone birds. I have also to thank Lieut. M. 
J. Mansergh, R.N., of H.M.S. ' Dwarf,' for preparing this 
the first correct map of the little-ktiown liokelle River and its 
islands. There are still, doubtless, many birds in Sierra Leone 
which have not yet been recorded, but Mr. Bannerman's list 
will at least bring our knowledge of Sierra Leone birds up to 
date. 

An asterisk denotes that the bird was s«en beyond doubt, 
but no skins were preserved. 



272 Mr. \y. P. Lowe on the [Ibis, 

List of the Birds of Tasso Island, liokelle Miver, 
Sierra Leone, icith Field-notes. 

Corvus scapulatus. Pied Crow. 

On Tasso Island during March these birds were very 
scarce, only an odd bird was to be seen. During April their 
numbers greatly increased, and small flocksof twenty were to 
be seen. 

Cinnyricinclus leucogaster leucogaster. Amethyst Starling. 

Fairly common on Tasso Island. A pair were nesting in 
a hollow stump of a dead sapling, two feet high, on 
10 April. A single well-fledged bird was found in the hole, 
one foot deep. There was no sign of any nest. 

Hyphantornis cucullatus. Rufous-necked Weaver. 
Quite common and nesting in a cottonwood tree on 
18 March. 

Sitagra ocularius brachypterus. Swuinson's Spectacled 
Weaver. 

Not nearly so plentiful as the former species. 

Budytes flava flava. Yellow Wagtail. 
Several seen on the pond near the village, which was 
nearly dried up. 

Anthus leucophrys gouldi. Gould's Pipit. 

A common bird amongst the cassava, where it nests. 

Cyanomitra verticalis verticalis. Green-headed Olive 
Sunbird. 

Tolerably common, but much more plentiful on the 
mainland. 

Cinnyris chloropygius chloropygiiis. Scarlet-collared Sun- 
bird. 

This beautiful little Sunbird is, no doubt, the commonest 
species. 



192 1.] Bi7'ds of Tasso and adjoining Islands. 273 

Anthothreptes gabonica. Little Browu-and-white Sunbird. 
Moderately common about Tasso village, iu company with 
the former species. 

Cisticola lateralis. Grass- Warbler. 

A Eairly common species, possessing a beautiful song, 
which is uttered in the early morning from the top of some 
small bush. The same spot is used daily for this purpose. 

Prinia mystacea melanorhyncha. Black-billed Wreu- 
Warbler. 

Noticed sparingly in March amongst low bush. 

Hylia prasina. Cassin's Warbler. 

One shot 9 April^ but unfortunately not recovered. They 
arc moderately common in thick bush. 

Pycnonotus barbatus inornatus. Dusky Bulbul. 
A pair of these birds used to sing behind our bungalow ; 
they were the only ones seen. 

Phyllastrephus simplex. The Plain Bulbul. 
Tolerably common. Breeding 17 March. 

Campophaga phoenicea. Red-shouldered Cuckoo-Shrike. 
I only met with two (both young birds). 

*Hiriindo rustica rustica. (Jommon Swallow. 

Swallows were irregular during the latter part of March. 
Some days only two or three were seen, whilst another day 
they were numerous and in fairly large flocks. 

Dendropicus lugubris. Mournful Woodpecker. 

A well-fledged bird was brought to me on 14 April by a 
child whose father had cut down a small dead tree. I could 
not get the child to part with it. 

Crinifer africana africana. African Plantain-eater. 
Only noticed twice. The first time three were observed in 
some thick bush and two specimens were secured. 

Clamator glandarius. Great Spotted Cuckoo. 
Not common. The oviduct of one shot on 31 March 
contained an egg. 



274 Mr. W. P. Lowe on the [Ibis, 

Centropus senegalensis senegalensis. ISenegal Coucal. 
One of the coiumonest birds, occurring everywhere. 

Ceuthmochares aereus flavirostris. Yellow-billed Coucal. 
A I'airly coniinon bird. 

Tachornis parvus brachypterus. Short-winged Palm-Swift. 
One of the most common birds. 

Scotornis climacurus. Long-tailed Nightjar. 

This is quite a common bird. On 16 March I found n 
bird sitting on some reddish-coloured ground amongst the 
cassava. I went close u[) to it and it refused to move until 
I practically touched it with my hand, when it flew away 
a short distance, leavino- two eoos which were brought home. 
Their colour matched the ground wonderfully well. 

Lophoceros semifasciatus. Half-barred Hornbill. 
Tolerably common. 

Bycanistes fistxilator. Piping Hornbill. 
Moderately conunon and noticed feeding on berries. 

*Bucorvus sp. ? Ground-Hornbill. 

A pair of Ground-Hornbills inhabifed the island. Unfor- 
tunately, I was not able to obtain a specimen, though I 
and others saw them many times. In size they resemble 
B. alnjss'inifus, but differ from that bird in being entirely 
black throughout, including the head and neck. They are 
known to the natives as "Woodcock," and are said to occur 
on the mainland, but I failed to find any. The beat of the 
wing is audible at a considerable distance. 

[It seems very probable that the Clround-Hornbill seen by 
Mr. Lowe on Tasso Island will prove to be an entirely new, 
undescribed species. A race (if recognised as such) of 
B. ahyssinims is certainly known to inhabit parts of West 
Africa, and is recorded by Reichenow from Portuguese 
Guinea. This form was named by Schlegel "■ Buceros 
caruncidatns, var. guineensis," on account of its supposed 
smaller size etc., but Reichenow (' YOgel Afrikas,' ii. p. 234) 



1 92 1.] Birds of Tusso and adjuinlng Islanda. 275 

does not accept it. In any case, tins AVest-African bird 
resembles the Abyssinian species in liavino- \chHe prinuiries, 
whereas the bird Mr. Lowe saw had entirely hJach primaries. 
Should any naturalist or sportsman have an opportunity of 
procuring one o£ these birds, the chance should not be 
neglected ; and may I beg him to forward the skin to the 
Director, British Museum (Natural History), London, S.W., 
where it will be most gratefully received, tying on to its feet 
a label bearing the lociility where obtained, date, and name of 
collector, and, if possible, the sex of the bird. — J). A. /j.] 

Merops persicus chrysocercus AV'est-African Persian 

Bee-eater. 

On II) March only a single bird was to be seen, whilst on 
25 March they were tolerably common, flying about the 
large pond at back of Tasso village. 

Aerops albicollis albicollis. White-necked Bee-eater. 
Tolerably common on Tasso Island, 22 March. 

*Eurystonnis afar afar. (Jinnamon Roller. 
Common. A very pugnacious bird, attacking anything 
that comes near its favourite haunt. 

Halcyon malimbicus forbesi. Forbes's Kingfisher. 
Tolerably common. 

*Ceryla rudis nidis. Pied Kingfisher. 
Fairly common around the island. 

Psittacus erithacus timnah. Timneh Clrey Parrot. 

Heard nearly every morning at daybreak flying over the 
village of Tasso. They were tolerably common at the 
southern end of the island, feeding on palm-nuts. 

Bubo africanus cinarascens. Grreyish-spotted Eagle-Ovvl. 

I only saw two of these birds ; they were in some very tall 
mangi-ove-trees. The one shot had been feeding on rodents. 
Two young birds were obtained at Freetown, and were sent 
to the Zoological Gardens, London, where they are doing 
well. 



276 Mr. \V. P. Lowe on the [Ibis, 

Otus lencotis leucotis. AVhite-fiiced Scops Owl. 

Some children found a nest on 29 March in the fork of a 
large mango-tree. It contained two young birds which were 
just able to fly, one of which was caught and subsequently 
went to the Zoological Gardens. The site chosen was ten feet 
from the ground, and there was no sigti of any nest, the tiny 
young birds merely sitting among a few bones and pellets. 
The bird when caught had quite a ])rownisli shade over- 
laid with sulphur-j'ellow. After a few weeks of captivity 
this disappeared. I visited this bird at the Gardens on 
5 September, not having seen it for many months. I was 
pleased to find it remembered me, although very sleepy, and 
frequently responded to my call. 

Buteo auguralis. Lesser Augur-Buzzard. 

Found nesting in a cottonwood-tree about forty feet up. 
On 8 April I shot the female, which w-as alarmed for the 
safety of her young. On the following day T visited the 
nest and found the male had obtained another mate to assist 
in rearing the young. This seems very often to happen, 
and I have noticed it even amongst Orioles in America. 

*Aquila wahlbergi. Wahlberg's Eagle. 

One seen several times near Tasso, ])erched and Hying. 
Evidently uncommon, as it was the only one noticed. 

[Mr. Lowe cannot have made any mistake in the identifica- 
tion of this species. AVe have a skin in the British Museum, 
obtained at Bissao, Portuguese Guinea (ex Verreaux C-ol- 
lection), so that there is little doubt Mr. Lowe correctly 
identified his bird. — iK A.B.'] 

*Cuncuina vocifer. Vociferous Sea-Eagle. 

Tolerably common up the Rokelle River. Several times 
seen perched or flying on or around Tasso Island. 

[This seems to be the first record from Sierra Leone. 
We have specimens in the Museum from Senegal and 
Cameroon.— i>. A. B.] 

*Kaupifalco monogrammicus monogrammicus. African 
Buzzard-Eagle. 

Several seen. A fairly connnon bird. 



1921.] Birds of Tasso and adjoining Islands. 277 

*Grypohierax angolensis. Vultuiiiie Sea-Eagle. 
A very common and cons})icaous Ijird, and much liked by 
the natives for food. 

*Pandion haliaetus haliaetus. Osprey. 
Seen several times at the southern end of the island, where 
the natives have fish-traps. 

*Necrosyrtes raonaclms monachus. Hooded Vulture. 

Abundant in and around the village of Tasso. The dif- 
ference between these Vultures and those of British East 
Africa struck me as curious. We often shot Antelope and 
lel't them in a tree or by the roadside, and they were never 
molested ; whilst in British East Africa Vultures appear at 
once when game is killed, and, if not carefully guarded, 
soon commence to devour it. 

[An immature female specimen of this Vulture, nf). 5G2, 
now in the British Museum, obtained by Mr. Lowe at 
Murray town. Sierra Leone, on 27 April, 1920, is in very 
peculiar " head dress." I have never seen any Vulture in 
this state of plumage, and, as I can find no description of it 
in any paper, I describe it as follows : — Skin of the head 
immediately above the eye and below the eye absolutely 
bare of feathers, the bare skin divided on the top of the 
head by very short black feathers growing in tiny hair-like 
tufts, these bkack feathers dividing and passing over the 
base of the skull so as to completely encircle a pure white 
fluffy tuft measuring 3« X 10 mm. Both the eyes and 
the ears are surrounded with black hair-like feathers. The 
hind neck, from the base of the occiput to the commence- 
ment of the long feathers on the nape, is covered with close, 
almost fur-like, buff-coloured feathers. The lower part of 
the throat and the under sides of the neck are entirely bare 
of feathers, and only the skin from the base of the lower 
mandible for a distance of 5,5 mm. is covered with numerous 
small black hair-like tufts. At the extreme base of the neck 
on the under surface, and below the bare patch, there is a 
patch of rather long dark brown feathers, dividing tlie bare 



278 Mr. W. P. Lowe on the [Ibis, 

patch of the lower nock from the sliort l)ro\vn feathers of the 
breast.— Z>. .-I . Z?.] 

*Pelecamis sj). uncertain. 

One or two Pelicans were noticed daily, either flying or 
fishing off the mud-flats. I was unfortunately unable to 
obtain a specimen, but they were [)robably P. onocrotaJus 
sharpei. 

[It does not yet seem to liave been settled definitely 
whether the Pelican of West Africa (terra tt/pica, Angola), 
named P. sharpei by Bocage, is a distinct subspecies or merely 
a colour-variety. Dr. Peichenow inclines to the latter view 
(Vog. Afr. i. p. 100). Apparently more specimens are badly 
recpiired in the National Collection. — 1). A. B.^ 

Scopus umbretta umbretta. Hammer-head Stork. 
Several seen wading about on the pond in company with 
Bubulciis ibis. T saw none elsewhere. 

Ardea cinerea. (Jommon Heron. 

I only saw the one obtained, but I have no doubt they are 
tolerably common. 

Demigretta gularis gularis. White-throated Shity Heron. 

Early in Mtii'ch these birds are very plentiful, but towards 
April their numbers are greatly tiecreased. At Freetown 
the}' nearly all disappear to their breeding-ground, wherever 
that mav be, and only an odd straggler is left behind. 

Ardeola ibis ibis. Bufli'-backed Egret. 
Very (common on the pond. Sometimes as man}' as fifty 
seen together. 

Rhyacophilus glareola. Wood-Sandi)iper. 

Common on the beach and also noted in mangrove-swamps. 

Tringa ferruginea ferruginea. Curlew-Santlpiper. 

Ordy noticed along the beach, where it is fairly common. 
It does not ap|)enr to have been recorded from Sierra Tjeone 
previously. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Tasso and adjoininff Islands. 279 

*Numeniiis arquatiis arquatus. Curlew. 
Abounds alono- mud-flats. 

Numenius phaeopus phseopus, Wliiinbrel. 

A very counnon bird, whose numbers become much reduced 
by the end of April. A few were seen on 2o May, whilst a 
single bird was seen near Freetown on 20 June. 

Squatarola sqiiatarola. Clrey Plover. 

A common sjiecies, retreating at high water to the 
niangrove-bi-anchos in companv with other Waders. 

Arenaria interpres interpres. Turnstone. 

Common along the shoi-es at low water. When the tide 
I'ises they, as well as other Waders, take refuge in the tali 
mangroves, where one nuiy find lots of fifty or more all 
huddled together. 

*Lariis cirrhoceplialus. Grey-headed Gull. 

The most common Gull. Very numerous at Freetown 
during the winter, but they nearly all depart for their 
breeding-grounds in the interior in April. 

*Larus fuscus affinis. British Lesser Black-backed Gull. 

Tt is obviously the light-backed race of this Gull which 
occurs sparingly oti' Tasso Island. Common at Freetown 
as late as 11 May, at which date only two or three used, 
in comj^any wMtii a single Larus ciri'/iocephalus, to visit our 
ship daily. No actual specimen was obtained during this 
A isit. 

Lariis fuscus fuscus. Continental Lesser Black-backed 
Gull. 

A single specimen of the dark-backed race of this Gull 
was obtained on 11 ]\Liy at Freetown. 

[The specimen obtained on 11 May is undoubtedly an 
example of the dark-backed race, Larus fti.'iCKs fascus. It is, 
of course, far out of the supposed range of this species, 
which is usually considered to be Scandinavia and eastwards 
(breeding). In winter it visits the eastern Mediterranean, 



280 Mr. W. P. Lowe on the [Ibis, 

ranoing to tlie head of the Persian Gulf. I have, however, 
Jcnown the dark race to occur once in the Canar}^ Islands 
((.;/'. Ibis, 1920, p. 757\ so that apparently stragglers may 
be looked for on the West Coast of Africa, where there can 
be no limit to its wanderings. Undoubtedly the note 
supplied by Mr, Lowe must apply to the British Lesser 
Black-backed Gull (Lams fuscus af^nis), which is known to 
winter in the western Mediterranean, in the Azores, Madeira, 
and Canary Islands, passing down the West African coast as 
far as Southern Nigeria. Mr. Lowe has himself obtained 
a specimen of the light-backed race in Sierra Leone on a 
former trip ; this was recorded by myself (lbis> 1912, p. 229) 
as L.fascus. — D.^i.B.^ 

*Sterna maxima. Giant Tern. 

A flock of about fifty were seen daily off the shore. 

Streptopelia semitorquata erythrophrys. Red-eyed Turtle- 
Dove. 

Yerv common. Youno- birds, well-flediied, were obtained 
9 April. 

*Chalcopelia afra afra. Blue-spotted Wood-Dove. 
Moderately common. 

Vinago calva calva. Bald-fronted Fruit-Pigeon. 
Scarce. Two or three seen in the tall mangroves. 

Fancoliniis bicalcaratns thornei. Thome's Double-spurred 
Francolin. 

This is undoubtedly by far the most common bird on the 
island. In the cassava it fairly swarms, coveys of thirty or 
more rising continuously as one walks through. They do a 
great deal of damage to the crops, and the natives, having 
no guns, are completely at the mercy of the bird. My last 
visit to their feeding-grounds, 23 May, showed they had 
paired and receded into the bush, as only an odd bird 
was to bfl seen, where a few weeks previously there were 
hundreds. 



192 1.] Bh'ds of Tasso and adjoining Islands. 281 

List of the Birds of j\Ia>/aJufha Island. 

*Tscliagra senegala senegala. 

A sinule l)ird seen on ^(S March. 

*Cisticola lateralis. 

Tolerably coiuinon, and in fnll song on 2S March. 

Platysteira cyanea cyanea. 

Breeding on the island on 27 March, when a specimen 
was procured. 

*Lybiiis bidentatns bidentatus. 
A single pair seen on 2<S March. 

^Centropiis senegalensis senegalensis. 

Oommon. 

*Loplioceros semifasciatus. 

Scarce. Only one seen. 

*Bycanistes fistnlator. 
A fairly common species. 

*Merops persicus chrysoceixiis. 

Only two seen 27 March. 

*Eiirystoimis afer afer. 

()nly two or thi'ee se<Mi. 

*Astiir badius sphenuriis. 

A single pair seen. 

*Spizaetus coronatiis. 

One seen perched on the dead branch of a tall tree on 
28 March. Unfortunately, I was in the midst of an antelope 
drive, and so unable to shoot it. 

[This is apparently the first record of S. coronatus from 
Sierra Leone. Mr. Lowe is well acquainted with this A¥est 
African species, and his identification may be relied upon. 
We have West African specimens in the British Museum 

SER. XI. VOL. III. U 



2H2 On the Birds uf Tassa and adjoining Islands. [Ibis, 

iVoin the Gold C'oast and ('ameroon, while Keichenow records 
it. ill addition, from Portugnese Guinea, Liberia, and Cape 
Coast besides many localities in South Africa. — 7). ^1. i>.] 

Demigretta giilaris gularis. 

*Ardea goliath. 

A single bird seen on 2% March. 

[Curiously enough, this is apparently the first record of 
A. goliath from Sierra Leone. It is known from many 
parts of West Africa, and has an enormous range throughout 
the Avhole of tropical Africa. — D. A . 7?.] 

Numeniiis arqiiatus arquatus. 

Numenius phseopus phaeopus. 

*Francoliniis bicalcaratus thornei. 

Very conunon. 

*Numida nieleagris. 

Only four seen. They are found with FranroJiit^is hicajcix- 
ntfiis tJiornei in an open space in the centre of the island. 

List of the JJirds of Yatward Jsland. 

Hy2)ha)itornis cucullatus. 
*JL'rtai(Io rustica rustica. 
*Tachoritis parvus hrachyptevKs. 

Halcyon malimbicus forhesi. 
*Psittacus erithaciis thnneh. 
*Astuy hadius sphenurus. 
'*Milvus miyra7is parasitus. 
*GypoJii('rax angolcnsis. 
*Demiyretta yularis yularis. 
*Butorides atricapilla. 
* lihyacojjliilus glanota. 
*Ai-cnaria interprcs xnterpres. 
*Hterna maxima. 



1 92 1.] Systematic List of tlie Birds of Sierra Leone. 283 

XV. — ^i Systematic List of the Birds of Sierra Leone. 
By David Bannerman, M.B.E., B.A., M.B.O.U. 

There appears to be very little literature dealing with 
Sierra Leone Ornitliology, and only three papers which 
deal exclusively with Sierra Leone birds. The following 
is a short list of the papers I have consulted : — 

L. Fraser. 1839. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 34. [On a new species of 
Corythaix.] 

L. Fraser. 1842. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 190. 

L. Fraser. 1843. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. vol. xii. p. 367. 
[Description of a new Pitta (P. j^ulih).'] 

Sundevall. 1849. Ofversigt K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Forhandlingar, 
pp. 156-163.. 

[This list contained the description of a new Hornbill 
Bitceros cuUratus (= Ceratogymna elata), and the names 
of 23 birds (17 of which appear to be genuine, while 
6 ai'G indeterminable), including Caj)rimulgus inacro- 
dipterus Afzel., which has been used by most .authors for 
the Long-plumed Nightjar. The name cannot stand, 
for the reasons pointed out by Claude Grant (cf. Ibis, 
1915, p. 302, footnote).] 

Cassiii. 1851. Proc. Philad. Acad. p. 347. [Ee-described 
( 'Jiaunonotits suhini under name C. carbonarius, and 
descrilies Grmtcalas azureus.\. 

Jardilie. 1852. Contrib. to Ornith. p. 57. [First record of 
Ihdcyon striolata {^=^11. chellcuti) from Sierra Leone.] 

Sundevall. 1852. Jardine's Contrib. to Ornith. pp. 161, 162. 
[Makes minor corrections to his description of Buceros 
cidtratus.'\ 

Gray, G. R. 1867. List of specimens in Brit. Mus., pt. v. p. 44. 
[(juttera cristata, recorded from Sierra Leone.] 

Jardine, Sir W. 1874. Catalogue of skins in the Jai'dine Col- 
lection. [Contains names of 42 birds from Sierra Leone 
collected by Fergusson, a few by Forbes and P. .Neil. 
The skins were sold by auction in London on 17 June, 
1886, and a numljer were then secured for the British, 
Cambridge University, and Royal Scottish Museums.] 

u2 



284 Mr. D. Bannerman : A Systimatic List [Ibis, 

Kemp, Robin. 1905. 'Ibis; pp. 213-247. [With notes by 

Dr. Bowdler Shai'pe,] 
Bannerman, David A. 1912. ' Ibis,' pp. 219-268. [An account 

of jNIr. Willougbby Lowe's West African collections 

whilst naturalist on H.M.S. ' Mutine.'] 
Kelsall, H. J. 1914. ' Ibis,' pp. 192-228. [An account of his 

own collection.] 
Lowe, Willoughby P. 1921. ' Ibis,' pp. 2(55-282. [An account 

of the l)ir(ls collected on his second trip to iSierra Leone 

on H.M.S. ' Dwarf,' with notes by myself.] 

For the interest of those who haA'e not access to the past 
numbers of 'The Ibis,' I have prepared a short account 
of the Avork done by the three most important collectors, 
Mr. Robin Kemp, Col. II. J. Kelsall, and Mr. W. P. 
Lowe : — 

Mr. Robin Kemp landed in Sierra Leone on the 7th of March, 
190.2, and remained there over three years. His collections, 
which were made in the Mendi country — the south-eastern 
part of the colony, — comprised 6,20 skins referable to 145 
species. The majority of the birds were shot at Bo (4.")0 ft.), 
but quite a uumber at Rotifunk, situated on the Bumpe 
River, much nearer Freetown and tie coast. The Mendi 
country is described as being '' entirely covered with busli 
or small forest broken here and there by rice-farms and 
swamps, and has six large rivers flowing in a southerly 
direction.'' Kemp's birds are now in the British Museum. 

Mr. Willoughby P. Lowe was the next collector to visit 
Sierra Leone. He stayed there from the 28th of Jauuarv 
to the 6th of Februar\% 1911, and again from the 7th to the 
12th of March of the same year, when naturalist on board 
li.M.S. ' Mutine,' at the invitation of Captain Hardy, R.N. 
During these two short visits Mr. Lowe secured 60 dif- 
ferent species of birds. Tliese and the rest of Mi'. Lowe's 
collection, made during the voyage of the 'Mutine,' Avere 
worked out by myself, and the results published iu ' The 



192 1. J of the Birds of Sierra Leone. 285 

Ibis/ 1912, pp. 219-208. I should like to take tliis oppor- 
tunity of" making some corrections in this paper, two of 
which have already been pointed out by Major Kelsall. 
The birds recorded as Fijrenestes ostrinus were in reality 
P. coccineus (pp. 224 & 232) ; likewise the immature birds 
recorded from Sierra Leone and Liberia as Chalcumitra ucik 
are C. splencUdus, while that from St. Paul de Loanda is 
C. gutturalis (p. 225). 

Specimens of Ardea gularis were, owing to an unaccount- 
able slip, recorded as Melanophoi/x ardesiaca (p. 22S). These 
two small Herons cannot possibly be confused. We did not 
iu those days pay such minute attention to the geographical 
races of birds described, and in consequence several birds 
recorded as species have now been sunk to the level of 
subspecies, while others are now recognized as distinct races 
of the species then recorded. Mr. Lowe's collections were 
presented to the British Museum by Captain Hardy. 

Colonel H. J. Kelsall, R.A. (then Major), was stationed 
in Sierra Leone from August 1910 to August 1911, and 
again from February 1912 to February 1913. His col- 
lection numbered 941 specimens, embracing 215 species. 

Major Kelsall worked out this collection himself, and 
published a valuable paper, together with an excellent map 
of the Protectorate. Kelsall carried out most of his 
observations in the Peninsula, but also toured through the 
central and southern portions of the Protectorate, an itinerary 
of which journey will be found in his paper {I.e. p. 193). 
On another occasion he spent a short time in the Hibbi and 
Bumpe Chiefdoms. His geographical and topographical 
notes are much fuller than those given by Kemp, and add 
largely to the value and interest of his paper. 

KelsalPs collections were tiixided between the British, 
Tring, and Dublin Museums, only 42 specimens belonging 
to 29 species and subspecies coming to the first named. 



28(i Mr. D. Bannermau : A Si/stemutlc List [Ibis, 

Mr. Willoughby Lowe's second collection was made in the 
spring o£ last year (1920), mainly on the islands of the 
Rokelle River, when the guest of Commander Dane, R.N., 
as naturalist on board H.M.S. 'Dwarf.' 

This collection, -which I had the opportunity of working 
out, comprised 207 skins, representing 118 species and 
subspecies, including 32 birds new to the colony, and forms 
the basis of Mr. Lowe's paper published in the current 
number of 'The Ibis' {cf. pp. 265-282). 

Commander Dane has generously presented the birds 
obtained to the Natural History Museum, where they form 
a most valuable addition to our West African collections. 

In the following pages I have attempted to bring up to 
date the list of birds known to have occurred in the Sierra 
Leone Protectorate, somewhat on the lines of Professor 
Neumann^s List of Birds of the Lower Senegal Region 
{cf. Journ. Oruith. lxv. vol. ii. 1917, pp. 189-213.) 

The specific or subspecific name of the race to which the 
form is now supposed to belong is given in full, together 
with the author of the name used. Following this are the 
names of the collectors who have actually obtained the birds 
against which the names are placed. 

With the exception of Afzelius, Kemp, Kelsall, and 
W. P. Lowe, the other collectors mentioned have only 
obtained a few odd birds, which have either been noticed 
casually (as, for instance, those of Dr. Fergusson) in such 
works as ' The Catalogue of the Birds in the Collection of 
Sir William Jardine,' or by C-assin or Fraser, who, in the 
various publications to which they contributed (vide List 
of Literature), usually mentioned the source from which 
their Sierra Leone birds had been obtained, and thus gave 
a clue to the actual collectoi' of the birds described 
by them. Other collectors' names, again, have sim|)ly been 
copied from labels of Sierra Leone Ijinls in the British 
Museum Collection. 

Lowe i. following a bird's name in the List signifies that 



1 921.] of the Birds of Sierra Leone. 287 

that particular species was obtained by Mr. Willoughby Lowe 
during his first visit to tiic Colony in 1911, while Lowe ii. 
signifies that the bird was obtained by him daring his recent 
visit in 1920. 

Anyone cheeking this List must remember that nonieu- 
clatu/e is in Avhat may be termed a transition stage at the 
present time, and in consequence many of the names used 
by Kemp in 1905 and by myself in 1912 have been rejected 
ill favour of one we now know to be more correct. All old 
references are included, but often under a difterent name. 

Tiie specific nomenclature has been carefully revised and 
brought up to date^ but individual judgment in accepting 
new names or discussing old ones has, in certain cases, been 
exercised by the writer. 

Systematic List 
of the Birds of Sierra Leone, with names of Collectors. 

Family CoRViDyE [Crows]. 
Corvus scapulatus Daud. (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.j 
Picuthartes gymnocephalus (Temm.). (Kelsall.) 
? Cryptorhina apa (Linn.). (Fergussoii *.) 

Family Dicrurid^ [Drongos]. 

Dicrurus assimiiis atactus Oberholser. (Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe ii.) 
Dicrurus atripennis Swains. (Fergusson, Kelsall.) 
Dicrurus assimiiis ? divaricatus (Licht.). (Fergusson.) 

Family Okiolid.e [Orioles]. 
Oriolus nigripennis Verr. (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Oriolus awatus Vieill. (Kelsall.) 
Oriolus larvatus ruUeti Salvad. (Kelsall.) 

* In this List, birds collected by Fergusson in Sierra Leone were 
nauied by Sir William Jardine, and duly recorded by him iu liis 
Catalogue of the Jardine Collection (1874). 



288 Mr. D. Bumicimaii : A Si/steniatic List [Il)is, 

Family Stuhnid.k [Starlings], 
'^ Buphaga africana Linn. (Fergussou.) 
Ciiinyricinclus leucoyaster leucogaster (Gmel.). (Kemp, 

Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Oiujchognathas hartlaahi Gray. (Kemi).) 
Lainprucolius cupreicuudu Hartl. (Kemp.) 
Lamprocolius splendidus (Vieill.). (Kelsall.) 
'^ Lamprotornis caudatus (Miill.). (Fei'gussou.) 

Family Ploceid/e [Weavers]. 
? Steganura '^ paradisea (Linn.). (Fergusson.j 
Vidua Serena (Linn.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Coliuspasser concolor (Cass.). (At'zelius, Kelsall.) 
Penthetriopsis viacrura (Gmel.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Fyromelana hordacea-]' Jiordacea (Linn.). (Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe ii.) 
Pyrumelana afra (Gmel.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Pyrenestes ostrimis coccineus Cass. (Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe i, ii.) 
Quelea erythrops (Hartl.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Spermestes bicolor (Fraser). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Spermestes cucuUatus Swains. (Afzelius, Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe i, ii.) 
Amaiwesthes frinyilloides (Lafr.). (Kemp.) 
Ortyyospiza atricollis ansorgei Grant. (Lowe ii.) 
Laganosticta senegala (Linn.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Layunosticta polionota Shelley. (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Lagonosticta hrunnticeps Sliarpe. (Lowe i.) 

■* It 18 doubtful til whicli form tlie Paradise Weaver, said to liave 
been obtiiined by Fergussoa iu Sierra Leone, Avould belong. Tlie 
North African race is S. p. verreau.vi (Cassin), wliile tlie birds from 
the Gambia and Senegal have been named jS. p. nucupum by Neumann. 

t Pyromelanajiammicep:^ (Swains.) et auct. {cf. Ibis, IDiiO, p. 840). 



1 92 1.] of the Birds uf Sierra Leone. 289 

Hijparyos schlegeh (Sliar})e). (Sabine, Kemp, Kelsall.) 

Ni(jrita biculor (Hartl.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 

Nigrita eniilice Sharpe. (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 

Estrilda inelpoda (VieilL). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 

Estrilda subjiava (VieilL). (Kemp.) 

Estrilda astrild occidentalis Eraser. (Kemp, Kelsall.) 

Sitagra ocularius bracfiypterus (Swains.). (Fergussou, 

? Forbes, Kemp, Kelsall, Ijovve i, ii.) 
Hijphantornis cucutlatus (MilU.). (Afzelius, Kemp, Keisall, 

Lowe i, ii.) 
Packypliaides scutatus superciliosiis (Shelley). (Kelsall, 

Lowe ii.) 
Mel^nopteryx castaneofuscus (Les^.). (Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe i, ii.) 
Melanopteri/.v fuscocastaneus (JBoc.j. (Sabine, Kemp, 

Kelsall.) 
Melanopteryx albinacJia (Boc). (Kemp.) 
Malimbus nutliinbicus melanobrephos Hartert. (Kemp, 

Kelsall.) 
Malimbus rubricullis bartletti Sharpe. (Kemp.) 
Malimbus nitetis (Gray). (Afzelius, Sabine, Kelsall.) 
Malimbus scutatus scutatus (Cassiu). (Brit. Mus. e.v Tweed- 
dale Coll.) 

Sperinospiza hcematlna leoiuua Neum. (Kemp, Kelsall, 
Lowe ii.) 

Family FKi\GiLLiD-t: [Finches]. 
Serinus kartlaubi (Bolle). (Kelsall.) 
Anomalospiza iinberbis (Cab.). (Kemp.) 

Family Motacillid^ [Wagtails and Pipits]. 
Budytes flava flava (Linn.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Motacilla vidila Sund. (Kelsall.) 
? AnthuS campestr'is (Linn.). (Fergussou). 



290 Mr. B. Banneruiau .- A Si/sleniatic List [ll)is, 

AnthiLs leucophrys gouldil Fraser. (^Keiu[), Kelsall, Lowe i, ii,) 
Anthus trivialis trivialis (Linu.). (Kemp.) 

Macronijx cruceus croceus (Vieill.J. (Kemp, Kelsall, 
Lowe i, ii.) 

Family Nectariniid.e [.Suubirds]. 
Cinnyris cupreus (Shaw). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Cinnyris Johanna Verr. (Kemp.) 

Cinnyris splendldns (Shaw). (Fergusson, Kelsall, Lowe i.) 
Chmyris venustus venustus (Shaw). (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Cinnyris chloropygius ckloropyyius ( Janl.). (Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe i, ii.) 
Chalcomitra senegalenus senegulensis (Linn.). (Fergusson.) 
Cyanoniitra obscura ahscura (Jard.) . (Kemj), Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Cyanoniitra verticaUs verticalis{\jd,t\\.). (Fergusson, Kemp^ 

Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Aiithuthreptes coUaris liypodila (Jard.). (Keuip. Kelsall, 

Lowe i.) 
Aitthotlireptes gubonica (Hartl.). (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Anthothreptes idia Oberh. (Kelsall.) 

Family Zosteropid^ [White-eyes]. 

Zosterops senegaleasis senegalens'is Bonap. (Kemp, Kelsall, 
Lowe i, ii.) 

Family PARiDiE [Titmice]. 
Melaniparus niger guineensis Shelley. (Kelsall.) 
Pholidornis rushice ussheri Hartert. (Kelsall.) 

Family Laniid^ [Shrikes]. 
Fiscus coUaris smithi (Fraser). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Laitius senator senator Linn. (Fergusson.) 
Laniarius Itucorhynchus (Hartl.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 



1921.] of the Birds of Sierra Leone. 291 

Laniarius turatii (\'err.j. (Kelsall, Lowe \\.) 

Laniarius bai'harus heleiue Kelsall. (Kelsall.) 

Laniarius barbarus barluirus (Linn.). (Fergusson '', Clai'k t.) 

Dnjoscopus ycDiibensis ganibensis (Licht,). (Afzelius, Fraser, 

Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Chaimonutus sabini sabini (Gray). (Sabine, McDowell, 

Kenjp, Kelsall.) 
Tschagra senegala seiieoala (Linn.). (Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe i, ii.) 
Tschagra australis ussheri (SliarpeJ. (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Antichromus minutus minulas (Hartl.). (Lowe ii.) 
? Malaconotus o/ivaceas u/ivaceus (Vieill.). (Forbes.) 
Malaconotus craentus (Less.^. (Kemp.) 
Chloruphoneus multicolor (Gray). ( Kemp, Kelsall.) 
ChluropJiuneus sulfureopectas sulfureopectus (Less,). 

(?Fergussou, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Nicator chloris chloris (Less.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Sigmodus caniceps caniceps Bonap. (Kemp.) 
Corviiiella corvina corvina (Shaw). (Fergusson.) 

Family Phionopid^ [Wood-Shrikes]. 
Fraseria prosphora Oberh. (Kelsall.) 

Family Sylviid^ [Warblers]. 

Melucichla mentalis mentalis (Fraser). (Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe ii.) 
Cisticola rufopileata rufopileata Rchw. (Lowe ii.) 
Cisticola erythrops erythrops (Hartl.). (Kemj), Kelsall, 

Lowe ii.) 
Cisticola brachyptera (Sharpe). (Lowe i, ii, Kelsall, Scovil.) 
Cisticola lateralis (Fraser). (Kelsall, Lowe ii, Scovil.) 
Cisticola cisticola uropygialis (Fraser). (Kelsall.) 

* Kecorded by Jardiue in his Catalogue. 

t Ilecorded by Reiclienow, Vog. Afr. ii. p. 588. 



29.2 Mr. D. BaDiieimaii : A Syslc/iiatic List [Ibis, 

Cisticola terrestris, subsp. ? (Lowe ii, Scovil.) 

Cisticola natalensis strangei (Fraser). (Kelsall.) 

Cisticola seinitorques swanzii (Sbarpe). (Kelsall.) 

Sylvia simplex Latli. (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe \, ii.) 

Plnjlluscopus trochilus trochilus (Liuu.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 

Sylvlella fluviventris jiaviventris (Shai'pe). (Kelsall.) 

Sylvidla hardy i Bannerm. (Kelsall, Lowe i.) 

? Eremo7nela badiceps (Fraser). {EiV Jardine Coll.) 

Ei'emoniela pusilla Hartl. (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 

Pi-inia mystacea melunorhyncha (Jard.). (Kemp, ? Kelsall, 

Lowe ii.) 
Hylia prusina Uass. (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
StiphrGniis erythrothurux Hartl. lyEjc Jardine Coll., Kelsall.) 
Caiiiuroptera griseiviridis tincta Cass. (Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe ii.) 
Cauiaroptera chluronota Rchw. (Kelsall.) 
Camaruptera superciliaris (Fraser). (Kelsall.) 

Family TuRDiDyE [Tbrushes]. 

Tardus libonianus lugubris Bodd. (Kelsall, Kemp, 

Lowe i, ii.) 
Luscinia megarhynchos nieyarhynchos Breliin. (Kelsall.) 
* Bessunoriiis verticalis verticalis Hartl. (Kelsall, Lowe i.) 
^^ Bessonornis cyanocampter cyanocampter (Bonap.). 

(Kelsall.) 
^ Bessonornis albicapilla albicapilla (Vieill.), (At'zelius, 

? Fergusson.) 
Alethe diademata (Bonap.). (Kemp.) 
Alethe poliocephala castanonota Sharpe. (Kelsall.) 
Penthola'a frontalis (Swains.). (Lowe ii.) 
Saxicola rabetra rubetra (Linn.). (Fergusson, Kemp, 

Kelsall, Lowe i, ii). 
(Enanthe amanthe kucorrhoa (Gmel.). (Kemp, Lowe i.) 
* Cossypha aiict. (</. Ibi<, lOl^O, p. 801). 



1 92 1.] of the Birds of Sierra Leone. 293 

Family Ti.meliid.e [Babblers]. 
Hypergerus atriceps (Less.). (Kelsall.) 
^ Turdoides jilalycircus Swaius, (Kelsall.) 
^ Turdoides utripennis atripennis (Swains.). (Afzelius.) 
Macrosphenus concolor (Hartl.). (Kemp.) 
Macrosphenus kempi (Sharpe). (Keinp, Kelsall.) 
Macrosphenus zenkeri Reicliw. (Kelsall.) 
Turdimis hypoleucus Shar])e. (Kelsall.) 
Turdinus (jidaris (Sliarpe). (Kelsall.) 
Turdinus fuJvescens (Cass.). (Kemp). 

Family Pycnonotid.e [Bulbuls]. 
Pycnonotus barhatiis inornatus Hart). (Kemp, Kelsall^ 

Lowe ii.) 
Criniger barbatus (Temm.). (Kelsall.) 
Crlaiger rerreauxi verreauxl Sliar^e. (Kelsall.) 
Bleda canicapilla (Hartl). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Bleda syudactyla (Swaiiis.). (Kelsall.) 

Phyl/asirejjhns simplex (Hartl.). (Kem[). Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Phyllastrephus iderirms (Bonap.). (Keisiill.J 
Andropadas gracilis Cab. (Kelsall^ Lowe i.) 
Andropadi(s latirostris congener Rcliw. (Kelsall.^, 
Andrvpctdus serinus (Verr.), (Kelsall. j 
Aiidropadus indicator lencurus (Cass.). (MacDowell, 

Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Andropadas rirens virens Cuss. (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Andropadas curvirostris cu.rvirosfris Cass. (Kemp.) 
Andropadiis gracilirustris Strickl. (Kemp, Lowe ii.) 

Family Campophaoid-E [Cnckoo-Shrikes]. 
Cyanogravcaius azareus (Cass.). (MacDowell, Kelsall.) 
Graucalus j^f^cl-oralis (Jardine & Selby). (Brit. ]\'rus. 

ex Jardiue Coll., type.) 

* Cratvroiu(.< auct. {of. Ibis, 1S20, p. 8-j1). 



294 ]Mr. D. BaniiermaTi : A Systematic List [Ibis, 

Campophaga phanicea (Lath,). (Kemp, Kelsall, Ltnve ii.) 
Campophaga quiscalina Finscli. [tE,i' Jardiiie Coll., Kelsall.) 

Family Muscicapid^ [Flycatcliers]. 
Bradyornis murinus modestvs Shelley. (Lowe ii.) 
Bat is senega! ensis togoensis Neumann. (Lowe ii.) 
Diaphorophyia blissetti Sharpe. (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Diaphoroprtyia castanea (Fraser). (Kemp.) 
Diaphoruphijia hormophora Rchw. (Kelsall.) 
Bias musicus (Vieill.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Platysteira cyanea cyanea Miill. (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Artomyias ussheri Sharpe. (KeUall.) 
Hyliota ftavigastra flavigastra (Swains.). (Fergusson, 

Kelsall.) 
TrochocercHS nitens reichenoivi Sharpe. (Kemp.) 
Tchitrea nigriceps (Hartl.). (Marche & Compiegne, Kemp, 

Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Tchitrea viridis riridis (Mull.). (Ferousson, Lowe ii.) 
EJininia longicauda (Swains.). (Kelsall, Lowe i.) 
Stizorhinn finschi (Sharpe). (Kelsall.) 

ft 
Family HiRUNOixiDiE [Swallows]. 

Hirundo rusiica rustica Lii)n. (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Hirundo stmirvfa gordoni Jard. (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Psalidoprocne obscnra (Marti.). (Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Riparia riparia riparia (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 

Family Pittid.e [Ant-Thrushes]. 
Pitta pulih Fraser. (Fraser, Kemp.) 

Family Picid.!-: [Woodpeckers]. 

Mesopicus pyrrhugaster (Malh.). (Afzelius [according to 

jMalherbe], Kem[), Kelsall.) 
Mesopicus goerta poicep/iatiis (Swains.). (Kelsall, Lowe i.) 



1921.] of the Birds uf Sierra Leo7ie. 295 

De.ndromus nioosus nirosus Swains. (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Dendromus maculusas (Val.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Dendromus caroli arizelus Oberli. (Kelsall.) 
Dendropicus lafresnuTji zechi Netim. (Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Dendropicus lagubris Hartl. (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 

Family Indicatorid.e [ IIoney-Giiides] . 
Indicator, species uncertain. (Kelsall.) 
Indicator exilis Icona (C. Grant). (Lowe i.) 

Family Capitonid.;r [Bavbets]. 

Lyhius bidentatns hidentatus (Sliawj. (Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 

Lybias vieilloti rubescens (Temm.). (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 

Gymnobncco calvus (Lafr.). (Kelsall.) 

Pogoniulvs erytlironota (Cuv.). (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 

Fogoniulufi chrysopyga Shelley. (Kelsall.) 

Pogoniuhis scolopacens fcolopaceus (Bonap.) , (Kemp, KeUall, 

Lowe i, ii.) 
TrnchyJccmus yofjini (Sclil.). (Kemp. Kelsall.) 

Family MusopHAGiDiE [Plantain-eaters]. 
Turacas macrorliynclms (Fraser). (Afzelins, Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Turacus baffoni Vieill. (Afzelins, Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Musophnga violacea Isert. (Fergusson for Janline.) 
('orytJueohi cristata (Vieill.). (Afzelins, e.v Jardine Coll., 

Kemp, Kelsall.) 
^Crinifer africuna af r ic an a (hhth.) . (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 

Family Cuculid^ [Cuckoos]. 
Clamator glaadarius (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 
Clamator cafer (Liclit.). (Fraser, Clark, Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Cuculus clamosus Lath. (Kemp, Kelsall.) 

* Chiza'vhis auct. 



,296 Mr. D. Bannerman : A Systematic List [Ibis, 

Chrijsococcyx cupreus cvpreus (Shaw). (Cliainley, Kelsall.) 

[ = r. smaragdineus, auct.]. 
Chrysococcyx cupr-ius (Bodd.). (Keinp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 

[ = C. cupreus Bodd. et auct.] 
Chrysococcyx klaasi (Steph.). (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Centropus senegalensis senegalensis (Linn . ). (Afzelius, Kemp, 

Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Centropus francisii Bonap. (Lowe ii.) 

Ctuthmocliares aereus flavirustris (Swains.). (Afzelius, Sabine, 
Clark, Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 

Family Cypselidte [Swifts]. 

Chaetura sabinei Gray. (Sabine. Kelsall.) 
Tachurnis parvus brachypterus Rcliw. (Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Micropus affinis (Hardw.). (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
* Micropns <pquatoria/is loiuei (BannornianK (Lowe ii.) 
• 

Family Capkimulgid.t: [Nightjars]. 

Scotornis cUmacurus (Vieill.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
■fMacrodipteryx lo7igipennis (Shaw). (Afzelius, Sabine, 
Kemp, Kelsall.) 

Family Buceuotid^ [Hornbills]. 

Lophoceros seniifasciatus (Hartl.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
LopJioceros nasntus nasutns (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 
Bycanistes cylindricus (Tenuii.). (Kelsall.) 
Bycanistes fistuUUor (Cass.). (Lowe ii.) 
Ceratogymna elata (Temm.). (iifzeliiis, Kemp.) 
Biicorvus s\^.? (Lowe ii.) 

* For remarks on this uew Swift, see note by myself following- 
introduction to JNIr. Lowe's paper {ante, p. 26t)). 

t Miijor Claude Grant has conclusively shown ('Ibis," IDlo, p. 302) 
that Afzeliiis's name maorodipterm for thiS Nightjar cannot stand. 



1 92 1.] of the Birds of Sierra Leone. 297 

Family Meropid^ [Bee-eaters]. 

Melittophagus giilaris (/ularis (Shaw & Nodd.). (Afzelius, 

Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Melittophagus pusillus pusillus (Mlill.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Aerops albicolUs albicollis (Vieill.). (Jardine^ Marclie & 

Compiegne, Stephens^ Bartlett, Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe i, ii.) 
Merops persicus chrysocercus Cabanis. (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Merops nubicus nubicus Gmel. (Kelsall.) 
Merops mentalis mentalis Cabanis. (Kelsall.) 

Family Upupiu^ [Hoopoes and Wood-Hoopoes]. 

* Phcerdculus erytJirorhynchus scnegalensis (Vieill.). 
(Fergusson). 

Family CoiiACiiDiE [Rollers]. 

Coracias abyssinus scnegalensis Gmel. (Fergusson, Kemp, 

Kelsall.) 
Coracias cyanogaster (Juv. (Kelsall.) 
Eurystomus afer afer (Lath.). (Bartlett, Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe t ii.) 
Eurystomus gnlaris Vieill. {E.v Jardine Coll., Kemp, 

Kelsall.; 

Family Alcedinid^ [Kingfishers]. 
Ceryle maxima gigantea (Swains.). (Lowe i.) 
Ceryle rudis rudis (Linn.). (Afzelius, Fei'gusson, Kelsall, 

Lowe i, ii.) 
Halcyon chelicuti (Stanl.). (Fergusson.) 
Halcyon leucocephala leucocephala (Mlill.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Halcyon senegalensis senegalensis (Linn.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 

* Iirisor auct. 

■f Seen only by tliis collector. 
SER. XI. VOL. III. X 



y9S Mr. D. Bannerraan : A Systematic List [Ibis, 

Halcyon malimbicus forbesi Sharpe. (Afzelius, Marche & 
Compiegne, Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 

Alcedo quadribrach>/s quadribrachys Boiiap. (Kemp, 
Kelsall, Lowe i.) 

Corythornis cristata (Vroeg). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i.) 

Ispidina picta picta (Bodd.). (Kemp, Lowe ii.) 

Ispidina Uucuguster (Eraser). (Kelsall.) 

Family Psittacid.t: [Parrots]. 
Psittacus erithacus timneh Fraser. (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
*Agapornis imllarius pidlarius (Linn.). (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 

Family Strigid.t: [Owls]. 
Bubo leucustictus Hartl. (Kemp.) 
Bubo poensis Fraser. (Kemp.) 
Bubo africanus cinerasceiis Guer. (Lowe ii.) 
Otus levcotis leucotis (Tenim.). (Fergusson, Kemp, Kelsull.) 
■\Tyto alba alba (Scop.). (Kemp.) 
Syrnium nuchale Sharpe. (Kemp, Lowe ii.) 

Family Falconid.* [Hawks]. 
Gymnogenys typicus (Smith). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i.j 
Astur badius sphenurus (Riipp.). (Kemp, Low^e ii.) 
Astur tachiro macroscelides (Temm.). (Kemp.) 
Accipiter liartlaubi Jiartlaubi (Verr.). (Kemp.) 
Buteo auguraUs Salvad. (Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 

* The type-locality of tins species is NuLia. West African examples 
may eventually require separating. 

-f This bird is not T. a. macidnta (Brelim) as Kemp recorded it, 
or, as it should now be called, T. a. affinis, the ordinary African 
Barn-Owl. Tt is almost pure white on the underside, and hardly 
spotted at all. The upper-parts are very grey and much paler than in 
African specimens. As Sclater and Praed remark, it is nearer typical 
T. alba alba. 



1 92 1.] of the Birds of Sieira Leone. 399 

*Aquila ivahlbergi Sundev. (Lowe ii.) 
* Spha'etus coronatus (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 
Kaupifalco monogrammicus monogrammicus (Temm.). 

(Fergusson, Kerap, Kelsall, Lowe ii,) 
* Cuncuma vocifer (Daud.). (Lowe ii.) 
Circaetus cinereus Vieill. (Lowe ii.) 

Milvus migrans J) (17- a situs Daud. (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Elanus cceruleus cceruleus (Desf.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Aviceda cuculoides cuculuides (Swains.). (Kemp.) 
*Pandion halia'etus halia'ctus (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 
Gypohierax angolensis (Gmel.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowef ii-) 

Family Vulturid^ [Vultures]. 
Necrosyrtes monachus monachus (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 

Family PelecanidtE [Pelicans]. 
Pelecanus, species uncertain. (Lowe J ii.) 

Family Phalacrocoracid.i: [Cormorants], 
Phalacrocorax africanus (Gmel.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Anhinga rufa (Lacep., Daud.). (Kemp^ Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 

Family Anatid^ [Ducks]. 
Dendrocygna viduata (Linn.). (Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Pteronetta cyanoptera ('remm.). (Kelsall.) 

Famiiy Ibidid^ [Ibises]. 

Plegadis autumnalis (Hasselq.). (Kemp.) 
[falcinellits, auct.] 

* These species were seen only, not obtained. 
T Seen only by IMr. Lowe and not obtained. 

t Mr. Lowe believed the Pelican he saw off Tasso Island to be 
P. 07wcrot(dus &harpei\ he did not succeed in procuring a specimen. 



300 Mr. D. Bannerman : A Systematic List [Ibis, 

Family Ciconiid.t: [Storks]. 
Dissonra episcopus microscelis (Gray). (Kelsall.) 

Family Scoptd^ [Hammer-heads]. 
Scopus umbretta umbretta Gmel. (Kelsall.) 

Family ArdeidvE [Herons]. 
* Ardea goUath Cretsclim. (Lowe ii.) 
Ardea cinerea Liim. (Kemp, Lowe.) 
Demigretta gularis gularis (Bosc). (Lowe i, ii.) 
Melanophoyx ardesiaca (Wagl.). (Lowe ii.) 
Nycticorax nycticorax nyctlcorax (Linn.). (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Buturides atricapilla (Afzel.). (Kemp, Kelsall^ Lowe i, ii.) 
Tigrornis leucolopha (Jardiiie). (Kemp.) 
Ardeola ibis ibis (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 
Ardeirallus sturmi (Wagl.). (Kelsall.) 

Family Heliornithid/e [Fin-feet]. 
Podica senegalensis senegalensis (Vieiil.). (Kelsall.) 

Family Charadriid^ [Waders] . 
Gallinago galUnago gaJIinago (Linn.). (Kemp.) 
Tringa ferruginea ferruginea Briinnicli. (Lowe ii.) 
Calidris arenaria (Linn.). (Kelsall.) 
Tutanus totarms (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 
Totanus nebularius (Gunn.). (Kelsall^ Lowe i.) 
Totanus hypohucus (Linn.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe i.) 
Bhyacophilus glareola (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 
Numenius arquatus arquatus (Linn.). (Kelsall, Lowe * ii.) 
Numenius phoiopus phceopus (Linn.). (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Himantopus himantopus (Linn.). (Kelsall.) 
• * Seen only by this collector. 



1921.] of the Birds of Sierra Leone. 301 

*Squatarola squatarola (Lowe ii.) 
Stephanibyx lugubris (Lesson f)- (Kelsall.) 

[= ,S. iuoruatus, auct.] 
Oxyechus forbesi (Shelley). (Kelsall.) 
Charadrius hiatiada Jdaticula (Linn.). (Kelsall.) 
Pluvimms ceffi/ptius (Linn.), (Kelsall.) 
Arenaria interpres interpres (Linn.). (Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 

Family Larid.^ [Gulls and Terns]. 
Larus fuscus fuscus (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 
Larus fuscus afinis (Reinli.). (Lowe i.) 
Larus cirrhocephalus Vieill. (Lowe i, ii.) 
Sterna maxima Bodd. (Kelsall, Lowe i, ii.) 
Sterna sandvicensis sandvicensis Lath. (Kelsall, Lowe i.) 
Sterna, sp. [? dougutli Mont.]. (Lowe ii.) 
Hydrochelidon nigra (Linn.). (Lowe ii.) 
Hydrochelidon hybrida (Pall.). (Lowe ii.) 

Family Rallid^ [Rails]. 
Sarothrura bohmi danei Bannerm. (Kemp.) 
Porphyria alleni Thorns. (Kelsall.) 

Family Columbid^ [Pigeons]. 

Streptopelia semitorquata erythrophrys (Swains.). (Kemp, 

Kelsall, Lowe * ii.) 
Turturwna iriditorques (Cass.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Calopelia puella (Schl.). (Ea' Jardine Coll., Kemp, Kelsall.) 
Turtur afra afra (Linn.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe ii.) 
Tympanistria tympanistria (Temra.). (Kemp, Kelsall, 

Lowe i.) 

Vinago calva calva (Temm.). (Kemp, Kelsall, Lowe * ii.) 

* Seen only, not obtained. 

t lugv,brk Lesson has priority over iiiornatus Swains, [ef. 0. Grant, 
< Ibis/ 1915, p. 56). 



303 Messrs. C. D. Sherboni and T. Iredale on [Ibis, 

Family Tuknicid^ [Hemipodes]. 
Turnix nana (Sand.). (Kelsali.) 

Family Phasianid.e [Game-Birds], 

Fruncolinus bicalcaratus thornei Grant. (Thorne, Parks, 

Kemp, Kelsali, Lowe i, ii.) 
Fraricolinus lathanii lathami Hartl. (Kemp.) 
Fi'ancoUnus ahantensis Temm. (Kemp, Kelsali.) 
? Ptilopachus fuscus fuscus Vieill. (P. Niel ex .Tardine Coll.) 
^Coturnix cotuniix. (Kelsali.) 
Excalfacturia adansoni (Verr.). (Kelsali.) 
Guttera cristatn (Pall.). (Afzelius, Manger.) 
Nuniida meleagris Linn. (Lowe ii.) 



XVL— J. F. Miller's Irenes. 
By (J. Davies Shbrborn and Tom Iredale. 

Miller's Icones Aniinalium : [Various Subjects of Natural 
History] 177G-1785, may be regarded as a rare book. 
Drvander, Cut. Bibl. Banks, states "10 pp., 60 pis."; 
Pritzel copies him ; Watts gives no details, but wrote 
" London, 1785 : Large folio. £6. 6. 0." Lowndes says 
" 1785. 17l! pp., 12 pis. and 2 leaves of text" ; Engelmann 
contents himself with " In Nos. 1785." Eliminating 
Lowndes' entry which is obviously incorrect, the conclusion 
can be reached that the book was issued in 10 parts and 
contained GO plates, which is the extent of the ' ( *imelia 
Pliysica,' a well-known work. The ' Cimelia Physica ' was 
issued in 1796, and consists of 60 plates by Miller with 
106 pages of explanatory text written by George Shaw. 

When Sherborn completed the 'Index Animalium' 1758- 
1800, the only known (to him) copy was in the British 
Museum from Sir Joseph Banks's library, and this contained 

* Named binominally and no author given, aa it is not clear which 
Quail is intended. 



1 92 1.] J. F. Miller s Icones. 303 

only od plates with six sheets of explanatory text. The names 
there introduced were duly recorded in the Index. A few 
days ago Sherborn secured a fine copy which contained 
54 plates and 9 sheets of text. These sheets are bound in 
position each with six plates succeeding, so that the work 
was apparently issued in parts^ each })art with 1 sheet and 
() plates ; and thus now we have evidence of the first nine 
parts, the tenth being yet unknown to us in the original 
state. From internal evidence we conclude the parts were 
issued at about the following dates : — pt. i. 177G ; pt. ii. 
177G ; pt. in. 1777 ; pt. iv. 1777 or 1778; pt. v. 1779 or 
1780 ; pt. VI. 1782 ; pt. vii. 1782 ; pt. viii. 178:'); pt. ix. 
1784, and pt. x. 1785. 

That it was issued in parts seems certain from Latham's 
quotations, as instance : in the first volume of the ' General 
Synopsis of Birds ' in the synonymy of the Secretary Vulture 
(p. 20) Latham cited '" Falco serpentarius J. F. Miller t. 28." 
As Latham's preface is dated Jan. 1, 1781, Miller's ])late 
apparently appeared prior to that date. At the end of vol.ii. 
Latham includes " A Catalogue of the Principal Authors," 
and there gives : — 

^'■Miller Lllustr. 1 By this is meant Miscellaneous 

J. F. Miller, Misc. Flates J Plates of Quadrupeds, Birds, &c. 

coloured, in folio. By Jolui 
Frederick Miller.'' 

Latham's book was published in 1785, and he only cites 
the first thirty-six plates, which suggests the only copy he 
referred to was the one in the Banksian Library. 

In the Nat. Miscellany, under pi. 533, Shaw wrote : — 
" The figure liei-e given is copied from the beautiful repre- 
sentation published by Mr. Millar {sic) in his splendid plates 
of natural history" ; and he (juoted as well as " Cimelia 
Physica, p. 96, t. 52," " Millar (sic) lllustr. nat. hist, pi 52," 
which we regard as confirmation of independent publication. 

As the ' Cimelia Physica ' is an easily accessible work 
the details hereafter given are compared with that book. 
The date of this is 1796, and the title-page states : 



304 Messrs. C. B. Sherborn and T. Iredale on [Ibis, 

" Figures by John Frederick Miller. AVith descriptions by 
George Shaw." The plates are not so well coloured, and 
in cases of doubt reference to the original edition should be 
made. All the plates in the ' Cimelia Pliysica' are lettered, 
while in the original edition this is not so. The names in 
the text of the ' Cimelia Physica ' are sometimes altered by 
Shaw, as are also some of the localities given by Miller 
in the original. 

A complete collation is here ap[)ended, with notes on some 
interesting points. 

Pt. I. Plate 1. Loxia orix, dated Mch. 10, 1776. 
Antliolyza cunonia Bot. 

2. Loxia coronata, dated 1776 : in C. P. the text is headed 

Loxia coronata var. L. dominicanx. 
Alstromeria ligta Bot. 

3. Loxia longicauda, dated 1776: in C. P. the text is 

headed Emheriza imperialiti. 
Gnaphalium eximiuin Bot. 

4. Psittanis atricapilhis, dated 1776 : in C. P. the text is 

headed Psittacus inelanocephalu^. 
Chelone penstemon Bot. : also later altered to Peiistemon 
Isevigata. 

5. Psittacus aurantiiis, dated 1776: in C. P. the text is 

headed Psittacus solstitialis. 
Illicinm fioridanuin Bot. 

6. Upupa promerops, dated 1776. 
Eryngium alpinum Bot. 

Pt. II. Plate 7. Barringtoiiia speciosse Bot., dated 1776. 

8. Ampelis caroline)isis. Plate dated 1776, but not 

named. 

Locality given as ''America septontrionali," all the 
preceding being without localities. In C. P. the text 
is headed Am2yelis garrulus. 
Ainanjllis crispa Bot. : later altered to A. undidata. 

9. A)itholyza setliiopica Bot. Plate dated 1776, but not 

named. 

10. Cervus alces Mamm. do. do. 

11. Lacerta cliameelion Rept. do. and named. 

12. Larus albus, do. but not named. 

Locality given as "in Regionibus septentrionalibus." 
Pt. III. Plate 13. Lemur inurinus Mamm. Plate named and dated 1777. 
14. Struthio casuarius. Plate dated 1777, but not named. 
Locality given as "Asia, Sumatra, Molucca, Banda." 
In C. P. the text is headed Casuuriutt galeatus. 



1921.] J. F. Millers Icones. 305 

Plate 15. Muscicapa striata. Plate dated 1777, but no names. 
Locality given as '• Ad fretum Hudsonis." 
Amzielis cristata. Loc|ility "in America." 

16. CoUunba coronafa. Plate dated 1777, but not named. 

Locality " Capite bonae spei." 

17. Falco jdancns. Plate dated 1777, but not named. 

Locality " Tierra del Fuego." 

18. Falco fuscHn. Plate dated 1777, but not named. 

Locality " Greenlandia." 
Pt. IV. Plate 19. Canis hysena Mamm. Plate neither named nor dated. 
Canis Lupus, niger. 

20. Viverra tetradadyla Mamm. Plate named but not dated. 

21. Pariis Jnidsonicus. Plate dated 1777, but no names. 

Locality " in America sept." 
Fringilla hudsonica. Same locality. 
Emberiza leucoplirijs. do. 

In C. P. in the text the name of the second is 
altered to Emberiza hyemalis. 

22. Platalea leucorodia. Plate dated 1777, but not named. 

Locality " Europa." 

23. Aptenodytes patagonica. Plate named but not dated. 

Locality "in Mari antarctico." 

24. Cuculus indicator. Plate named but not dated. 

Locality " C. B. Spei." 
Fringilla cyaiiocapilla. Locality " Senegal." 
Pt. V. Plate 25. Brucea antidysenterica Bot. Plate lettered " Brucea " 
only and not dated. 

26. Testudo sulcata Rept. Plate neither named nor dated. 

27. Homo Lar Mamm. Plate named but not dated. 

In C. P. the text is headed Siynia longimanus. 

28. Falco serpentarius. Plate named and dated 1779. 

Locality " Cap. B. SjDci." In C. P. the text is 
headed Vidtur secretarius. 

29. Psittacus guineensis. Plate named but not dated. 

Locality " Guinea." 

30. Truchilus gularis. Plate named but not dated. 

Locality " India orientali." 
Fringilla torquator (on plate, torqnata in text). 

Same locality. 
Motacilla gularis. Locality " America meridionali." 
Pt. VI. Plate 31. Jerboa capensis Mamm. Plate named but not dated. 

32. Lemur hicolor Mamm. do. and dated 1782. 

33. Otis indica. do. but not dated. 

Locality " India orientali." 

34. Aptenodytes magellanica. Plate named but not dated. 

Locality " Terra magellanica." Text in C. P. headed 
Pinguinaria magellanica. 



306 



Messrs. C. D. Sherboni and T. Iredale on [Ibis, 



Plate 35. 



36. 



Pt. VII. Plate 37. 



38. 



39. 
40. 



41. 
42. 



Pt. VIII. Plate 43. 

44. 
45. 
46. 
47. 

48. 

Pt. IX. Plate 49. 

.50. 



51. 



52. 



53. 



54. 



Ardea nxvia. Plate named but not dated. 

Locality '•America meridionali." 
Anlea forquata. Plate named and dated May 16, 1782. 
Same locality. In C. P. these two plates are 

transposed and text headed to agree, though the 

plates retain the original numbering. 
Carolinea priiu-eps Bot. All plates from here to encj 

named but not dated. 
MotaciUa thoracica. ''India orientali." In C. P. text 

headed MotaciUa aurata. 
Heliconia tnarantifolia Bot. 
Felis capensis Mamm. " C. B. Spei." 
Aptenodytes antarctica. '" in Antarctico.'' Text in C. P. 

headed Piiiguinarla antarctica. 
Comcias versicolor. " in Surinamo." 
Friiigilla hrevicola. " Zeylona." In C. P. the text is 

headed Loxia zeylonica. 
Fringilhi atrocephala. " America meridionali." In C. P. 

the text is headed Friiigilla melanocephala. 
Hibiscus caiinabiiia Bot. In C. P. this is altered in 

text to Hibiscus speciosus. 
Antirrhinum quadrifoliuni Bot. 
Aristolochia hirsuta Bot. 

Sciurus fulvus Mamm. '• America meridionali." 
Trochilus w-aculata. '■America meridionali. " 
Rallus ecaudata. " in Otaheita." 
Cnctdus aurocephalus. " America meridionali." In 

C. P. the text is headed Cuculus clirysocejilialus. 
Aptenodytes crestata. " Falkland Island." In C. P. the 

text is headed Pinguinaria cirrhata. 
Fringilla forjicata. "Zeylona." 
Rallus nigra. " Otaheita." In C. P. the text is headed 

Ralhis tabnensis. 
Cucidus crestata. " India orientali." In C. P. the text 

is headed Cuculus discolor. 
Promerops purpureus. " India orientali." In C. P. the 

text is headed " Upupa erythrorhyncbo)<.'' 
Oriolus gularis. " America meridionali." In C. P. the 

text is headed " Oriolus pictus." 
Picus quadrimaculata. " Zeylona." 



At this point the original co})y studiod ends, but as there 
are only 60 plates in the ' Cimelia Physica " the remaining 
six are here noted, all at present dating from 1796, though 
probably they will later prove to have been published in 
1785, as suggested by Watts's entry : — 



1921.] J. F. Miller's Icones. 307 

Plate 55. Hinindv zonaris. 

56. Artonia capensis Bot. 
Oriol us trifaaciatus. 

57. Rdmjjhastos indicus. 

58. Alcedo formosa. 

59. Golumba rosea. 

60. Jerboa capensis Mamm. 

Ik is probable tbat were the first thirty-six [)lates carefully 
examined some alterations in ornithological nomenclature 
would be necpssary. In the 'Auk/ 1908, p. 269 note, Riley 
comments upon Falco fuscus in connection with Buteo 
jilati/pteriis, but he does not appear to have seen the original 
edition, as he does not give the definite locality there men- 
tioned, and, moreover, only quotes the book as appearing in 
six parts, each with six plates. In 'The Ibis,' 1915, p. 235, 
Claude Grant gave particulars of the plate of the Secre- 
tary Bird. He apparently did not go through the British 
Museum copy or he would have noted Cucvlus indicator, 
which he discussed in the same paper. It is strange how 
African ornithological nomenclature is still in such a con- 
fused state with so many workers interested in the birds of 
that continent. Thus Cuculus indieator was first published 
by Sparrman in the Philos. Trans, vol. Ixvii. pt. i, p. 43, 
1777, and the genus name Indicator was first published by 
Stephens in Shaw's Zoology, vol. ix. p, 138, 1815, yet 
neither of these references is correctly quoted. The two 
most important changes noted in the foregoing are also in 
connection with African birds. 

Phceniculus purpureus (Miller). 

This now will be the correct name for the bird lono" known 
as Irrisor viridis, afterwards as /. erythrorhynchus. 

Kallus nigra Miller. 

This name is undoubtedly earlier than Rallns niyer Gmelin, 
and as it refers to a very different species two changes are 
necessary. In both complications can be observed, as i5?rt//«5 
nigra Miller is the bird long known as Porzana tabuensis 
(Gmelin), but the correct application of the latter name is 



308 Messrs. C. D. Sherburii and '[\ Iredale un [Ibis, 

not definitely ascertained. Thus J. Iv. Forster described a 
black bird, but noted there was a brown variant. His son 
painted the Black Rail from "Taheitee,'' and this painting is 
preserved in the British Museum (Natural History), No. 130, 
with the native nauie " Maho " pencilled on it. This drawing 
was copied and published with little alteration by Miller 
under the name Rallus nigra. Forster's MS. name was 
RaUus niinutus, and his localities were " Otaheitee et in 
Tonga-Tabu." Latham's descriptions wore incorporated by 
Gmelin, who introduced Latin names, and this was called 
Rallus tahuensis, though Latham did not appear to have 
had specimens from Tongatabu. It is probable that the 
Tahitian Rail is distinct from the Tongatabu species, 
es[iecially as a black Rail is known from Henderson Island, 
viz. P. atra North {^ — iivirrayi 0. -Grant). However, it is 
impossible to continue the name Limnocorax niyer (Gmelin) 
for the African Black Rail, and the choice seems to be 
between Rallus carinatus Swainson and GalUnula Jiavirostra 
Swainson, the latter introduced as the former was inapplic- 
able and also indeterminate. Thence it would be that the 
African Rail would be called Limnocorax Jiavirostra (Swain- 
son), but subspecies may be determinable. 

Pennula ecaudata (King). 
Why this name was ever accepted is one of the puzzles 
provided for the })resent generation by the previous one of 
British ornithologists. The identification of "a rail, with 
very short wings and no tail, which on that account-, we 
named rallus ecaudotus (sic)," is surely impossible, and for- 
tunately the publication of Miller's plate under the same 
name negatives any further discussion. Miller's Rallus 
ecaudata was from Otaheita, and proves to be an absolute 
copy of G. Forster's painting No. 127, which has been 
continually accepted as referable to the '' Otaheitean "' form 
of the Philippine Rail. What the name of the Sandwich 
Island Pennula is, appears again puzzling, as various students 
have arrived at different results, but probably Rothschild's 
usage of Pennula millsi with the other species Pennula 
sujulwichensis is the best. 



1 92 1.] J. F. Miller's Icones. 309 

Aptenodytbs crestata Miller. 

The complications around this name will be discussed 
later, as this is an Aiistral-Neozelanic species, and the details 
are very confusing. 

Ardea n.evia Miller. 

This is earlier than Ardea mvvia Boddaert in use for the 
American form of J^ycticorax nycticorax, and it appears 
doubtful whether these are exactly the same thing. 

Otis indica Miller. 

This name was first proposed by Forster in 1781, but 
a[)pears as an absolute nomen michtm. It has been used ex 
Ginelin, whose account is based solely on Miller, but has 
lately been rejected in favour of Latham's aurita. The 
beautiful painting seen in the original edition of Miller's 
plates so exactly api)lies to the '"'' Syplieotis'''' that the name 
must be revived and the bird known as Sypheotides indica 
(Miller). 

These notes will draw attention to the necessity of recon- 
sidering the whole of the names involved in these works, and 
recourse can always be made to the volume here studied, 
which has been placed' in the librarj' of the British Museum 
(Natural History). 

Mr. B. B. Woodward has pointed out to us that in Rees' 
New Cyclopj^pdia, Vol. xxxii., under the article about George 
Shaw, it is definitely stated that sixty plates were puldished 
by Miller under the title '^ Various Subjects in Natural 
History, wherein are delineated Birds, Animals, and many 
curious Plants," but that the lack of letterpress proved a 
drawback, and consequently these plates were republished 
under the title " Cimelia Physica," descriptions being 
supplied by George Shaw, The title above cited agrees 
with that given by Watts, who adds " with the parts of 
Fructification of each Plant, all of which are drawn and 
coloured from Nature." 



310 Report on Amendments and Alterations [Ibis, 



XVTT. — Report of the Suh-committee, consisthiff of Dr. E. 
Haktert, Messrs. T. Iredale and W. L. Sclater, on 
Amendments and proposed Alterations to the Karnes in the 
B. 0. U. List of British Birds, as accepted hy the Committee 
of the B. 0. U. on the British Birds List. 

The following recommendations were made : — 

1. Tliat the nomina conservanda in the B. 0. U. List should 

not be used any longer, but the correct names under 
the rules should now be universally adopted. 

There are thirteen ot* these nomina conservanda, and 
a list of them with their equivalent under the Rules 
of Nomenclature is given on p. 355 ot the B. 0. U. 
List, in A])pendix IT. 

2. That in future, when a species has been divided into two 

or more subspecies, the typical subspecies should 
always be named trinominally. For example, the 
typical race of the Starling should be called Sturnns 
ruU/aris vuhjaris and not Sturnns inih/aris, as the use 
of the binomial form of the name causes confusion 
lietween the typical subspecies ami the species as a 
whole, including all the races. 

3. That the names in Vroeg's Catalogue be acce[)ted. The 

followino" chan<i;es will result : 

p. 60. For Si/lvia sidxdpina substitute 

Sylvia cantillans {MotarUla cant/Hans [Pallas] in 
Vroeg's Cat. Verzam. Vogelen Adumbraticiila, 
p. 4, 1764 : Italy.) 

p. 108. For Mnscicapa grisola substitute 

Muscicapa striata (}fotaciUa striata [Pallas], t. c. 
p. 3, 1764: Holland). 



1 92 1.] in the B. 0. U. List of British Birds. 311 

p. 109. For Mitfcicapa atrirapilla substitute 

Miiscicapa hypoleuca {Motacilla hypolexicd [Pallas] , 
t. c. p. W, 1764: : Holland). 

p. 1()7. For Tadorna casarca substitute 

Casarca ferruginea {Anas femui'wea [Pallas], t. c. 
p. 5, 17(i4 : Tartary). 

p. 224. For ( 'aVulris arenaria substitute 

Crocethia alba (Irf/nr/a alba [Pallas], t. c. p. 7, 
1704: Coasts of Holland) *. 

p. 228. For l^^tatnts fiiscus substitute 

Tringa erythropus {Scolojxi.v erytliropus [Pallas], 
t. c. p. 0, 17G4: Holland) *. 

p. 299. For l^odiceps fJuriatilis substitute 

Podiceps xvLficoWis {Colymhus rvficoUis [Pallas], t. c. 
p. 6, 1704 : Holland). 

4. The following (generic alterations were agreed to : — 

p. 7. Genus Pyrrhocorax Tunstall, Ornith. Brit. 1771, p. 2. 
This name dates from 1771 instead of from 1816. 
The type is the Cornish ( 'hough (Ujmpa pyrfhocorax) 
by monotypy and tautonyniy, not the Alpine ('hough 
(Pyrrhocora.r graculus) as stated on p. 35(j of the 
B. 0. LF. List (see Mathews and Tredalc Austr. Av. 
Rec.iii. p= 119). 

p. 45. (lenus Anthiis Bechstein, Gemein. Naturg. Deutschl. 
2nd (mJ. 1805, ii. pp. 247, 302, and 40.5. Type by 
subsequent designa-tion (Mathews, Austr. Av. Rec. 
ii. p. 12.3, 1915), Ahutda camj>estris Linn. 

p. 78. For Genus Lusciniola substitute 

Herbivociila ^winhoe, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1871, 
p. 353. Type by monotypy IJ. fiemiiuil = Sylria 
srlncarzi Radde. 

Lusciniola melanopoyon, lately added to the B. 0. U. 
List, will of course remain in the genus Lusciniola, oi 
which it is the type. 

* For generic changes, see below on pp. 312, 313, 



312 Report on Amendments and Alterations [Ibis, 

p. 78. For Genus Ilj/polais Brehiii substitute 

Hippolais Baldenstein, Neue Alpina, ii. p. 27, 1827. 
Type l)y nionotypy //. italica Bald. = H. poh/glotta 
(Vieill.j. 

The generic names of the Icterine, Melodious, and 
Olivaceous Warblers must also be changed to Hip- 
polais (^i-ide Mathews and Irodalc, Austr. Av. Rec. iii. 
p. 122). 

p. 127. For Flammea substitute 

Tyto Billberg, Synops. Faun. Scand. i. pt. 2, 1828, 
tab, A. Type Strix alba Scop. (t;/". Mathews, Nov. 
Zool. xvii. 11)10, p. 500, and Auk, i920, p. 444). 

p. 216. The type of the genus '/'rinr/a is not T. camitus 
but T. ocliropus. as was first pointed out by Mathews 
(Nov. Zool. xviii. 1911, p. 5). This and Richmond's 
discovery of the Anonymous reviewer in the Allg. 
Lit. Zeit. {cf. P. U.S. Nat. Mus. liii. p. 581) will 
involve considerable changes in the genera of the 
Stints and Sandpipers as follows : — 

Genus Calidris Anon. Allg. Lit. Zeitung, 1804, 
vol. ii. col. 542. Type by tautonymy 7rinf/a calidris 
Linn.= Trimja cainihis Linn. 

Genus Erolia Vieillot, Analyse, 1810, p. 55. Type 
by monotypy E. rariegataW.i^\\\.=^Tringaferuyinea 
Brihi. ; and the following species will stand as : 

Kroliaminuta, E.minutilla, E.temmincl-i, E.macu- 
lata, E. acnmijiata, E. bairdi, E. fuscicollis, E. mari- 
tima, E. alplna, and E. ferriigiiiea. 

For l^otanus substitute 
Tringa, type by tautonymy 7\ ochropus Linn., and 
the following species will stand as : 

Triruja totanus, T. eryihropus, T. melajioletica, 
T. //ar/yi>^5, T. stagnatilis, T. nebularia, T. liypo- 
leiica, T. macidaria, T. ocJiropns, T. glareola, and 
T. solitaria. 



1 92 1,] in the B. 0. U. List of British Birds. 313 

p. 224, For Genus Calidris substitute 

Crocethia Billbero-, Synop. Faun. Scand. i. [)t. 2, 1828, 
tab. A, p. 132. Type by nionotypy Triiuja arenaria 
Linn., since Calidris is preoccui)ied (ef. Riclnnond. 
P. U. «. Nat. Mns. liii. p. 581, and Auk. JU20, 
p. 443). 

The only species is Crocetlda alha (Pallas) (see 
above). 

p. 225. For Genus Machetes substitute 

Philomachus Anonymous, Allg. Lit. Zeit. 1804, vol. ii. 
col, 542, Type by nionotypy Tringa pngnax Linn. 
(r/', Richmond supra). 

p. 241. Charadriiis. The type of this genus by Linnean 
tautonymy is C hiaticula Linn, not C. apricarivs, and 
the species listed under ^Egialitis must become 
Charadi-ius. 

For Genus Charadriiis substitute 
Pluvialis Brisson, Ornith, v. p, 42, 1760. Type by 
tautonymy F. aiirea Brisson = Cluwadrius apricarins 
Linn. 

• p. 243. Genus Squatarola Cuvier, Regne Anim. i., 1816, 
p. 467. Type by mouotypy and tautonymy Tringa 
squatarola Linn. 

The reference to Leach in the B. 0. U. List is to 
an unpul)lished nam(% as Leach's work, though printed, 
was never published. 

p. 290. For Genus (J^strelata substitute 

Pterodroma Bonapai-te, Comptes Rend. xlii. 1856, 
p, 768, Type by subsequent designation (Cones, 
Proc. Acad.'^Nat, Sci, Philad. 1866, p, 137) Procel- 
laria macroptera Smith, 

p, 312. For Genus Caccahis substitute 

Alectoris Kaup, Skiz. Entw.-Geschichte u. Nat. Syst. 
Eur. Thiei'w. p. 180, 1821*. Type by nionotypy 
Perdid' jjetrosa ij inA. = P. barbara Bonn. {cf. Hartert, 
Nov. Zool. xxiv. p. 275). 

SER. XI. VOL. Iir. Y 



314 Report on Amendments and Alterations [I'^i^, 

5, Tho following specific altorations wore also aoreed to : — 

p. 44. For Motacilla fehlen<j'i read M. feldegy as printed in 
the original description. 

p. 74. Cettia retti, references to be altered as follows : — 

Cettia Bonaparte, Icon. Fann. Ital. i. 1834, text to 
pi. 29. 

Sylvia cetti Temminck, Man. Orn. 2nd ed.^ Oct. 
1820, p. 194. 

p. 101. O^iianthe stapazina and GlJ. oceidentalis. These birds, 
the Black-throated and Black-eared Wheaiears, appear 
to be nndonbtedly phases of one specific form and 
must be called : 

(Enanthe hispanica. 

Motacilla hispanica Linnreus, Sjst. Nat. 10th ed. 
1758, p. 18G : Gibraltar. 

The name of the eastern race, (Ti!nanthe amphileuca 
of the B. 0. U. List, must be changed to : 

(Enanthe hispanica melanoleitca. 

Mnscicapa melanoleuca Guldenstjidt^ Nov. Com. 
Petrop. xix. 1775, p. 468, pi. 15 : Georgia, (laucasus 
((/. Practical Handbook Brit. Bds. p. 435). 

p. 110. Mvscicapa parva. Original reference should be 
Mnscicapa parva Beclistein, Getreue Abbild. jiart 2, 
p. 26, 1793. 

p. 147. For Hierofalco gyrfalco substitute 

Hierofalco rusticolus. 

Falco rusticolus Liiniceus, Sjst. Nat. 10th ed. 1758, 
p. 88 : Sweden. 

This name has three pages priority over i^.^_y?;/a/oo. 



1921.] in the B. 0. U. List of British Birds. 315 



6. Suggested alterations and aineudments not accepted : — 

Page 
52. Genus Regid\i.s v. Re.c or Regillas (cf. Mathews & 

Irodalc, Austr. Av. Rec. iii. p. 119 ; Auk, 1920, 

p. 448 ; and Practical Handbook, p. 250). 

Regidns confirmed. 

93. Genus Erithaeus v. Dandalas (cf. B. 0. U. List, p. 366, 
and Practical Handbook, p. 481). 
Erithacus confirmed. 

95. Genus Lusniua\. Daulias Zimmermann [cf. Mathews, 
Austr. Av. Rec. iii. p. 117). 
Ziinmermann's name not accepted. 
Lvscinla confirmed. 

111. liirundo v. Chelidon and Deliclion v. liirundo. 

Hirxindo and Delirhim now accepted by Hartert 

{vide Practical Handbook, p. 502). 
liirundo and Deliclion confirmed. 

200. Plegadis v. Egatlieui< o£ Hand-list. 

Plegadis is retained {cf. Auk, 1913, p. 92 ; Hartert, 

V. p. F. p. 1220). 
Plegadis confirmed. 

205. Chlamt/doti.^ v. Houhara of Hand-list, 
CJdanu/dotis confirmed. 

294. Cohjinhus v. Podireps for the Grebes [cf. B. 0. U. List, 

p, 390 ; Auk, 1920, p. 445). 
Note on the type of Colymlms : — 

The genus Colymhvs as used by Linnseus in 
1758 contained four species: a?-ci/t;u5 (Black-throated 
Diver), cristatvs (Great Crested Grebe), auritus 
(Slavonian Grebe), and podiceps (American Pied- 
billed Grebe). Latham introduced Podiceps for the 
Grebes and retained Coli/mhus for the Divers, and 
his usage was followed by practically every other 
author until the year 1882, when Dr. Stejneger 
proposed to use Colymhus for the Grebes. 

y2 



316 B. 0. U. List of British Birds. [Ibis, 

George Grray was the first author who recognized 
the necessity o£ fixing a type-species to each genus, 
and in the first two lists published in 1840 and 1841, 
working with the 12th edition of Linnseus, he fixed 
the type of Colymhis as C. glaciaUs. Later in 1855 
(Cat. Gen. Subgen. Bds. \). 125). finding that 
C. glar'mlis did not occur in the earlier editions of 
Linnseus, he substituted ardicus, which name is 
found in all the early editions of Linnseus's Syst. 
Nat. from 1735 to 1758; but as he had already in 
his previous lists suggested glaciaUs for Colymlnis of 
the 12th edition, he wrote : " Linn. 1735 nee 1766." 
Gray's intention was perfectly obvious and reasonable, 
and we fear, if his action in this case is rejected (as 
it is in the Supplement just published in the 'Auk,* 
1920, p. 445), it will open a loopihole for upsetting 
a large number of other ty])e-designations by the 
same author. 

The A. 0. U. Check-list Committee have now 
abandoned the ground they took up in the earlier 
editions of the Check-list, and merely quote "type by 
subsequent designation of the A.O. U. Check-list 
Committee," although that action has been shown 
(B. 0. U. List Brit. Birds, p. 399) to be based on a 
fallacy. 

Podiceps is confirmed for the Grebes. 
Page 
133. KyctaJa funerea v. teiufmalmi {vide B. 0. U. List, 

p. 378 ; also Auk, 1919, p. 447). 
N. funerea accepted and confirmed. 

145. Milvns migrans v. M. I'orschun. 

M. migrans accepted and confirmed. 

150. Falco (vsalon v. F. reguhis. 
F. cesalon accepted. 

159. Anser erytliropus v. A. fnmarcMcJms. 

A. erytliropus accepted {vide Lonnberg, Ibis, 1913, 
p. 400, and Hartert, V. p. F. p. 1282). 



1 92 1.] Obituarrj. 317 

XYlll.— Obituary. 

Robert Birkbeck. 

We cannot pass over in silence the death of one of the 
original members of the Union, although lie severed his 
connection with it so long ago as 1868. 

Robert Birkbeck, who died on 18 November last at the 
age of 83 at his house, Kinloch Hourn, in Inverness-shire, 
was born at Keswick in 1836, and was the fourth son of 
William Birkbeck, of Keswick Old Hall, Norfolk. He 
married in 1857 Mary Harriet, eldest daughter of the late 
Sir John William Lubbock, Bt., and was therefore a 
brother-in-law of the late Lord Avebury. He was also 
an uncle by marriage of Mr. J. H. Gurney. He took 
much interest in ornithology and was among the first to 
join the ranks of the Union when it was projected in 1858, 
though he resigned ten years later. He lived most of his 
life on his estate on the west coast of Scotland, and devoted 
himself to horticulture and tlie study and protection of some 
of our rarer birds. 

A portrait of him as he appeared in his young days, with 
a short notice, will be found in the Jubilee Supplement 
volume of ' The Ibis ' for 1908. 

Charles Edward Fagan, C.B.E., I.S.O. 

Although not a member of the Union, Mr. Fagan, Secre- 
tary to the Natural History Museum, South Kensington, 
whose death took place at his residence in West Ken- 
sington on the 30th of January, was well known to a large 
number of our members. In 1873, at the age of eighteen, 
Mr. Fagan entered the British Museum, Bloomsbury, as 
a second-class assistanr, and on the opening of the Natural 
History Museum at South Kensington he was transferred 
to the office of Professor (afterwards Sir William) Flower, 
the newly-appointed director. In 1889 he became assistant 
secretary, and when Sir Sidney Harmer was appointed 
director in 1919 he was made secretary. 



318 Obituary. [Ibis, 

Mr. Fa^an made no claims to being an ornithologist, but 
he had a great interest in natural liistory, and was always 
ready to do all in his power to advance its study. He was 
specially interested in the preservation of the native fauna, 
not only in this country but in the Colonies, and acted as 
honorary treasurer to the Society for the Promotion of 
Nature Reserves and was the British representative on the 
International Committee for the Protection of Nature in 
1913. 

When the International Ornithological Congress met in 
this country in 1905, Mr. Pagan acted us honorary treasurer, 
and he undertook the same office for the British Orni- 
thologists' Union Expedition to Dutch New Guinea. This 
expedition was instituted by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant at the 
Jubilee Meeting of the Union in 19(J8, and Mr. Fagan was 
personally responsible for much of the preliminary work in 
connecticui with its organization. 

Mr. Fagan took a deep interest in the Bird Room and 
the development of the ornithological collections of our 
National Museum, so much so that the officers in charge 
of that department liave always been indebted to him for 
assistance in many ways and on many occasions. Indeed, 
one is justified in saying that had it not been for Mr. Pagan's 
per&onal efforts and success in enlisting the sympathy and 
help of those who were in a position to further his many 
ideas for the develo|)Mient and expansion of the collections, 
the Museum would not now contain the magnificent series 
of the birds of the world which are now represented in its 
cabinets. 

Henry Jones. 

We learn with deep regret of the death of Major Henry 
Jones, which occurred at his home at Wimbledon Park on 
the 5th of February, at the age of 83 years — he was buried 
at East Wickham. He was born on the 9th of February, 
1838, near Folkestone, and was educated at Shrewsbury 
House School, Shooter's Hill. He joined the service, as 
an ensign, on the 25th of Se[)tember, 1860, in the 94th Foot 



192 1.] Recently published Ornli/ioio(/icul Works. 319 

Regt., serving under Lord Napier ; on the 1st of August^ 
1862j lie transferred to the G2ud Foot Regt., being made 
Lieutenant on the 24th of November, 1863, and promoted 
to Captain on the 7th of February, 1876. He left the 
service m 1881, after serving over fifteen years in India, and 
lived on retirement at East Wickham House, Welling, Kent, 
moving to Wimbkdon Park in 1916. 

For many years he came to the Bird Room at the Natural 
History Museum and made most careful and excellent 
drawings and sketches of birds with their natural sur- 
roundings. 

He Avorked through every species of the Game Birds and 
the Ducks, and at the time of his death was engaged on the 
Corvidse. We hear that his drawings iiave all been left to 
the Zoological Society. Major Jones was elected a member 
of the Union in 1900. 



XIX. — Notices of recent Ornithological Publications. 

Bartsch on the Birds of the Tortugas. 

[The Bird-rookeries of the Tortugas. By Paul Bartsch. Smithsonian 
Keport for 1917, pp. 409-500. 38 pis. Published 1919.] 

The Tortugas are the last of the long line of coral reefs 
and islands which string ont in a westerly direction from 
the southern extremity of Florida into the Gulf of Mexico, 
and have long been renowned for the numbers of sea-birds 
visiting and breeding on them. The first ornithologist who 
visited them was J. J. Audubon in 1832. He has given us 
a most vivid account of his observations and experiences in 
his Ornithological Biography, portions of which are re- 
printed in the present paper. On one of the islands, 
Loggerhead Key, is the Marine Biological Laboratory of 
the Carnegie Institution, at which most of the recent work 
on birds, especially that of Messrs. Watson and Lashley 
(vide Ibis, 1916, p. 191), has been conducted. The most 
interesting island of the group is Bird Key, where, out of 



320 tiecently published Ornithologicul Harks. [Ibis, 

32,800 birds listed in a census made in 1916, some 31,200 
have their homes and breeding-grounds. 

Far the most numerous in individuals are the Sootj' Tern 
(Sterna fuscatu) and the Noddy [Anous stolidus) ; others of 
less importance as regards numbers are the Least Tern 
{Sterna a. untillarum) , the Roseate (S. dougalU), the Man- 
o^-War Bird {Fie<iata iiiagnijicens rothschildi), and the 
Boobies (Su/a leucoynstris and S. sula), but the last three 
do not nest. 

Good accounts of all these species are given by 
Dr. Bartsch in the present paper, which is illustrated 
bv a large number of pliotographs. There is also an 
interesting list of all the birds which have been recorded 
from the islands, as well as of the land-birds which have 
been observed there on different occasions on migration. 

Chapman on variation in Ostinops decumaiius. 

[Uuusuil types of apparent li-eograpliic variation in colour and of 
individual variation in size exhibited by Oslinops clecumanus. By Frank 
M. Chapman. Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxxiii. 1920, pp. 25-32.] 

Mr. Chapman has recently examined a large series of 
examples of Ostinops decumanus, chiefly from southern Peru 
and Bolivia, and also from Matto Grosso in south-west 
Brazil, and he finds among these birds, both male and 
female, a remarkable phenomenon of a varying number of 
feathers of the body and wing-coverts being wholly or in 
part yellow or more rarely white. Such a variation, if 
found in a single individual, would certainly be considered 
as pathological albinism or xanihochroism. But this curious 
variation is found to a variable extent in so large a propor- 
tion of the birds examined tiiat it mnst be considered a 
diagnostic character, and to draw attention to it Mr. Chapman 
proposes to distinguish this form as a distinct subspecies, 
Ostinops decimianus maculosus. In birds from north of the 
Amazon valley this variation does not occur. 

In regard to size, Mr. Chapman finds a very remark- 
able variation among the males only — both those from 
the northern and southern parts of South America. 



1921.] Recently published Ornithological JForks. 321 

The wings of seven birds from Matto Grosso vary from 
205 to 239 mm., while in a series of five males from 
Colombia the variation ranges from 228 to 249 mm.j and 
the shape of the wing as shown in a text-fignre is very 
different in the two extreme cases. Mr. Chapman believes 
that the short-winged individuals are young birds in their 
first winter, and that as they grow older the wings, as well 
as the tail and culmen, increase in length. Ostinops clecu- 
manns is certainly a species of considerable interest, and 
deserves further study. 

Christiani on a new Hock-Pipit. 

[Den vestnorske Skterpiber (Ajithus j)etrosus sc/u(pler{, subsp. aov.). 
Af A. Christiani. Daiisk. Ornith. Forenings Tidsskrift, 1920, 
pp. 157-162.] 

Mr. Christiani here describes a new subspecies of Rock- 
Pipitj Anthus petrosus schi^lern, from western Norway. The 
types are from Floro Island near Trondhjem, and Skaer- 
gaaden near Bergen. The chief distinguishing character is 
apparently a slight colour-difference in the vinous of the 
chest. In a further note on the Faroe Island form, A. p. 
kleinschnidti, described by Dr. Hartert^ Mr. Christiani states 
that the first observer who pointed out its peculiarities was 
J. C. H. Fischer (Journ. Ornith. 1861, p. 432), and not 
Pastor Kleinschmidt as stated by Hartert. 

Coward on British Birds. 

fTke Birds of the British Isles and their Eggs. By T. A. Coward. 
Second Series. Pp. vii + '576 ; 213 col. pis. ; 69 pliotographic illustr. 
London & New York (VVarne), 1920.] 

The second and concluding portion of this little book, 
which is one of Warne's 'Wayside and Woodland^ series, 
is hardly up to the level of the first volume (c/. Ibis^ April 
1920). This is, however, chiefiy due to the nature of the 
subject-matter, and not to any lack of skill in the author. 
The families treated are those from the Anatidae to the 
Tetraonidpe, and it is easy to understand that few persons 
can visit the breeding-haunts of every species, or Avrite with 



3:22 lieceittly published Ornitholoyical Works. [Ibis, 

tliat tall knowledge of the habits which was so conspicuous 
iu Mr. Coward's treatment of such groups as the Warblers. 
But the coloration of the eggs leaves much to be desired, 
and in the case of certain of the Ducks is absolutely mis- 
leading : for instance, the Gadwall's (i^^ is cream-coloured, 
not green. The reproductions of Lord Lilford's plates are 
wonderful for a book of this ])rice; the Idack plates are 
good, but somewhat ordinary, while only the publisher can 
tell whether they are necessary to the sale of the volumes. 
We should have omitted them and used them elsewhere. 

Hoivard on Tenilory in Bird Life. 

[Terntory in Bird Life. By M. Eliot Howard. Pp. xiv+308; 11 
photoa-ravures by Lodge and G'-onvold. London (John Murray), 19:20. 
8vo. '2\s. net.] 

As a result of long-continued observation in the field on 
the breeding-habits of British Warblers, Mr. H. Eliot 
Howard has gradually come to realize the immense im- 
portance of the possession of territory to the male, and its 
influence on his life and actions. In the present attractive 
and thoughtful little work he has extended his studies to 
other families, and finds that the same general principles 
hold good. 

It is obvious that no species can breed unless it lias 
undisputed possession of a nesting-site of some kind, 
however restricted, and to this extent every bird requires 
wliat we may agree to call territoiy. But among the 
Warblers the term includes, not merely the nesting-place, 
but a more or less extensive reserve, which serves as a 
station from which the song is uttered to attract a mate, 
and the hunting-ground or source of food-sup})ly, tlie limits 
of which are rarely transgressed by the parents during 
the whole period of reproduction. On the other hand, 
among the Auks we find the Guillemot occupying, to use 
Mr. Howard's words, "a few square feet of rock only" for 
lireeding-purposes. On the pinnacles at the Fame Islands 
it would be more correct to say that the breeding sj)ace 



1 921.1 Recently published Ornithological Works. 323 

covers a few square inclies only, so that the isolation of the 
breeding pair is more theoretical than practical. 

Mr. Howard ascribes the restricted nature of the Guille- 
mot's territory to the fact that the species, as a whole, 
would suffer if each male resisted intrusion on its breeding- 
ledge, owing to the scanty number of available sites, while, 
on the other hand, the food-supply is practically unlimited. 
The explanation seems adequate in this case, but is less 
convincing when we come to consider the difference between 
the breeding-habits of the Raven and Rook. The former 
requires not merely a home, but also an estate surrounding 
it, on which he brooks no rival ; the latter is content to 
live in a bird-town in the tree-top, from where he sallies 
forth with his companions to seek his living on communal 
ground. Here shortage of nesting-sites cannot be urged as 
the reason for such close association_, nor is there any 
advantage gained with regard to food-supplies, so mutual 
protection is assigned as the necessary condition of the 
Rook's existence. Now it is quite true that many cases are 
on record of rookeries being raided by Carrion Crows, but 
no serious resistance seems ever to be made l)y the Rooks, 
and no combined action taken by the members of the colony 
in opposition to t!ie raiders. This is the more remarkable, 
when it is remembered that such species as the Common 
and Arctic Terns, though far weaker as individuals, when 
acting in concert, can drive off not only the Hooded or 
Carrion Crow, but even the Marsh-Harrier. Another in- 
stance where communal bi*eeding is practically useless for 
purposes of defence, is that of the Cormorant. The parent 
birds of one nest will view with absolute indifference the 
robbery of another nest only a few feet away by Crow or 
Gull. In these cases the difference in the territorial idea 
is much more than merely of degree. One might almost 
say that among birds, even in the same families, there are 
individualists and socialists, — and we may take the Rook, 
the Martins, the Terns, and the Guillemot, as examples of 
the latter class ; while the Warblers, the Falcons, the Pipits, 



324 Recenthj published Ornitholoyical Works. [Ibis, 

Shrikes, and many otlier families may be quoted as be- 
longing to the former. Some of the communal breeders 
have also adopted a system of eommunal defence (more 
especially the Terns), but with others nothing of the kind 
has yet been evolved. 

We think a truer idea of Territory in Bird Life would be 
gained by eliminating the actual nesting-site, which is, 
of course, a necessity in every case, and restricting the 
use of the word to the area embraced l)y the activities of 
the parents. We shall then find that in some groups all 
otlier individuals of the same species are rigidly driven off 
the whole territory, in others the idea is only present in a 
rudimentary form, and in a third class the association is of 
the closest kind and individual territory is unknown. 

There is also a wide field for research, untouched in the 
present work, on the occasional unresented presence of a 
third individual together with a pair in the case of a nor- 
mally monogamous species. Probably this has been noted 
most frequently in the case of the Long-tailed Tit, but 
there are recorded instances in some twelve or fourteen 
other species at least. We are grateful to Mr. Howard for 
his beautifully illustrated and thoughtful study on an aspect 
of bird-life, which by his researches he has undoubtedly 
done much to elucidate. — F. C. R. Jourdain. 

Hellmayrs recent papers on Neotropical Birds. 

[Ein Beitrag zur Ornithologie von Slidost-Perii. Vou C. E. Hellmayr. 
Arch. Naturgesch. Jahrg. 85, Abt. A, 1920, pp. 1-131.] 

[Miscellanea Ornithologica, V. Id. Verhandl. Orn. Ges. Bayerii, 
xiv. 1920, pp. 281-287.] 

The first of these pa])ers contains an account of the more 
interesting forms contained in a collection made by the 
brothers H. and C. Watkins in the Department of Puno 
in south-eastern Peru, near the Bolivian border. These col- 
lections reached Europe before the outbreak of the war, 
and are now preserved, partly in the Munich Museum, 
partly in the private collection of Count Josef Seilern. 



1 92 1.] Recently puhlisked Ornithological Works. 325 

They contained aljout 12,000 skins^ representing 250 species. 
Some of the new forms have been already described, while 
four additional ones are here introduced for the first time, 
viz. : — Ci/anerpes carulea chocoana from Colombia, Rham- 
phocelus curho centralis from Brazil, Spizitornis parulus 
patayoniciis from Argentina, and Lepidocolaptes lacryrniger 
carabayce from S.E. Peru. Very valuable comments on 
nomenclature and geographical distribution, together with 
revisions of various groups of subspecific forms, make up the 
rest of the paper, which is one of the most important con- 
tributions to our knowledge of the avifauna of the eastern 
slopes of the Peruvian Andes which has appeared tor some 
time. 

The second paper, which also deals solely with neotropical 
forms, contains revisions of nomenclature and synonymy, 
A note on the first record of Hehuinthophlla leucubronchialis 
in South America is of considerable interest, as this rare 
little Warbler is believed by Mr. Faxon and other North 
American naturalists to be a natural hybrid between 
H. piniis and H. chrijsoptera. The South American example 
was obtained near Merida in Venezuela, and is now in the 
Tring Museum. 

Laubmami on Lesson's Types. 

[Kritische Uiitersucliuiigen iiber die Genotypfixierungen in Lesson's 
' Manuel d'Oinithologie,' 1828. Von Dr. A. Laubmann. Arch. Natur- 
gesch. Jahrg. 8o, Abt. A, 1920, pp. 137-108.] 

In this laborious but useful work Dr. Laubmann has 
carefully reviewed all the genera in Lesson's ' Manuel 
d"Ornithologie,' and has shown that in many cases Lesson, 
quite in accordance with the modern rules of Zoological 
nomenclature, fixed the types of a good many genera where 
the fixation has generally been attributed to Gray, whose 
work was published later. This paper should be carefully 
consulted by all who are interested in nomenclatural 
Avurk. 



3.26 Recently published Ornithological Works. [Ibis, 

Lavauden on Tunisian Birds. 

[La chasse et la faune cj'n^g(5tic[ue en Tunisie. Pur Louis Lavauden. 
Pp. 1-40. Tunis (Iniprim. centr.), 19:^0. 8vo.] 

[Contribution jt I'etude des formes du Hibou Ascalaphe dans I'Afrique 
du Nord. Id. lie v. Fraug. d"Oin. 1920, uos. 132-3, pp. 1-8 (separately 
paged).] 

In the first of these pamphlets M. Lavauden, who is an 
Inspector of Forests in the Regency of Tunis, gives us a 
useful review of the Mammalian and Avian fauna of 
Tunisia, chiefly from the sportsman's point of view. The 
birds of Tunisia have been dealt with by Mr. Whitaker in 
his well-known work ; but no volume in French has yet 
been published, and we hope that M. Lavauden will find 
time before he leaves the country to prepare one. We 
understand that he has already completed a work on the 
Mammals^ which unfortunately is yet awaiting a publisher. 
The most interesting l)ird likely to be noticed by the casual 
visitor to Tunisia is undoubtedly the Flamingo, which is 
always to be seen on the great lake which separates Tunis 
from the sea, though it is not known to breed, there. 
M. Lavauden, however, has reason to believe that it nests 
in a lake in the southern part of the Kegency between 
Sousse and Kairouan. 

The pamphlet also contains the official regulations in 
regard to the im[)ortation of arms, and the closed and 
open seasons for shooting. We are glad to notice that the 
Flamingo and some of the other rarer birds and mammals 
are strictly preserved. 

In the second paper M. Lavatiden discusses the Eagle- 
Owls of Tunisia. He points out that there is at present 
no certain evidence of the occurrence in Tunisia of BuJ)0 
bubo in any of its immediate subspecies, though it is said 
to have occurred in Algeria. On the other hand, there are 
two forms of the Egyptian Eagle-Owl, Bubo ascalaphus 
ascalwphus and B. a. desertorum. These two forms appear 
to he qnite distinct : the former occurring, though rarely, 
in the north of Algeria and Tunisia ; the latter, which has 



192 1.] Recently published Ornithological ]Vorks. 327 

been met with far more frequently, inhabiting southern and 
drier parts of the country. 

McGregor on Philippine Birds. 

[Some features of the Philippine Ornis, with notes on the vegetation 
in rehxtiou to the Avifauna. By Richard C. McGregor. Philippine 
Journ.'Sci. vol. xvi. 1920, pp. 361-437, map and 34 pis.] 

For a good many years past Mr. McGregor lias been 
stationed at Manilla, wliere he occupies tlie position of 
Ornitholosiist in the Bureau of Science. He has bad many 
opportunities of adding- to our knowledge of the Ijirds of 
the Philippine Islands, and in the present essay be deals 
with them chiefly from tbe ecological and geographical 
aspect. After noticing the great scarcity of sea-birds in 
tbe Philippine waters and the comparative absence of native 
birds about the town of Manilla, where the two commonest 
species are the European Tree-Sparrow and Chinese Crested 
Minah ( ^'Et hi opsar crista tell us) , he points out how the whole 
aspect of tbe low country has been changed by the destruc- 
tion of tbe virgin forest which formerly coveied it, and how 
most of the indigenous endemic birds are found in tbe 
forest-regions tbat I'emain, cbiefly in tbe mountainous areas. 

He then discusses the various types of forest, from the 
mangroves of tbe tide-lands to the pine and the mossy 
types which cover tbe higher parts of the islands at from 
20U0 to 4000 feet, and comments on the birds which 
characterize each type of forest. 

Most of the more interesting Philippine birds inhabit the 
Dipterocarp type of forest, so-called from its most con- 
spicuous and. valuable constituent '■'■ Dipterocarpms." The 
forests are best developed on the well-watei'cd plains or 
the lower slopes of the larger mountains, genei'allv below 
5000 feet. 

A further discussion deals with tbe local distribution of 
the endemic species among the various islands of tbe 
Archipelago. Most of the species are confined to single 
islands or groups of islands, and are represented by allied 



328 Reccntlij published Omitlwloyical Works. [Ibis, 

forms in other groups of islands ; but this is by no means 
always tlie case, aiul there are many instances of com- 
paratively closely allied species bein^- found together even 
in the same patch of forest. Finally, a revised list of the 
fannal regions into which the islands can he most con- 
veniently arranged, is given. 

A map and a number of piiotograplis of characteristic 
scenery in the islands agreeably assist one to follow the 
facts and arguments put forward in the paper, which is one 
of very considerable importance, and should ])e studied, by 
all interested in the problems of the distribution of birds 
in tropical lands. 

Matheios on Australian Birds. 

[The Birds of Australia. By Gregory M. Matliews. Vol. viii. pt. 5, 
pp. 241-316, pis. 395-399. London (Witherby), December 15th, 1920,] 

Tins part, which concludes the volume, gives us an 
unusually simple task, as it contains only various Pachy- 
cephaline forms now separated in the genera given below. 

First, we have the conclusion of Leivinomis rufiventris, 
to which many a generic name was given of old, not without 
reason, as it shows a certain affinity to Colluricincla. Only 
one species is allowed, tlie others being reduced to nine 
subspecies, of which dulcior of North Queen slan.d, gaivler- 
etisis of South Australia, and waddelli from the same country 
are new. Gilbertornis has two species — riifo(/ularis, which is 
said to have a peculiar note, and inornaius, which is proved 
to be the proper appellation oi gilbertii, with its three sub- 
species. The i-obust Alisterornis lanioides Avas considered 
worthy of specific rank, even by Gould ; its range lies to 
the northward and it has a curious habit of feeding on small 
crabs. There are four subspecies. Timixos olivaceus, with 
one less, is £(j1 lowed by Mattingleya griseiceps, which is the 
Eojisulh-ia inornata of Ramsay and almost certainly Pachy- 
cephula peninsiilce of Hartert. Muscitrea simplex, which is 
said to be synonymous witli Tephrodornis grisola of Blyth, 
has two subspecies, which are certainly different from the 
extralimital form. 



1 921.1 UeceyHly published Ornithological Works. 329 

The only new genus iu this part of tlie work is Penemnanthe, 
where the tail resentibles that of a Wheatear. The species 
leucura lias six or seven subspecies, according to whether we 
include Saivadoin's pulverulenta of New Guinea or not. 
Quoyornis georgianus has three races, Eopsaltria australis 
six. The latter, first figured by White in 1790, was given 
no less than three different names by Latham, and has had 
other synonyms, as will be seen from the text. A second 
sY>ecies,E. g7'iseognlaris, has four subspecies, of which loongani 
and quoiji, both from Western Australia, are new. 

Attention should be drawn to two pages of corrections of 
the Check-List printed in this part. 

Mathews on the dates of ornithological publications. 

[Dates of ornitliological works. By Gregory M. Mathews. Austral 
Av. Record, iv. 1920, pp. 1-27.] 

In Appendix B of the last part o£ volume vii. of 'The 
Birds of Australia^ Mr. Mathews attempted to provide 
a list of the exact dates of publication of the ornithological 
works quoted by him. Tliough a good many investigations 
into this difficult bibliographical question have been made, 
especially by Mr. Sherborn and Mr. Waterhouse, no one 
has collected their results into one place easily accessible 
to the working ornithologist, and now Mr. Mathews has 
reprinted with additions and corrections this valuable piece 
of research in a more accessible form. 

The publications dealt with are primarily those in which 
the Australian birds are described ; but the list will un- 
doubtedly be of the greatest use and service to all systematic 
ornithologists, and we would tender our best thanks to 
Mr. Mathews for this excellent and laborious piece of 
work. 

Mmyhy on the Sea-birds of Peru. 

[The sea-coast and islands of Peru, Pts. I., II., Sc III. By Robert 
Cushman Murphy. Brooklyn Museum Quarterly, vii. 1920, pp. 69-95, 
165-187, 239-272.] 

In these three articles, and there appear to be more to 

SER. XI. VOL. III. Z 



330 Recently published Ornithological Works. [Ibis. " 

follow, Mr. Murphy, Curator of the Brooklyn Museum in 
New York, gives us an account of his recent visit to Peru 
and its bird-islands, which he terms the Peruvian Littoral 
Expedition, and which he was enabled to undertake through 
the generous bequest of the late Col. R. B. Woodward, 
a benefactor of the Brooklyn Museum. The chief objects 
of the expedition were observation and research, the 
collecting of specimens, and the obtaining of motion-picture 
records of the life on the coast and of die Peruvian guano 
industry. 

As is well known, owing to the cold Humboldt current 
which, partly coming up from the southern latitudes, and 
partly owing to the welling-up of colder water fi'om i)elow 
the surface, due to the trade winds blowing south of the 
equator in a north-westerly direction, the coasts of Peru 
have a fauna which is quite unlike that of ordinary tropical 
coasts, and instead of Frigate-birds and Man-o^-War birds, 
the characteristic birds are Penguins, Diving Petrels (Pe/e- 
canoides), and Larus dominicanus. In addition to this, 
owing to the fact that the great height of the Andes, 
extending like a gigantic cliff along the whole western coast 
of South America, drain the trade wind« blowing across the 
continent from the Atlantic of all their moisture, the coast- 
lands of Peru and the northern part of Chile are almost 
entirely rainless ; the result is that the guano deposited on 
the islands off the coasts by the innumerable sea-birds 
accumulates in great quantities, and has been a source of 
wealth to Peru for the last hundred years or so. 

In past times the guano deposits have been worked in a 
most reckless manner and were rapidly becoming exhausted, 
while no efforts were made to conserve the bird-life to which 
this valuable manuring agent owed its origin. 

Of recent years, however, a new regime has been in- 
augurated, and the whole industry is under the control of 
the government and of a company, the " Corapania Ad- 
ministradore del Guano/' and very careful steps are taken 
to work the deposits without unduly disturbing the birds. 



1 92 1.] Recently published Ornitholoijical IVorks. 331 

It is iuteresting" to observe that ou the soutli-west coasts of 
Africa^ where conditions are very similar, the same course 
has been adopted, though there tlie control of the islands is 
directl}^ under the government of the Union of South Africa. 

Tiie three most important guano-producing birds are the 
Alcatraz (Pelecanus thagus), the Piquero {Su.la variegata), 
and the Camanay {Sii.la vehoiuvi). Of these, and of the 
methods and operations of obtniuing the gnauo, Mr. Murphy 
has given a most lucid account illustrated by numerous and 
beautifully reproduced {)hotograplis, and the articles are 
well worthy of perusal by all those interested in the in- 
dustrial application of ornithology. 

To his two predecessors in the investigation of the guano 
islands, Dr. H. O. Forbes and Mr. R. E. Coker, of the 
United States Bureau of Fisheries, Mr. Murphy pays a 
well-deserved tribute. An interesting discovery is that 
these seas are the winter home of the Northern or Red- 
necked Phalarope {Pluilaropus lobatiis) ; its winter quarters 
in the New World had been hitherto unknown. 

Peters on. a new Jay. 

[A new Jay from Alberta. By James Lee Peters. Prno. New 
Englaud Zoul. CI. vii. 1920, pp. 51-52.] 

Mr. Peters describes Perisoreus canadensis albescens as a 
distinct race from Red Deer, Alberts, Canada. It is distin- 
guished from all the other races of the Canada Jay by its 
much paler coloration. The type is in the Museum, of 
Comparative Zoiilogy at Cambridge, Mass. 

Ridgway on neiv Genera of Birds. 

[Diagnoses of some new Genera of Birds. By Robert Ridgwav. 
Smitlison. Miscel. Coll. Washington, vol. Ix.xii, no. 4, 1920, pp. 1-4.] 

The following new Genera of Hawks and Rails are 
proposed, no doubt in anticipation of a forthcoming volume 
of the 'Birds of North and Middle America' : — Oroa'etus 
for type Spizaetus isidori (Vieill.) ; Phceoaetus for type 

7.2 



332 Recently published Ornithological Works. [Ibis, 

Spizaetus limna'etus (Horsf.) (Limna'etus Vigors, a synonym, 
is antedated by Limruetus Bowdicli, the latter a synonym of 
Buteo) ; Morphnarchus for type Leucopternis princeps Scl. ; 
Percnohierax for type Rupornis leucorrhous (Q. & G.) ; 
Hapalocrex for type Rallus flaviventris Bodd. ; Limnocrex 
for type Porzana cinereiceps Lawrence; Thryocrex for type 
Corethrura rubra Scl. & Sal v. 

Riley on new Malayan Birds. 

[Four new Birds from the Philippines and Greater Sunda Islands. 
By J. H. Rile3\ Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. xxxiii. 1920, 
pp. 55-58.] 

Mr. Riley describes as new from Mr. Raven's collection 
tbe following : — Anthreptes malacensis paraguce from Pala- 
wan, A. m. bornensis from Borneo, Enodes erythrophrys 
centralis from Celebes, and Munia punctulata particeps also 
from Celebes. 

Robinson and Kloss on the names of the Jungle-Fowls, 

[On the proper name of the Red Jungle-Fowl from Peninsular India. 
By H. C. Robinson and C. Boden Kloss. Records Indian Mus. xix. 
pt. 1, 1920, pp. 13-15.] 

The nomenclature of the Indian Red Jungle-Fowl has 
been discussed lately by several writers. Messrs. Robinson 
and Kloss consider that the correct specific name is Gallus 
ferruyineus (Gmel.), founded on Sonnerat's bird, probably 
fi'om the Philippine Islands, as he visited no area in India 
proper where he could have procured the Red Jungle-Fowl, 
and that the typical subspecies G. f. ferrugineus is the 
Malayan bird also occurring in Burma and Hainan. To 
the Javan race, which is distinguished by the dark colour 
of the hackles, the authors assign the name G.f. bankiva 
Temm., while the bird of India proper has to receive a 
new name. For this form Gallus ferrugineus murghi is 
proposed, the subspecific name being apparently derived 
from the common Hindustani word for a chicken, familiar 
to every Anglo-Indian. 



1 92 1,] Recently published Ornithological Works. 333 

Skovgaard on Danish Birds. 

[Den Sorte Stork, saerlig i Denmark, i tekst og billeder af P. 
Skovgaard. Pp. 1-5G ; manj- photographs. Viborg- (Backhauseus), 
1920. 8vo.] 

[Danske-Fugle : Organ for Dansk Oruithologisk Central ved P. 
Skovgaard. Viborg. Aarg. 1, no. 1, 1920.] 

The first of these publications contains an account of the 
life-history of the Black Stork (Ciconia nigra) in Denmark. 
There is a map showing the breeding-stations, from which 
it appears that it is most abundant in the eastern half of 
Jutland, less so in the islands, and is hardly found at all in 
the western half of the peninsula. It arrives at its breeding- 
places generally in April, though occasionally in March, 
and leaves as a rule in August or early September, The 
paper is illustrated with a number of very fine photographs, 
all taken by the author himself. 

The second publication is a new magazine devoted 
to Danish Birds, though the whole of the articles are 
apparently from the pen of Mr. Skovgaard. One of 
these deals with the food of the White Stork as deduced 
from an examination of the stomach. Another has an 
account of Air. Skovgaard^s activities in bird-ringing, and 
there is also a list of a collection of Danish birds belonging 
to Mr. C. Reimers of Viborg, with a map and some photo- 
graphs of the rarer species. 

We congratulate Mr. Skovgaard on his industry and 
hope that he will be able to continue his studies, and that 
his magazine will have a long life. 

Stresemann on the races of Long -tailed Tits and Bullfinches. 

[Uber die Formen der Gruppe ^(jithalos caudatus und ihre Kreuzuugen. 
tJber die europaischen Gimpel (mit einer Kart ihrer Verbreituug). 
Von Erwin Stresemann. Beitrage zur Zoogeographie derpalaarktisclien 
Region. Herausgegeben von der Ornith. Gesellsch. in Bayeru. Heft 1, 
1919, pp. 1-56.J 

In the first of these essays Dr. Stresemann reviews the 
very variable group of the Long-tailed Tits, among which 



334 lieceittlii ]ii(blis/ied Ornitholoyical IVorks. [Ibi?, 

he distinguishes fourteen races spread over the Palsearctic 
Region. He divides these fourteen races into three groups, 
and he believes that when individuals belonging to different 
groups extend their range towards one another's territory 
hybridization occurs, and that such hybrids follow the 
Mendelian laws. Also that in some cases pure-blooded 
individuals revert to the more primitive types from which 
they are sprung, and that a clear distinctioii should be 
drawn between them and the hybi-ids. By means of these 
hypotheses lie endeavours to account for the many varying 
forms of Long-tailed Tits met with in the Palaearctie 
Region. 

With regaid to the Bullfinches the pi'oblem appears more 
simple, but here, too, the explanation is hybridization 
between two comparatively distinct forms. The larger, 
Fyrrhula p. pyrrhula, of the east and north, and the 
smaller, Pyrrhula p. minor and P. p. pileata^ of the west, 
have spread out since the Ice Age and met in southern 
Germany, where a mixed or hybrid form, known as P. p. 
(/ermanica, has established itself. Such in brief appears 
to be the views of our author on these difficult and com- 
plicated questions. 

Bird- Lure. 

[Bird-Lore : A bi-monthly Mag^azine devoted to the Study and 
Protection of Birds. Vols. xxi. & xxii. for 1919 & 1920.] 

The two volumes of 'Bird-Lore' under notice contain a 
number of articles of considerable interest, especially to the 
bird-lover in America, to whom they are specially addressed. 
We must confine ourselves to mentioning some of those of 
more general interest. The Editor, Mr. Prank Chapman, 
during the last part of the war was a travelling com- 
missioner for the American Red Cross and, in that capacity, 
made a rapid journey tlircugh South America, visiting 
Peru. Chile, and the Argentjne. His impressions on the 
bird-life of those countries will be found in a series of vivid 
articles illustrated with photographs and draw ings. Perhaps 



1 921.] Recently ptihlished OtiiitJwlogical Works. 335 

one of the most remarkable is tliat of a Giaut Humming- 
bird {Patagona giyas) capturing on the wing a common 
small species (^Eustephanus galeritus), a sight which he 
witnessed in the foot-hills of the Andes, near Santiago. 
Other articles by the Editor deal with a visit to Selborne, 
in England, and with the life of the late William Brewster, 
with whom he was connected by a special tie of affection. 

One of the great features of ' Bird-Lore ' is the Christmas 
Bird census. All readers of the Magazine are invited to 
send to the editor a list of all the species of birds they 
have been able to identify during a walk or excursion on or 
about Christmas day. Many returns are sent in from all 
parts of the United States. In 1919-20 the greatest 
number of species observed in the northern and eastern 
Atlantic States were 43, while at Santa Barbara^ on the 
Californian coast, as many as 109 were tabulated. The 
present writer, who was in America during Christmas 1919, 
with the help of some kind and sharp-eyed hosts, was able 
to make a return of ,21 species observed on the coast of 
Long Island. 

Other interesting features of ' Bird-Lore^ are the seasonal 
reports from all parts of the States in each number, and the 
articles on the plumages and migrations of American birds. 
These last are accompanied . by coloured plates in each 
number. It is a remarkable fact that the European Star- 
ling, which is dealt with on p. 213 of volume xxii., was 
introduced into the United States about 1890, when a 
number were liberated in New York City, and it has now 
spread far and wide from Maine to Ohio and Alabama; 
in some places it has become enormously abundant. We 
fear it may prove to be as great a nuisance as the Sparrow. 

A large part of each number of the Magazine is devoted 
to the interests of the Audubon Societies, which have been 
started in every State of the Union for the protection and 
conservation of bird and animal life, and which are guided 
and controlled by the National Association of the Audubon 
Societies in New York. 



336 Rectutly published Ornithological Works. [Ibis^ 

The Condor. 

[The Condor : A Magazine of Western Ornithology. Vols. xsi. & 
xxii. for 1919 & 1920.] 

[Second ten-year Index to the ' Condor.' Vols, xi.-xx., 1909-1918. 
By J. R. Pemberton. Hollywood, California, 1919.] 

Readers of the ' Condor ' and Members of Cooper Ornitho- 
logical Club ought to be very grateful to JMr. Pemberton 
for his most carefully constructed and ingenious Index to 
the ten volumes of the 'Condor,' from 1909 to 1918. The 
preparation of it occupied eighteen months of his time, but 
the result appears to be extremely satisfactory, and all the 
information contained in the vokimes can be referred to at 
once, without any trouble. 

The longest article contained in the two volumes of the 
'Condor' under review is that of JMrs. IMerriam Bailey on her 
wanderings in the Dakota Lake region, in which she recounts 
in a charming style her experiences and observations on the 
birds of the western prairie region. A new feature of the 
* Condor ' is a series of autobiographies, the longest and most 
important of which is that of Mr. H. W. Henshaw, until 
recently the Chief of the Biological Survey at Washington. 
In his early days, in the seventies and eighties of the last 
century, Mr, Henshaw was attached to the United States 
Geological and Geographical Survey and travelled extensively 
all over the Western States. It was during these years that 
he amassed the large collection of American birds which sub- 
sequently, through the generosity of the late Mr. Godman, 
found a home in our Natural History Museum at South 
Kensington. 

The 1919 volume contains, in addition, a number of 
articles on the nesting-habits of some of the less well-known 
western birds, generally illustrated by excellent photographs 
beautifully reproduced. Such are the accounts of the 
nesting of Townsend^s Solitaire (^Myadestes townsendi) near 
the snow-line on Mt. Shasta in northern California by 
Mr. W. L. Dawson, of the Short-eared Owl in Washington 
State by Mr. E. H. Kitcliiu, and of the Red Crossbill in 
British Columbia by Mr. J. H. Munro ; Mr. G. Willett, 



1 92 1.] Recently published Ornithological Works. 337 

who was for some time stationed on Laysaii Island^ an 
outlier of the Hawaiian Islands, gives us some information 
on the nesting- haljits of two rare Petrels — Pterodroma 
hypoleuca and Oceanodroma tristraini. 

As showing the effects of untimely weather, Mr. E. R. 
Warren tells us of the effects of a snow-storm at Colorado 
Springs on the 5th of May, when eight inches of snow 
covered the ground and did much damage to the migrants, 
who were then arriving and passing m great numbers. 

An obituary notice of a young collector, JNIr. M. P. 
Anderson, who accidentally met with his death in a ship- 
yard at Oakland, near San Francisco, in February 1919, 
where he was patriotically doing war-work, is of interest to 
English naturalists, as it was Mr. Anderson who was chosen 
some years ago to conduct the collecting expedition of the 
Duke of Bedford in eastern Asia, and all the birds and 
mammals then collected are now in the British Museum. 

The volume for 1919 contains descriptions of two new 
races, both from Lower California, by Mr. H. Oberholser — 
Junco oreganiis pontills and Fipilo fuscus aripoVms. 

The 1920 volume contains three articles of general in- 
terest by Mr. A. Wetmore. In the first of these he suggests 
that the plug of feathers nearly always found in the pyloric 
diverticulum of the stomach of the Grebes acts as a strainer 
to prevent the passage of larger particles of bone or Hsh- 
scales from the stomach into the intestines. In another 
paper, as the result of observations on a young Great Blue 
Heron, he believes that the mysterious powder-down patches 
in the pelvic and pectoral regions of Herons and some other 
birds are used by the younger birds to oil and dress the 
contour feathers of the body, especially as the uropygial 
gland, often used later in life, develops slowly, and does not 
become functional till subsequently. 

Mr. Wetmore's third article deals with the wing-claw in 
the Swifts. Out of some 48 species belonging to the genera 
examined, he found the claw absent only in a few species of 
Callocalia, though often minute and rudimentary, and 
obviously of no functional importance. In the genus 



338 Recenthj published Ornithological Work:^. [ibis, 

Hemiprocne, usually placed in a distinct family, the wing- 
claw was not found. 

Major Allan Brooks contributes a list of the Wading- 
birds of southern British Columbia. He believes that no 
group of birds has been so neglected by western ornitho- 
logists, and that there is still much to be learned about 
them. Mr. Grinnell, the Editor, argues that the life of the 
sea-birds must be a comparatively safe one, as most of 
the species only lay one or at the most two eggs, and seldom, 
if ever, rear a second brood, and if the numbers remain 
constant it shows that the struggle for existence cannot be 
very severe. 

Mr. Grinnell also describes a new subspecies of Brewer's 
Blackbird separating those from the Pacific slope from those 
of eastern North America under the name Euphayas cijauo- 
cephalus laiiiusculus. Mr. H. Oberholser has a new race of 
Shore-Lark, Otocoris alpestris sierrce, breeding in the Sierra 
Nevada of California, and Mr. W. P. Taylor a new race of 
Ptarmigan, Lagopus leucurus runierensis, from Mt. Ranier, 
in Washington State, where it lives at an elevation of from 
6000 to 8000 feet. 

Fauna och Flora. 

[Fauna och Flora. Popular Tidskrift fiir Biologi. Utgifveu af 
Einar Loimberg. Vols. xiv. & xv. for 1919 & 1920, 6 uo^. to eacli vol.] 

This excellent magazine, edited by our foreign membez-. 
Dr. Lonnbergj deals with zoology and botany in all its aspects, 
as its title implies ; but there is a good proportion of articles 
on bird-life, chiefly, of course, of local interest, such as rare 
occurrences and lists of birds of special districts in Sweden. 
There are also a good many articles of more general interest. 
Such is the series by Mr. L. Cx. Andersson containing an 
account of the travels of Carl Thunberg to South Africa 
in 1770-1779, an article on bird-psychology by Mr. A. 
Adlersparre, and several by Dr. Lonnberg himself. Two of 
these deal with a large collection from Mongolia and north- 
west China which have recently reached the Stockholm 
Museum from Mr. P. J. G. Anderson, and another on 



1 92 1.] Recently published Ornitliohigical Works. 339 

tlie birds of Juan Fernandez and Easter Islands in the 
south-eastern Pacific. The editor also writes on a Green- 
fincii X Gohlfiiieh hybrid, and Mr. K. Kolthoff on another 
between Dryobales leuconotus and D. major. Mr. S. Bergmann 
contributes some notes on the birds of" Egypt which he made 
wliile on his way to Kamchatka to collect for the Stockholm 
Museum. There is an obituary notice of Prof. J. A. Palmen 
(1845-1919), that well-known Finnish ornithologist who 
first drew up a list of the proljable flight-lines of migrating 
birds, and another of Prof. Tycho TuUberg of Upsala, who 
died at the nge (jf 77 in 1920. His mother was a great 
grand-daughter of Linngeus. There are portraits with both 
these articles. It is interesting to note that a Starling 
marked in Sweden 8 July, 1915, was captured near 
Middlesbrough iu Yorkshire on the 1st of February, 1918. 

Le Gerfaut. 

[Le Gerfaut. Kevue beige d'Ornithologie. Publi6e sous la direction 
de M. Marcel de Contreras. 5e-9'' Aimee 1919 and IQe Annee 19l^0.] 

We have now received the complete set of the ' Gerfaut' 
for 1919 and 19.20, the first two numbers of which were 
noticed in 'The Ibis' for 1919 (p. 782), and must briefly 
review the rest of the volumes, M. L. Coopman discusses 
the Pipits, their migrations from eastern Europe and their 
occuiience in Belgium, especially that of Anthus cervinus, 
and Dr. Mairlot has a good article on the habits of the 
Yellow Bunting. 

In an early number of the magazine, that for May 1912, 
the first capture of Briinnich's Guillemot in Belgium is 
recorded. This bird, which was taken at Ostend, turns 
out to have been a young Razorbill, and the correction will 
be found on p. 87 of the 1919 volume. 

The 1920 volume o^Jcus with a portrait and a eulogy of 
M. Ivan Braconier, a leading Belgian ornithologist, who 
was unfortunately killed in a motor accident. Another 
article of interest is a comparison of the birds of Devonshire 
with those of Belgium by M. Th. Bisschop, who during 
the German invasion found a home at Torquay. The 



340 Recently published Ortiithological Works. [Ibis, 

absence from Devonshire of the Nightingale. Great Reed- 
Warbler, Marsh- Warbler, Icterine Warbler, Crested Tit, 
Shore-Lark, Ortolan Bunting, Tree-Sparrow, and Hazel 
Hen, all more or less abundant in Belgium, is noted. 

M. A. Paque records the occurrence for the first time of 
Branta ruficollis in Belgium. It was taken on the Scheldt, 
near Antwerp, on 3 December, 1919, and is figured in a 
coloured plate. Another rare bird found nesting recently in 
Belgium is the Great Black Woodpecker. No satisfactory 
record of the occurrence of this bird in the British Islands 
is known. 

There are a number of other useful and interesting con- 
tributions dealing with the avifauna of Belgium in its 
varied aspects, and we hope that the ' Gerfaut ' is now firmly 
established and will continue to prosper. 

Irish Naturalist. 

[The Irish Naturalist : A monthly Journal ou General Irish Natural 
History. Vols, xxviii. & xxix. for 1919 & 1920.] 

There are not very many articles dealing with ornitholo- 
gical topics in the last two volumes of the ' Irish Naturalist.' 
Perhaps the most interesting and novel is that of Mr. J. P. 
Burkitt on the so-called " cocks' nests " of the Wren. 
From careful observations carried out by the author he 
concludes that the several nests are built by the male 
alone before the arrival of the female, and that the 
male during this period of anticipation keeps in touch 
with all the nests, roosting in them at night. On the 
arrival of the female, and until the young birds are out 
of the nest, the male takes little interest in his family. 
Some of these observations are controverted by Mr. E. P. 
Butterfield, who is familiar with the Wrens in Yorkshire, 
where their habits may be somewhat different. In another 
article Mr. Burkitt deals with the question of the length of 
the song-period of certain Warblers. He believes that song 
ceases as soon as incubation begins, and that all the later 
singing males are mateless. 

Mr. Moffat's address to the Dublin Field Naturalists' 



1921.] Recently published Ornithological Works. 341 

Club, printed in the May 1920 number of the journal, 
deals with colours of birds in relation to their habits. 
He suggests that the conspicuous white rump and wing- 
patches of many birds are useful as a signal of alarm and 
danger, 

A new bird to the Irish list is the Carolina Crake or 
Sora Rail {Porzana Carolina), an example of which struck 
the lantern of the lighthouse at Slyne Head, co. Galway, 
on 11 April, 1920, and is recorded by Prof. C. J. Patten in 
the June 1920 number. 

According to the B. O. U. List there are four British 
records — one for England, one for Wales, and two for 
Scotland — of this North American bird. 

Scottish Naturalist. 

[The Scottish Naturalist : A monthly Magazine devoted to Zoology. 
1920 ; 6 nos.] 

The * Scottish Naturalist,^ under the able editorship of our 
ex-President, continues to flourish so far as its contents 
are concerned, though somewhat reduced in size, and now 
appearing only every two months owing to the increased 
cost of production. 

The principal ornithological contributors to the present 
volume are the Misses Baxter and Rintoul, whose report on 
Scottish Ornithology for 1917 occupies the whole of the 
July-August number. This is a most valuable piece of 
work, most carefully and clearly carried out. The most 
important ornithological occurrence during the year is 
the breeding of the Whooper Swan, an event which has 
taken place during the last two years in west Perthshire. 
It formerly nested in Orkney, but has not been proved to 
have bred previously on the mainland. The Misses Baxter 
and Rintoul have also commenced a series of articles on the 
breeding species of Scottish Ducks, and have dealt in the 
present volume with three species — the Gad wall, Wigeou, 
and Shoveler. They also record the occurrence of the 
American Wigeon or Bald pate in Fife, while Mr. J. A. 
Anderson has observed it in Stirlingshire, and with his 



34"2 Recently published Or nJi hoi onical IForks. \lh\^. 

notice sends a delicate sketch from life of tiie (Common 
and American species swimming together in one Hock. 

Several contributors notice the increase in numbers and 
in breeding-range of the Great Crested Grebe in Scotland. 
Mr. Donald Guthrie concludes his notes on the birds of 
Sotith Uist, and Mr. WilHaiu Evans gives a list of the 
breeding-places of the Black-headed Gull in the Foith area, 
one of which in Midlothian according to evidence in his 
possession has been occupied since the eighteenth century. 

Another contribution from Dr. Eagle Clarke tells us of a 
surprising account of the attempted nesting of a pair of 
Bee-eaters in Midlothian. Though occurring not infre- 
quently in the south of England, it has never yet been 
known to have nested, although it would probably do so 
if unmolested. 

Another new record is that of Catherine and T. E. 
Hodgkin^ who fotxnd a nest of tlie Hrambling in Sutherland 
in May last. The late Mr. E. T. Booth stated that he had 
found a nest in Perthshire in 1866, but the record has 
always been looked on as doubtful. 

Altogether the volume of the ' Scottish Naturalist ' 
for last year is full of interesting matter, not only in 
ornithology but in other departments of natural history, 
and we hope that the appeal of the editor for more sub- 
scribers and additional funds to carry on the magazine will 
meet with the response wiiich it deserves. 



List of other Ornithological Publications received. 

Bangs, O. and Penard, T. E. Notes ou American Birds. (Bull. Mus. 

Comp. ZoiU. Ixiv. pp. 365-.397.) 
Chapman, F. M. Descriptions of apparently uew Birds from Bolivia, 

&c. (Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 2.) 
[CouKTOis, K P.] Les Oiseaux du Mus(5e de Zi-ka-wei. (Mem. 

concern. I'hist. nat. de I'Empire Chinois, v. pt. 3, fasc. 1-4.) 
Grinnell, J. The Caliibruian race oi tlie Brewer Blackbird. The 

existence of sea-birds a relatively safe one. (Condor, xxii, pp. 101- 

103, 1. '52-155.) 



1 92 1.] Recently published Ornithological Works. 343 

Geiscom, L. Notes on tlie winter birds of San Antonio, Texas. (Auk, 

XXX vii. J)]). 49-55.) 
Griscom, L. and Nichols, J. T. A revision of the Seaside Sparrows. 

(Abstr. Proc. Linn. Soc. New York, no. 32, pp. 18-30.) 
GuRNEY, J. H. Early Annals of Ornitbdlogy. Pp. 1-240, many illustr. 

London, 1921. 8vo. 
GuRNEY, J. H. Presidential Address, Norfolk and Norwicb Nat. Soc, 

1920. (Trans. Norf. Norw. Nat. Soc. xi. pp. 1-22.) 
Hartert, E. Types of Birds in the Tring Museum. (Novit. Zool. 

xxvi. pp. 123-178 ; xxvii. pp. 425-505.) 
KuRODA, N. Descriptions of three new forms of Birds from Japan and 

Formosa. (Dobuts. Zasshi, xxxii. pp. 243-248.) 
Mathews, G. M. The Birds of Australia. (Vol. xi. pt. 1.) 
Oberholser, H. C. Collection of 44 papers reprinted from various 

journals. 
Saunders, A. A. A distributional list of the Birds of Montana. 

(Pacific Coast Avifauna, no. 14.) 
SwARTH, H. S. Birds of the Papago Saguaro National Monument and 

the neighbouring region, Arizona. Pp. 1-63. Washington (Nat. 

Park Service), 1920. 
SwARTH. H. S. In Memoriam : Frank Slater Daggett. (Condor, xxii. 

pp. 129-135.) 
Todd, W. E. C. Descriptions of apparently new South American Birds. 

(Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. vol. xxxiii. pp. 71-76.) 
Todd, W. E. C. A revision of tbe genus Eupsychnrty.r. (Auk, xxxvii. 

pp. 189-220, pis. v., vi.) 
Townsend, C. W. Supplement to the Birds of Essex County, Massa- 
chusetts. (Mem. Nuttall Oi-n. Club, no. a-.) 
WiTHERBY, II. F. and others. A Practical Handbook of British Birds. 

(Pt. X.) 
Audubon Bulletin. (Fall, 1920.) 
Auk. (Vol. xxxviii. no. 1.) 
Australian Avian Record. (Vol. iv. nos. 4, 5.) 
Avicultural Magazine. (Vol. xii. nos. 1,2.) 
Bird-Lore. (Vol. xxiii. no. 1.) 
Bird Notes. (Vol. iv. nos. 1, 2.) 
British Birds. (Vol. xiv. nos. 8-10.) 
Bull. Essex County Ornith. Club. (1919 & 1920.) 
Canadian Field Naturalist. (Vol. xxxiv. nos. 6, 7.) 
Cas.sinia (for 1920). 
Condor. (Vol. xxiii. no. 1.) 
Emu. (Vol. XX. no. 3.) 
Fauna och Flora. (1921, pt. 1.) 
Ilornero. (Vol. ii. no. 2.) 



344 Letters, Extracts, and Notes. [Ibis, 

Irish Naturalist. (Vol. xxx. nos. 1-.3.) 

Journal of the Bombay Nat. Ilist. Soc. (Vol. xxvii. no. 2.) 

Journal of the Federated Malay States Museum. (Vol. x. no. 2.) 

Journal of the Natural History Society of Siam. (Vol. iii. no. 5.) 

Journal fiir Ornithologie. (Vol. 69, no. 1.) 

Oolofj:ists' Record. (Vol. i. no. 1.) 

Ornithologische Monatsberichte. (Vol. 29, nos. 1/2, 3/4.) 

Revue Fran9ai3e d'Ornithologie. (Nos. 140-143.) 

Revue d'Histoire naturelle appliquee. L'Oiseau. (Vol. i. no. 12 ; vol. ii. 

nos. 1,2.) 
Scottish Naturalist. (1921, nos. 109, 110.) 
South African Journal of Natural Plistory. (Vol. ii. no. 2.) 
South Australian Ornithologist. (Vol. v. no. 4.) 
Tori. (Vol. ii. no. 10.) 
Verhandl. Orn. Ges. Bayern. (V''ol. xiv. pt. 4.) 



XX. — Letters, Extracts, and Notes. 

The Last Phase of the Subspecies. 

Sir, — The interestiug letter from Mr. Loomis ia the 
October number of ' The Ibis ' will be welcomed by many 
ornithologists on this side of the Atlantic, and not least 
by some of those who might be termed " subspecies" men. 

It seems to us that up to the present the excuse — in fact, 
the necessity — for trinomialism lies in the fact that binomial 
names, and consequent recognition of complete specific 
distinction, had been conferred on many mere geographical 
variations. The trinomialist then arrived on the scene, and 
did much good by reducing such geographical forms to their 
true position as races, or mere climatic variations, of one 
species. He also named and continues to name other races, 
which he considers as distinct as those which have names 
already. 

Now, even those who oppose all trinomialism will agree 
tliat, as the species is the only definite minor unit in nature, 
any system which enables us at a glance to appreciate 
properly the true specific relationship of a form whose rank 
as a distinct species had previously been misconceived, would 



1 92 1.] Letters, Extracts, and Notes. 345 

be welcomed by any ornitliologist. It must be remembered 
that a multitude of races have been named of late years, 
yet the number of species inhabiting,, say, a continent like 
Africa is known now to be considerably less than was 
supposed ten years ago. Tlie last phase, as Mr. Loomis 
says, now approaches, for tbe whole of the geographical 
variations of many species are now known, and the question 
arises " of what scientific value are these variations ? " 

Well, it seems to us personally that trinomialism supplies 
a handy (not invariably handy) adjective Avhich is inter- 
nationally understood, and which designates birds from a 
certain locality in a short and concise way. By the recog- 
nition of subspecies we can also map out migration-routes 
of birds from any given locality, and can note the effect of 
environment on any given species throughout its range. 
But beyond this we venture to suggest that the value of 
subspecies is small, and that their taxonomic value is, 
in many cases, nil. 

On the other hand, to those who accept m toto the 
Darwinian theory — or what is commonly accepted as 
the Darwinian theory — and all that it implies, all sub- 
species will appear of great value as "incipient species." 
Now, for our part it has always been a matter of the 
greatest difficulty to imagino how a geographical form, 
which, in fact, is already a s[)e(;ies, can be termed an 
"incipient" one: for surely if any given specific group 
has, we will say, c^ forms or variations, those x forms 
have all equal specific entity, differing slightly or super- 
ficially by the increment or decrement of some small 
characteristics. Indeed, if we believe with ultra-Darwinians 
in the " little by little '"' theory of evolution, there is no 
obvious reason why the " typical form '' of any specific 
group should not be just as much an incipient species as its 
most distant geographical race. 

Speaking for ourselves, however, we no longer believe in 
the "little by little" theory of evolution, nor incidentally 
in " Natural Selection," except in its purely selective, as 
opposed to creative, sense — and even in this sense we feel 

SER. XI. VOL.111. 2 a 



•^46 Letters, Extracts, and Notes. [Ibis, 

sceptical on the point as to whether Natural Selection, 
acting on even discontinuous variations, can have any 
practical effect on the formation of species, or whether 
it is not superfluous to invoke the action of Natural 
Selection at all — nor do we believe in the action of en- 
vironment in the initiation of new species. The only thing 
in our opinion which can give rise to a new species is the 
conjugation of two gametes possessed of some unusual 
factor or other to form a zygote. We believe that the 
beginnings of a new species may occur from the union 
of any two birds anywhere, and is a matter of the chance 
presence or absence, stimulation or suppression, of factors 
in the germ-plasm. It must be remembered, however, that 
over so small a part of the world's history do man's obser- 
vations extend in point of time, that we cannot definitely 
state whether or not species are being formed at all at the 
present day. 

There is, moreover, a point in this question of the value 
of subspecies to which we cannot help thinking ornitholo- 
gists in general have not hitherto paid sufficient attention. 
They appear, indeed, to have ignored the very probable fact 
that there are two main forms of variations — one known as 
'^mutational," in which the variation is discontinuous and 
dependent on the presence in the organism of definite 
factors which are resident in the (jerni-plasm, and iv/iich are 
therefore heritable, the other known as a " fluctuatioual," 
" environmental," or continlious variation, which is directly 
due to the action of the environment on the soma during 
the lifetime of the organism, and which effect cannot be 
passed on to future generations. 

We think there can be little doubt that many — indeed, by 
far the majority — of our present-day subspecific forms belong 
to this last category, and are mere environmental, unstable, 
and essentially superficial variations, which would quickly 
disappear if the organism were transferred from its normal 
environment to some other of a different nature. Many 
such environmental subspecies present variations which are 



1 92 1.] Letters, Extracts, and Notes. 347 

merely quantitative as opposed to qualitative, and it would 
be interesting in this connection to make a comparative 
examination of the number of present-day subspecies oc- 
curring in a genus where the colours are due to peculiarities 
of structure in the feathers and the reflection of light upon 
them — as, for example, in many species of Cinnyris or 
Nectarinia, — and, on the other hand, in a genus where the 
colour is directly due to pigment which can be acted on 
by humidity, light, etc. 

Mutational variations, on the other hand, present charac- 
teristics which are directly derived from the action of factors 
resident in the germ-plasm, which are totally independent 
in their origin of the action of environment, and which are 
stable — o-iveu favourable conditions. jNIutational variations 
iu all probability never intergrade, and they are dependent 
on isolation whatever form that isolation may take, either 
geographical or physiological. Natural selection may here 
play a decisive part in determining their future. The 
ignoring by ornithologists of these two different forms of 
variation has led, in our opinion, to the making of sub- 
species, which, in fact, have very different values and rank. 

It appears, therefore, that before we can answer the 
question propourided by Mr. Loomis " Of what scientific 
value is a subspecies?", it behoves us to set our subspecific 
lu)use in order with a view to gaining a more accurate and 
definite appreciation of the exact rank of our subspecies, 
and if necessary to note their quality by some definite 
nomenclatural method. Finally, we would like to add that 
if subspecies are sought for and recognized solely with a 
view to the intensive study of variation, and if their recog- 
nition tends to throw any light on the still more elusive 
question " What is a species and how is it formed?" we are 
all in favour of their recognition. 

P. R. Lowe. 

Natural History Museum, C. MaCKWORTH-Praed. 

12 February, 1921. 



2a2 



348 Letters, Extracts, and Notes. [Ibis, 

The Nomenclature of Plumages. 

Sir, — In the January number Capt. CoUingwood Ingram 
draws attention to an error in his paper (Ibis, 1920, p. 857), 
and states tliat it is important " as it largely vitiates my 
definition of Mesoptile/' Capt. Ingram was apparently 
unaware of my remarks in the '^ Bulletin' (vol. xxvii. 
p. 83), when I dealt with the four plumages of the young 
Eagle-Owl and pointed out that the B;irn-Ovvl was excep- 
tional and that the third plumage was suppressed in that 
species. Further investigations have led to the conclusion 
that in other groups of birds we may also have three 
generations of plumage prior to the first adult dress. 
jNIr. Pycraft, apparently being unaware of this fact, called 
these plumages protoptiles, mesoptiles, and teleoptiles, and 
I suggested that the generation immediately preceding the 
adult dress should be known as heiniptiles. ]\Iy nomen- 
clature therefore agrees with Capt. Ingram's in calling the 
" second generation of feathers " mesoptiles, but these do 
not immediately precede the adult feathers. Mesoptiles, 
as I understand them, are the generation preceding the 
hemiptiles, which in the Passeres are what is commonly 
known as the juvenile plunuige. It is expedient in this, 
as in other branches of Ornithology, to keep our nomen- 
clature as uniform as possible. 

J. Lewis Bonhote. 
CarslialtoD, 

8 January, 1921. 

Nestling Owls. 

Sir, — Captain Collingwood Ingram in his letter correcting 
the mistake he had made between the Barn Owl and Tawny 
Owl might have added the Scops {Scops giu) to the list 
of Owls which do not have any intermediate down between 
the first nestling down and the assumption of the complete 
feather plumage. This is recorded in the 'Avicultural 
Magazine," August 1899, page 160 : — 

" The white down in the nestling is replaced by a plumage 
almost precisely resembling that of the adults, so they differ 



1 92 1.] Letters, Extracts^ and Nutes. 349 

from all the Owls, except the Bara Owls, in having no 
intermediate down between the casting of the white down 
and the assumption of fall plumage." 

Incidentally, I may draw attention to other facts men- 
tioned in the same article on the breeding of the Scops Owl, 
which point out how widely the Scops differ from all other 
Owls. Incubation only lasts twenty-three to twenty-four 
days. The young, instead of remaining long in the nest and 
being tended by the parents for a long time afterwards, are 
just the reverse. Young hatched on 10 June left the nest 
strong perchers on 1 July, and by 10 July were strong fliers 
and independent. It will thus be seen that the young 
Scops is full grown, full Hedged^ and independent at thirty 
days old. All the other Owls are in the nest or, at any 
rate, dependent on their parents for at least three months. 

E. G. B. Meade-Waldo. 

Hever, Kent, 
6 February, 1921. 



The Status of Picus rubricollaris Baker. 

Sir, — In a letter dated January 7th, 1921, my colleague, 
Mr. C. Boden Kloss, has asked me to point out that the 
handsome Woodpecker described by Mr. Stuart Baker and 
figured in the last number of ' The Ibis ' as Picus ruh-i- 
collaris is wrou^^ly attributed to Siam, the localities in which 
it was collected being, as a matter of fact, both in French 
Laos, on or near the River Mekong. 

Further, the new "species" appears to be identical with, 
or extremely closely allied to, a bird figured and described 
by Oustalet twenty-two years ago as Gecinus rabieri (Bull. 
Mus. d'Hist. Nat. 1898, p. 12 ; id. Nouv. Arch, du Mus. (4) 
i. 1899, p. 255, pi. vii.) founded on two unsexed specimens, 
considered males, but evidently females; from Tonkin. 

I have myself compared Mr. Baker's types with Oustalet's 
figures and description, and have not the least doubt that 
Mr. Kloss IS perfectly correct. The slight differences 
between the actual bird from the Mekong. and the figure 



350 Letters, Extracts, and Notes. [Ibis, 

of Gecinus rabieri are not more tliaii can be accounted for 
by the notorious incorrectness of the plates in the Nouv. 
Arch,, which frequently do not agree with tlie text. 

The fiiiures in ' The Ibis ' also are unfortunately not all 
~ that can be desired — the male especially is shown with the 
red collar far too pronounced. 

Yours truly, 

London, HERBERT C. ROBINSON. 

7 February, 1921, 

The Annual General Meeting of the British Ornithologists' 
Union. 

The Annual General Meeting of the British Ornitholo- 
gists' Union for 1921 was held on Wednesday, March 9, 
at the Offices of the Zoological Society of Loudon, Mr. G. 
M. Mathews in the Ciiair. 

There were 36 members present. 

The Minutes of the last meeting were read and con- 
firmed. 

Mr. H, J. Elwes, F.R.S., F.Z.S., was unanimously elected 
President of the Union in place of Dr. W. Eagle Clarke 
resigned. 

Before proposing members to fill vacancies on the Com- 
mittee, the Chairman informed tlie meeting that he proposed 
to put up the three members nominated by tlu^ Committee, 
and to then take the feeling of the meeting as to whether 
the remaining two vacancies should be filled at once or in 
accordance with the method approved at tlie i)revious 
Annual Meeting. The Rev. Y. C. R. Jourdaiu at tliis point 
interposed, objecting to this method of procedure on the 
grounds that Major Sladen had not been proposed merely 
for the purpose of filling one of the two existing vacancies, 
but to fill any one of the three or five vacancies which the 
meeting should decide to fill. After some discussion the 
Chairman decided that the meeting should be asked to 
express their opinion by voting. On a show of hands the 
motion proposed by Mr. Bonhote and seconded by Mr. Smeed 



1 92 1.] Letters, Extracts, and Notes. 351 

that all tlie vacancies should all be filled at once was carried 
by 15 to 9j many members not voting. 

The five members nominated were then unanimously 
elected;, with the exception of Mr. C. D. Borrer, who was 
elected by 11 votes to 8. 

The following Foreign Member was elected Honorary 
Member : — 

Dr. E. D. Van Oort. 

The following were elected Foreign Members : — 
Dr. Otmar Reiser. 
Mr. Hichard C. McGregor, 
Mr. Charles 13. Cory. 

The Chairman then called upon the Secretary to read the 
Report of the Committee for 19.20, viz. : — 

" The Committee regret that they have to report that the 
financial position for 1920 is even more unsatisfactory than 
that for 1919j and the year under re[)ort ended with an 
adverse balance of practically £190. The reason for 
this adverse balance is entirely the great cost of publishing 
' The Ibis,' which increased from .€1000 in 1919 to practi- 
cally j£l300 in ]920. At the same time it should be noted 
that 'The Ibis' for 1920 contained a greater number of 
pages than that of a normal year. 

" To meet the deficit in the Society's funds, the Com- 
mittee recommended at a special General Meeting called 
together on tlic 13th of October that the subscription should 
be raised to £'2. This recommendation was unanimously 
adopted, and will be put before the present meeting for 
confirmation. The Committee are very glad to report that, 
pending this confirmation, a large majority of tiie members 
of the Union have already subscribed the full M2 for the 
present year. 

"The Trustees of the British Museum have, we regret to 
say, declined to again give us any donation towards the cost 
of publishing Museum articles in ' The Ibis,' but it is still 
hoped that they may be induced to contribute something 
towards the actual expenses of such articles. 



352 



Letters, Extracts, and Notes. 



[Ibis, 



"The Committee anticipate tluit with the increase of the 
subscription to £2 and entrance fee to £4, the funds 
received will he sufficient to cover the expenses of the 
Union and to provide a small balance. 

"The present volume of 'The Ibis' is the sixty-second^ 
and is the second of the Eleventh Series. It contains 1023 
pages, and is illustrated with five coloured plates, thirteen 
uncoloured plates, and three text-figures — that is to say that 
'The Ibis' for 1920 contains nearly 200 pages more than 
that for 1919, although even for tbat year 'The Ibis' was 
much larger than usual. 

"The Committee have given instructions that 'Tlie Ibis' 
be sold to the [)ublic at the rate of 12^. 6d. per number and 
to members at 10^. Members will, we trust, appreciate the 
fact that we sell 'The Ibis' for less than it costs to print 
and publish. 

"The Committee regret to report the deaths of the fol- 
lowing jnembers : — 

Sir J. A. Brooke, C. G. Finch Davies. 
R. Etheridge. J. Gerrard. 

Hev. C. W. Shejjherd. 

" The following gentlemen have resigned : — 



Major W. B. Arundel. 
Brig. -General A. Bailward. 
Captain G. Blaine. 

D. 0. Campbell. 
J. Drummond. 

(t. H. Duckworth. 

Rev. A. E. Ellison. 

C. Garnett. 

A. R. Gillman. 

Lt.-Col. A. E. Hamerton. 

J. C. Hawksbaw. 

G. B. Honey. 

E. Hudson. 
Major H. Jones. 
E. B. Maton. 



B. S. Ogle. 

Sir T. D. Pigott. 

Lt.-Col. A. E. St. V. Pollard. 

J. T. Proud. 

Capt. C. G. E. Russell. 

A. St. G. Sai-geaunt. 

W. L. Sturge. 

Lt. G. Swann. 

M. Vaughan. 

Commdr. R. E. A^aughan. 

E. M. Wade. 

Lt.-Col. H. J. Walton. 

H. Wormald. 

Lt.-Col. J. W. Yerbury. 



1^21.1 Letters, Extracts, and Notes. 353 

"The name of Mr. B. A. E. Buttress has been removed 
from the list of members under Rule 6. 

"The membership of the Union is given below in com- 
parison with the last five years : — 





1921. 


1920. 


1919. 


1918. 


1917. 


1916, 


Ordinary Members. 


.. 423 


418 


418 


4-23 


416 


420 


Extraordinary ., 


.. 1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


Honorary ,, 


.. 9 


9 


7 


8 


9 


9 


Hon. Lady ,, 


.. 8 


8 


8 


8 


9 


8 


Colonial 


.. 10 


10 


9 


9 


10 


10 


Foreign ,, 


.. 16 


IG 


13 


•:o 


19 


19 



" There are 49 candidates for ordinary membership and 
the fact of so large a number of gentlemen coming i'orvvai'd 
for election to the Union is most satisfactory, and one 
which iias not been lost sight of by the Committee wlien 
considering the increase to the subscription to the Union.'^ 

The accounts were then approved and passed, after 
Mr. Bunyard had asked the Secretary what the legal 
charges were for. 

The resolution approved l)y the Special General Meeting 
" that the annual subscription be raised from £,\ bs. to 
£2 "—Rule 5 to read :— 

'^ Every new Ordinary Member shall pay an Entrance 
"Fee of ^fil., and an Annual Subscription of .€2 on his 
"election, and every Ordinary Member shall pay an 
"Annual Subscription of £2 on the 1st January of 
"each year. Every new Ordinary Member failing to 
"pay his Entrance Fee and his first Annual Subscrip- 
" tion before the 31st December immediately following 
" his election, shall have his election annulled, unless 
" he shall furnish a satisfactory explanation." 

was then put to the meeting for confirmation and was 
carried unanimously. 

The Chairman then put to the meeting a recommendation 
of the Committee that Rule 13 be amended by adding after 



354 Letters, Extracts, and Notes. [Ibis, 

the words " can be summoned by " the words " by the 
Committee or" — Kule 13 to read : — 

'^ A special General Meeting can be summoned by 
"the Committee or by any ten members of the Britisli 
'^ Ornithologists^ Union on a written requisition ad- 
'' dressed to the Committee for that purpose, which 
" recjuisition shall specify the object of such s[)ecial 
" meeting. At such special Meeting the special business 
"to consider which it was convened, shall alone be 
''discussed. The Honorary Secretary when calling a 
"meeting on any application shall allow at least ten 
" days to intervene betw-eeu the date of issue of the 
" notices and the date fixed for the meeting." 

This was also carried unanimously. 

A third recommendation of the Committee that Rule 17 
be amended by adding after the words " Annual General 
Meeting^' the words " or at a General Meeting called by the 
Committee for that purpose" — Rule 17 to read: — 

" Any alteration or addition made to these rules may 
"be adopted by a majority of two-thirds of the members 
" present at tlie Annual General Meeting or at a 
" General Meeting called by the Committee for that 
" purpose provided due notice shall have been given 
" thereof in the circular convening the meeting.'" 

There was a little discussion before the motion was voted 
on, one or two members making certain remarks in reference 
to the words "a majority of two-thirds." After this it Ava^ 
put to the meeting and carried unanimously. 

Before proceeding to the next recommendation of the 
Committee with respect to the Committee appointed to 
consider records of occurrences of rare and hitherto un- 
known bird visitors to Great Britain, the Chairman 
informed the meeting that Dr. Eagle Clarke had expressed a 
desire that his name should be removed from the Committee, 
although he would be very pleased to act in an advisory 
capacity with regard to any Scotch records. 



1921.] Letters, Extracts, and Notes. 355 

The Chairman then read the recommendation of the 
Committee : — "That the Committee, viz. Mr. A. H. Evans, 
Dr. E. J. 0. Hartert, Mr. T. Iredale, Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain, 
Mr, G. M. Mathews, Mr. W. L. Sclater, Dr. N. Ticehurst, 
Mr. H. F. Witherhy, and Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker as 
Secretary to tlie Committee, elected at the last Annual 
General Meeting for five years to coincide with the election 
of the President of the Union to consider records of occur- 
rences of rare and hitherto unknown bird visitors to Great 
Britain be, owing to the resignation of the President, 
re-elected en bloc." 

This was carried 7iem. con. 

The Rev. J. R. Hale and Mr. J. L. Bonhote were elected 
and consented to act as Scrutineers. 

The following 49 candidates for Ordinary Membership 
were then balloted for and elected : — 

Major Frederick Marshman Bailey, CLE. 

Lieut. Cyprian Thurlow Baker. 

Miss Mary Best. 

John Brindley Bettington. 

John Osmund Beven, M.A., M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. 

Frederick N. Chasen. 

Capt. Richard Rees Davies. 

Robert Heward Deane. 

George Edward William Dempster. 

Capt. Frederick Wynford Dewhurst. 

Arthur McNeill Farquhar. 

Gilbert George Feasey. 

Frank James Richard Field. 

Lieut. Harold Bingley Finch, M.C. 

Kenneth Fisher. 

Richard Taunton Francis, F.Z.S. 

David Eric Wilson Gibb. 

Capt. Humphrey Adam Gilbert. 

Edwin Leonard Gill, M.Sc. 

William Edwin Glegg. 

Miss Eva M. Godman. 



356 Letters, Extracts, and Noia. [Ibis^ 

Jolm G. M. Gordon. 

Dr. James Harrison, INl.K.C.S. 

Robert Elliott Harvey. 

Capt. Charles William Robert Knight, M.C. 

Stanley Lewis. 

Thomas Lewis, F.R.S., C.B.E. 

Dr. George Carmicliael Low, M.R.C.P. 

Nathaniel Sampson Lucas, M.B. 

Arthur Frederick McConiiell. 

The Viscount Maidstone. 

Allister William Mathews. 

John Henry McNeile. 

Cecil Norman. 

John Henry O'Connell, L.R.C.P. & S.L 

Owen Rodenhurst Owen. 

Arthur Hamilton Paget-Wilkes. 

Charles Joseph Patten, M.A., M.D., ScD. 

Hans Thomas Lange Schaanniug, 

Guy Chesterton Shortridge, M.B.E. 

The Vicomte Louis de Si hour, E.Z.S. 

Arthur de Carle Sowerby. 

Jesse Austin Sydney Stendall. 

Andrew Denys Stocks. 

Cecil Vesey Stoney, J. P., D.L. 

Mrs. Rose Haig Thomas, 

John Francis Donald Tntt, M.R.C.V.S., F.R.M.S., 

F.Z.S. 
Thomas Wells. 
Major William Wordie, O.B.E., M.A. 

Before the Meeting dissolved, the Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain 
explained the objects of the Oxford expedition to Spitsbergen, 
and after some remarks by Messrs. Trevor-Battye and 
H. J. Elwes, 

Lord Rothschild proposed and Mr. Elwes seconded a vote 
of thanks to the Zoological Society for the use of the 
Meeting-room. 



1 92 1.] Letters, Extracts, and Notes. 357 

Mr. Seth Smith proposed and the Kev. J. R. Hale seconded 
a vote of thanks to the Auditor. 

These were carried unanimously, as was also a vote of 
thanks to the Chairman. 

The Annual Dinner after the Meeting was well attended, 
over 100 members being present. 



The Oxford Expedition to Spitsbergen. 

An expedition to Spitsbergen is being organized by the 
University of Oxford, and a sum of at least £3000 is required 
to carry out the work. The Oxford expedition is entirely 
scientific in its objects and aspirations. Special attention 
will i)e paid to ornithology. The breeding-habits and 
migratory movements of many of the raier Arctic species 
are practically uidcnown, and the problem of reversed sexual 
selection, a subject very inadequately investigated, is found 
exclusively among birds whose breeding-grounds are in the 
north. The ornithological members of the party will make 
close and extensive observations and will not confine them- 
selves to eg"s and skins. 

The expedition has the sanction and support of the 
University of Oxford, as well as of the heads of all the 
scientific departments concerned. It is proposed that two 
parties shall go out in sealing-sloops, the first early in June 
and the second a few weeks later, when the north coast is 
more likely to be free from ice. Altlumgh, as we have said, 
a sum of at least £3000 is necessary, if a larger sum is forth- 
coming the scope of the expedition, which will last only two 
or three months, could be profitably enlarged. The Rev. 
F. C. R. Jourdain is Chairman of the Committee, and con- 
tributions will be welcomed by and should be addressed to 
Mr. G. Binney, Hon. Secretary, Oxford University Ex- 
pedition to Spitsbergen, Mertou College, Oxford. 



358 Letters, Extracts, and Notes. [Ibis, 1921. 

Personalia. 

The marriage of Col. Richard Meinertzhagen, D.S.O., 
and Miss Annie C. Jackson, 'oliich took place on March 3 
last, unites two well-known ornithologists and Members of 
the British Ornithologists' Union, and is an event nnique in 
our history. We offer onr heartiest congratnlations and best 
wishes to the newly married pair, in which we are sure all 
our members will join us. 

Mr. A. F. R. Wollaston, M.B.O.U., has been appointed 
naturalist and medical officer to the Mt. Everest Expedition, 
which is being organized under the joint auspices of the 
Royal Geographical Society and the Alpine Club. We 
hope he will not forget the claims of ornithology, and that 
he will devote some of his spare time to observing and 
collecting the birds of Tibet and the high country sur- 
rounding Mount Everest. 

Our late President, Dr. W. Eagle Clarke, who has been 
Keeper of the Natural History Department of the Royal 
Scottish Museum since 1906, retired under the Civil Service 
age limit on March 15 last. W'e understand that the post 
of Honorary Supervisor of the bird collections has been 
offered to Dr. Eagle Clarke by the Secretary for Scotland, 
and has been accepted by him, so that his connection with 
the Royal Scottish Museum will not be entirely severed. 
We congratulate the Royal Scottish Museum on being able 
to retain Dr. Eagle Clarke's valuable services for a further 
period. 

W^e learn that Mr. Frank M. Chapman, Curator of Birds 
of the American Museum of Natural History, is shortly 
arriving in England for a visit. 



rn 



THE IBIS. 



ELEVENTH SERIES. 



Vol. III. No. 3. JULY 1921. 



XXI. — Field Notes on the Birds of Lower Egi/pt. By 
W. Raw, M.B.O.U. With Contributions hy Colonol K. 
Sparrow, C.M.G., D.S.O., M.B.O.U., and the Rev. 
F. C. R. JouRDAiN, M.A., M.B.O.U.* 

113. Coracias garrulus garrulus. Roller. 

Numerous, passing tli rough Abu Zabaal from 8 August 
onwards. Never observed there in the spring, but was 
common at Kantara at the end of April 1919. 

114. Ceryle rudis rudis. Pied Kingfisher. 

Common and resident. I took a clutch of four effffs at 
Abu Zabaal on 26 April, 1917, and another of five fresh 
eggs at luchas on 12 May, 1918. The nesting-hole was 
about four feet long in a bank overhanging a canal. 

[The only clutch taken was at Ayat on 11 May, 1910, and 
consisted of four eggs sliglitly incubated. The nest-hole 

was in the Nile bank a few feet above the water. — R. S.1 

-1 

* Continued from p. 264. 
SER. XI. — VOL. III. 2 B 



360 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

115. Alcedo atthis atthis (= A. isp'ula pallida auct.). 

Kingfisher. 

Arrives at Abu Zabaal towards the end of August and 
remains throughout the winter, leaving again in April. 

I have compared specimens from Abu Zabaal at the 
British Museum and refer them to this form. 

116. lynx torquilla torquilla. Wryneck. 

More numerous as a spring migrant than in the autumn. 
Average dates 5 April and 12 September. 

117. Cuculus canorus canoms. Cuckoo. 

Not uncommon on Ijoth migraiions. I shot a male as late 
as 6 May, 1916, and another on 15 September, 1918. 

118. Cuculus canorus telephonus. Cuckoo. 

I include provisionally under this name a race of Cuckoos 
which pass through Abu Zabaal each spring. A bird shot 
by me on 6 May, 1916, was identified by Mr. M. J. Nicoll 
as C. c. saturatus. Every successive spring I obtained 
specimens, and a pair were shot out of a bunch of nine seen 
on 17 April, 1917. On 21 May, 1917, I shot a beautiful 
hepatic form out on the desert, and a bird only less red and 
beautiful was shot at the Birket Accrashi on 5 May, 1917. 

I gave all my specimens except one to the Giza Museum 
and Mr. J. L. Bonhote. I compared my s[)ecimen with birds 
in the British Museum, and matched it with five or six laro'e- 
winged birds from western Asia. These were as yet un- 
identified, and may possibly be a new race hitherto undesci'ibed. 
I hope to compare the birds in Mr. Bonhote's collection 
shortly. I submitted my bird to Dr. E. Hartert, and he 
kindly gave me his opinion on it as follows : — " Your bird 
is as large as largest telephomis, but it does not show a 
particularly finely-barred underside. No such race is known 
which comljines the larger size of telephonus with the stronger 
barring of C. c. canorus. I would therefore call it telephonus.''' 

It certainly is not C. c. satwatus, which Dr. Hartert 
informs me should be called Cuculus optatus, and which 
is unlikely to occur in Egypt. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Lower Egypt. 361 

119. Clamator glandarins. Great Spotted Cuckoo. 

Not uncommon at Abu Zabaal, and observed at various 
times tliroughout the year. I shot a bird of the year there 
on 30 April, 1916, and an adult male on G May, 1916. I 
had very little luck with the eggs of this species, and despite 
much work done in searching the nests of Hooded Crows, 
I only found one egg. This was in a nest containing also 
three eggs of the Hooded (Jrow on 6 June, which must be 
a very late date indeed, as the Crows have finished breeding 
at this date as a rule. 

[The only three eggs of this species I have from Tijgypt 
were taken by a native at Luxor on 22 March, 1910, from a 
nest of the Hooded Crow, and were considerably incubated. 
— R. S.] 

120. Centropus aegyptius. Lark-heeled Cuckoo. 
[Common at Ibshawai in the Fayum at the end of 

March 1910, where it is undoubtedly resident, but I never 
found its nest. — R. S.] 

121. Bubo bubo ascalaphus. Egyptian Eagle-Owl. 

I only saw three birds at Abu Zabaal daring the whole 
of my stay. Two of these I wounded, and are, or were 
when I left Egypt, still alive in the Giza Zoo. All were of 
the pale form. The dates were 23 June, 26 August, and 
8 October. 

C^aptain W. Bigger found a nest containing three young 
birds in a crevice of rock on the Moqattam Hills behind the 
Citadel, Cairo, on 20 May, 1917. 

It is said to breed on the Pyramids at Giza and Dahshur, 
but I was never able to find it there. 

[This Owl used to nest near all the Pyramids : eggs are 
laid under an overhanging rock, and the full clutch is 
three. 

Eggs, Pyramids of Giza, March 1893. Eggs, Abu Roash, 
20. iii. 94, one fresh, one hatching; clutch of three slightly 
incubated at Dahshur, 28. iii. 09. Saqqara, one egg hard- 
set, 23. iv. 09.— R. S.] 

2 B 2 



362 Mr. ^\. Raw 07i the [Ibis, 

122. Asio flammeus flammeus. Short-eared Owl. 

I have met with this Owl annually in the spring, but 
never in the autumn that I remember. It is very often to 
be seen sittinof on the desert in the full glare of the sun with 
no protection whatever. It is most numerous between the 
last week in March and the second week in April. 

123. Athene noctua glaux. Southern Little Owl. 
Abundant wherever suitable places offer shelter. I have 

found fresh eggs as early as the first week in April and as 
late as the middle of May. The clutch consists of four to six 
eggs ns a rule. 

[This Owl frequently nests in large heaps of stones. 
I found a clutch of seven eggs once, though six seem to 
be the usual clutch. It nests at Mena, Abu Sueir, and Abu 
Roash. ]\Iy earliest date for fresh eggs is 1 Apri! (a clutch 
of six), and two fresh eggs as late as 18 June^, so it is 
probably double-brooded. — R. S.] 

124. Tyto alba subsp. ? Barn-Owl. 

Seen and heard occasionally at various times throughout 
the year. Is sometimes fairly numerous at Abu Zabaal, 
especially in October, when it preys on the large flocks of 
Spanish Sparrows which roost in the reed-beds and orange- 
groves. I only secured its eggs twice, — a pair of fresh eggs 
at Abu Roash on 1 April, and a clutch of four in an old shed 
near the Barrage on 2 May, 1918. This latter nest had two 
dead mice near it. 

[This species nests commonly near the Pyramids at Abu 
Sueir, Giza, Bedrashein, and also at Abu Roash, generally 
at the bottom of a shaft from which a mummy has been 
removed. I have taken fresh eggs between 20 March and 
14 April. Clutch frequently five or six. — R.S.J 

125. Falco peregrinus [calidus?]. Peregrine Falcon. 

A specimen of one of the large northern races of this 
species, probably the Siberian form, was seen but not obtained 
at Abu Zabaal on 24 February, 1917. 



1921.] Birds of Louder Kgypt. 363 

126. Falco peregrinus pelegrinoides. Barbary Falcon. 
Mr. M. J. NicoU and myself saw a pair of Barbary 

Falcons feeding young in a nest on the Dahshur Pyramids 
on 12 April, 1918. The site was about sixty feet up on the 
eastern slope and in an impossible place to examine. The 
Egyptian riots prevented me looking it up again in 1919. 

[On 28 March, 1909, I took three fresh eggs from a low 
ledge on the Dahshilr Pyramid. The eggs are decidedly 
smaller than those of the Lanner, averaging 49'7 x38"l mm. 
in size, and in appearance not unlike Hobby's eggs. — R. S.] 

127. Falco biarmicus tanypterus. Lanner Falcon. 

Seen occasionally perching on our tall wireless masts : 
usually in the autumn. Ckptain W. Bigger found a nest on 
which the bird was sitting, on an inaccessible ledge in the 
clitfs behind the Citadel in Cniro, on 30 March, 1917, and 
another in the Moqattam Hills, which probably coutained 
young birds, on 5 April, 1917. I found no trace of its 
breeding on the Great Pyramids. 

[Used to breed annually on the north side of the second 
Pyramid at Giza, from which place T had four young on 
30 April, 1893. In 1894 I took a clutch of four eggs, slightly 
incubated, on 18 March, from the same place. Three of 
these eggs are like dark Kestrel's eggs in type, the fourth 
plum-coloured. Average size 52*7 x 43'2 mm. — R. S.] 

128. Falco concolor. Sooty Falcon. 

On 18 April, 1918, a Sooty Falcon was observed near 
the Birket Accrashi, and was still in the same vicinity on 
20 April. I shot a fine immature bird at Abu Zabaal on 
6 August, 1918 : it was chasing some Hooded Crows at the 
time. Major F. W. Borman obtained some information 
about this species breeding near Solium, on the Mediter- 
ranean seaboard, but the lull jiarticulars are not yet to hand. 

129. Falco subbuteo. Hobby. 

Seen sparingly in the winter months. One shot on 
19 October, 1916, at the Birket Accrashi. 



364 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

130. Falco columljarms aesalon. Merlin. 

Not uncommon during the winter, arriving on the heels 
of the autumn migration and remuinino- until March. 
Examples obtained on 12 November, 1916, and 15 January, 
1917. 

131. Falco vespertiuus vespertimis. Red-footed Falcon. 
About the same number observed as of the preceding 

species and at about the same times. Examples shot on 
19 and 22 October, 1916. 

132. Falco naumanni naumanni. Lesser Kestrel. 

I appear to have no record of meeting with this bird 
during autumn or winter. It is very common during the 
last week in March and early in April, at which season I 
have observed quite fifty at a time flying round the Birket 
Accrashi. 

133. Falco tinnunculus rupicolseforinis. Egyptian Kestrel. 

Common and resident. This species is very fond of build- 
ing in holes in the sides of native houses. Old nests of the 
Hooded Crow are also favoured as sites, and one pair nested 
annually on the top of a palm-tree which had died and shed 
its leaves. Another pair reared two broods in the cage at 
the top of one of our wireless masts, 300 feet above the 
ground. It lays from the end of March until the end of 
May, from three to five being a clutch. Lizards and locusts 
form a large part of their food in the breeding-season, and 
I seldom observed them take birds. 

[My dates range from 30 March to 30 April. I took one 
nest from No. 3 Signal Tower on the Suez road. My 
largest clutch is four. — R. S.] 

[As compared with eggs of the Common Kestrel, those of 
the Egyptian bird are decidedly small. The average of 
fifty-five eggs collected by Mr. Raw and Colonel Sparrow is 
35'8 X 30*2 mm., whereas British eggs average 39"7x31*7 
mm.— F.C.R. J.] 



1921.] B'lrds of Loxi^er Egyjit. 365 

134. Aquila heliaca heliaca. Imperial Eagle. 

I several times observed Eagles soaring in the vicinity 
of Abu Zabaal, but was unable to identify them to my 
satisfaction. One "which I saw sitting on the desert on 
14: February, 1914, 1 was able to identify as the above S[)ecies, 
from skins in the Giza Museum and notes made on the spot. 

135. Buteo buteo rufiventer. ( = B. desertorum auct.) 

Steppe-Buzzard. 

I never shot one of these birds, although they were not 
uncommonly seen, but were always wide awake and difficult 
of approach. A single bird remained in the vicinity of Abu 
Zabaal throughout September 1918. Also observed at odd 
times throughout the winter and early spring. 

It is quite possible that some of those seen were referable 
to Buteo feroa', but I was never quite satisfied that such was 
the case. Colonel Meinertzhagen has, moreover_, shown 
that B.ferox cirtensis ranges into southern Palestine (Ibis, 
1920, p. 241). 

[Mr. M. J. Nicoll saw a pair in the Wadi Hof, apparently 
breeding, on 1 March, 1910. I saw a pair in the same place 
on 5 May, 1909. Another pair frequented the Giza gardens 
in May 1910, and probably bred there, as in June they were 
seen accompanied by two young birds. — R. S.] 

136. Circus aeruginosus. Marsh-Harrier. 

One or more birds haunted the Birket Accrashi through- 
out the winter. These were, almost without exception, 
immature birds. They were frequently mobbed by Hooded 
Crows, and waxed fat on any wounded birds we were unable 
to retrieve. A pair seen in the Wadi Natrun on 24 May, 
1918, were possibly nesting. 

[I saw a pair at Inchas on 12. v. 09, and a single bird at 
Gheit-el-Nasara on 20. v. 09, so it is quite possible some 
pairs remain to breed in the Delta. — R. S.j 

137. Circus cyaneus cyaneus. Hen-Harrier. 

Less numerous than the t'ollowing species. Two or three 
obtained during the winter and early spring. 



366 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

138. Circus macrourus. Pallid Harrier. 

Frequently observed beating the fields and swamps. 
Several were obtained, one of: which, shot on 4 April, 1918, 
had its hind claw badly ingrown into the pad at the bottom 
of its foot. 

139. Circus pygargus. Montagu's Harrier. 

Although I never actually shot an example, I Ijelieve I 
have seen specimens during the M'inter months. A bird 
ooserved on 31 March, 1916, by Mr. M. J. Nicoll and 
myself v/as, I believe, referable to this species. 

140. Accipiter nisus nisus. Sparrow-Hawk. 

This hawk was frequently observed between late autumn 
and spring, and I shot several specimens in order to try 
to identify Accipiter hrevipes at Abu Zabaal, but in this I 
was unsuccessful. 

141. Milvus migrans aegyptius. Yellow-billed or Egyptian 

Kite. 

Common and resident, but does not breed at Abu Zabaal, 
merely hawking around for food, of which dead fish form a 
not inconsiderable part. Extremely abundant in Cairo and 
its suburbs as a resident species, where it is tame and very 
darino-. I have seen these birds swoop down and take cakes 
off a tea-table spread out of doors, and others diving down 
in crowded thoroughfares to snatch up a choice piece of 
garbage and make otf with it. 

It selects various sites for its nest, but favours tall trees 
the most, where a large accumulation of nesting material is 
collected. Ledges on the cliffs behind the Citadel and 
at Helouan, window-ledges in deserted houses and ruins, 
and even the flat tops of inhabited houses, are sometimes 
resorted to. It commences to build very early in the season, 
and I have taken eggs at the beginning of February, and 
have observed birds repairing their nests in December in the 
grounds of the Continental Hotel in Cairo. On the other 



1 92 1.] B'lrcii^ of Lower K<iypt. 367 

hand, I took fresh eggs iit Inchas on 11 May, 1916, and have 
observed birds sitting even later than this date. From 
one to four eggs are hiid, but the latter number is rarely 
found. 

[My earliest date for fresh eggs is Abbassia 28. ii. 09, 
my latest date for incubated eggs is 19. v. 09. March is the 
usual month, and a clutch of two is far commoner than 
three. At Shubra on 3. iii.09 I found a nest witli young. 
— R. S.] 

142. Haliaetus albicilla. White-tailed Eagle. 

An undoubted specimen of this species remained round 
our station for several days in January 1918. Its white 
tail was very conspicuous when soaring. 

143. Pernis apivorus apivoriis. Honey-Buzzard. 

One seen at close quarters on 30 May, 1916, was the only 
example identified. 

144. Elanus caeruleus caeruleus. Black-winged Kite. 
The only specimen of this splendid species seen near Abu 

Zabaal was observed in a palm-grove near the Birket 
Accrashi on 19 February, 1916. I believe these birds breed 
somewhere just north of Giza, on the west of the Nile, but 
I was unable to secure any direct evidence. It appears 
very uncommon below (jairo in the Delta, and my observa- 
tions, contrary to those of Mr. Nicoll, make it anything but 
crepuscular in its habits. 

145. Pandion haliaetus haliaetus. Osprey. 

I have five records of observing this species at Abu Zabaal, 
and all are in the month of April. On 26 April, 1917, 
Lieut. D. Baton shot a fine Osprey, which he gave to me. 
It was found sitting on one of our wireless masts sheltering 
from a high wind. This species breeds no farther distant 
than the Gulf of Suez, but I have no particulars as to exact 
dates. 



368 Mr. W. "Raw on tJie [Ibis, 

146. Neophron percnoptenis percnopterus. Egyptian 

y ulture. 

Observed sparingly at various times throuohout the year. 
Captain W. Bioger found young birds just on the Aving 
in the hills behind the Citadel on 18 April, 1917, and 
Dr. Beven informs me that he believes that it breeds in the 
Wadi el Degla, north of Helouan. 

[This species used to be common around Cairo in 1893-94, 
but is now much scarcer. I saw birds along the Suez Road, 
in the Wadi Hof, and at Dahshur, in March 1909. I was 
told of five fresh eggs, from different nests, being taken at 
Hash Medibab, Fayum, on 27. iii. 09.— R. S.] 

147. ^gypius monachus. Black Vulture. 

[One of the ]arge dark Vultures, said to be of this 
species, nests at Assiout. The nest was in a small sont- 
tree, and contained one egg. It was. I believe, found 
by Mr. Malcolm, but I have lost the record of the 
date.— R. S.] 

148. Ciconia ciconia ciconia. White Stork. 

This species is very irregular in its visits to Abu Zabaal, 
and sometimes turns up in what should be the breeding- 
season. About twenty birds remained throughout nearly the 
entire spring and summer in the rice-fields at Marg in 1917, 
and examples were frequently noted at the Birket Accrashi 
in September and April. None breed, to my knowledge, in 
Egypt. 

149. Platalea leucorodia [major?]. Spoonbill. 

A flock of Spoonbills flew over Abu Zabaal on 15 March, 
1916, flying east, and in September 1918 two lots were 
observed flying over towards the Nile. I found itnumei-ous 
on ]jake Menzaleh, near Kantara, at the end of April 1919. 
Although no s{)ecimens Avere obtained, it is evident from 
specimens in the British Museum that it is the larger form 
of this species which occurs in Egypt. 



1 92 1.] Birds of L(vcer Egijpf. 3B9 

150. Plegadis falcinellus falcinellus. Glossy Ibis. 

A few turn up at the Birket Accrashi every spring, 
arriving during the first week in April, and remaining some 
days. Specimens obtained. Never seen in the autumn. 

151. Ardea cinerea cinerea. Grey Heron. 

Numerous on the Birket Accrashi during the winter. 
Arrives there in September from the north-east, and 
occasionally remains nntil the entl of April. A wild pair 
bred in the Zoological Gardens at Giza in 1918, but I have 
no note of wh'jn they laid. I never met with it breeding 
elsewhere in Egypt, and birds observed in the Fayum in 
late March were not breeding" there. 

[Mr. Nicoll informed me that a pair nested in the Giza 
Gardens in 1909, 1910, and 1911, and reared young in 1909 
and 1910. In 1910 the young had flown by 15 March. — 
U.S.] 

152. Ardea purpurea purpurea. Purple Heron. 

Purple Herons were noted on the Birket Accrashi during 
every month of the year except July and August, at which 
season all the swamp is dried up. I never obtained direct 
evidence of their breeding in Egypt, but should not be sur- 
prised if this were the case. 

153. Egretta alba alba. Great White Heron. 

On 12 November, 1915, I saw a single bird on the Birket 
Accrashi. This was the only example to come under my 
observation. 

154. Bubulcus ibis ibis. Buff -backed Heron. 

Thanks to a splendid scheme of protection and a careful 
supervision by the Zoological Service, this species is again 
becoming numerous and resident in Lower Egypt. During 
the latter jiart of my stay at Abu Zabaal, Buff -backs were 
often seen there, and during the winter considerable numbers 
were observed on the marshy rice-fields at Marg. Several 
large breeding colonies have been established in the Delta, 



370 Mr. W. Haw on the [Ibis. 

and a tliriving lot breed wild in the trrounds of the Zoo- 
logical Gardens at Giza, where they lay in May and June, 
rearing two broods annually. They are also re-established 
in the Fayiun Province, wdiere they are also protected. 

155. Ardeola ralloides. Squacco Heron. 

Squacco Herons appear annually on the Birket Accrashi 
in small parties about the end of March, remaining until the 
middle of May. I appear to have no notes of having observed 
this species in the autumn. 

156. Nycticorax nycticorax nycticorax. Night Heron. 
Single birds and small parties observed on the Birket 

Accrashi at various times throughout the year, being most 
often seen in October and November. The only breeding- 
colony I know of in Egypt is that in the Zoological Gardens 
at Giza, where I saw young birds about three days old on 
8 July, 1916. The same colony had young birds in nests in 
the banyan-trees on 10 June, 1917. I suspect the existence 
of another colony somewhere in the neighbourhood of Kafr 
Aydub, near Zagazig. 

157. Ixobrychus minutus minutus. Little Bittern. 
Resident and fairly numerous, although not often seen. 

I took two clutches of four eggs each at Inchas on 11 May, 
1916, which were half-incubated, and found that this date 
was consistent in subsequent seasons. 

[This species builds a slight nest of rushes in high reeds 
over deepish water. My dates do not quite agree with 
those of Mr. llaw% unless the species is double-brooded. Out 
of nine nests observed at Inchas, three contained five and 
six four eggs. Fresh eggs 12 May, 4 and 15 June ; incubated 
eggs 29 and 31 May.— R. S.] 

158. Botaurus stellaris stellaris. Bittern. 

I first met with this species on 16 April, 1916, when I shot 
one on the Birket Accrashi. Later I discovered that it 
wintered there. In November 1917 I counted nineteen on the 
wing together, which had been flushed by beaters when 
duck-shootino;. 



1 92 1,] Birds of Lower E<jypt. 371 

159. Phcenicopterus ruber antiquorum. Flamingo. 

Lieut. D. Paton shot a fine example, in my presence, on 
the Birket Accrashi. on 21 November, 191G. Tliis was my 
only record from Abu Zabaal, but I found it numerous 
at the western end of Lake Menzaleh in September and 
December, and at the eastern end of the lalce, near Kantara, 
at the end of April 1919. 

IGO. Alopochen aegyptiaca. Egyptian Goose. 

On 10 February, 1916, twelve were seen on the Birket 
Accrashi, and six days later eighteen were seen flying over. 
Small lots and one containing over a hundred birds were 
observed at various times during the winter. A pair of 
semi-domesticated birds bred in an old Kite^s nest in a tree 
thirty feet from the ground, and had a clutch of addled eggs 
there on 23 February, 1918. • 

161. Anas platyrhyncha platyrhyncha. Mallard. 
Frequently shot at Abu Zabaal, especially in the bed of 

the old canal, which is overgrown with reeds, making good 
cover. Present from October until March. 

162. Anas crecca crecca. Teal. 

This is one of the most numerous ducks at A})u Zabaal, 
and furni.«hed us with good sport — and eating ! Abundant 
from the end of September to March. 

163. Anas querquedula. Garganey. 

This species is observed at Abu Zabaal in spring and 
autumn, apparently wintering farther south. I have shot it 
as late as the end of April, and as early as 14 August, on 
which date I shot three out of a big flock at Marg. A pair 
seen in the Wadi Natrun on 24 May, 1918. 

[1 observed five males and three females at Giza as late as 
1 May, 1910, by which date they should have been breeding. 
— R. S.] 

164. Anas strepera. Gadwall. 

Seen occasionally in winter at the Birket Accrashi, but is 
never numerous, and I never shot it there. Abundant in the 
Fayum in March 1917. 



372 Mr. AV. Raw on tie [Tbis, 

165. Anas penelope. Wigeon. 

Even scarcer than the followino- species, but several 
obtained in the winter months. Also abundant in the 
Fayiun in IMarch. 

16t). Anas acuta acuta. Pintail. 

Seen sparinoly at the Birket Accrashi, where I obtained 
several at various dates, including one example in eclipse 
plumage. 

167. Anas angustirostris. Marbled Duck. 

Dr. Beven, of Cairo, shot a specimen at Marg, near 
Abu Zabaal, on 24 September, 1917, in my presence. 
He presented this bird to me, and it is now in my 
collection. A pair of birds seen in the Wadi Natrun on 
23 May, 1918. 

[Mr. Nicoll had a female sent to him from the Wadi 
Natrun, shot 3 May, 1910, with well-developed ovaries, so it 
is probable that this species breeds in Egypt. — B. S.] 

168. Spatula clypeata. Shoveler. 

Extremely abundant. Large numbers are shot annually 
on the Birket Accrashi, where they begin to arrive in Sep- 
tember, the main l)ody leaving in March-April. 

169. Netta rufina. Bed-crested Pochard, 

I shot a fine male which was consorting with the Pochards 
mentioned below on 27 March, 1912. This was the only 
specimen met with. 

170. Nyroca ferina ferina. Pochard. 

Occasionally shot, but never very numerous at Abu 
Zabaal, except in some deep pools in the base of the stone 
quarries, where about twenty were observed on 27 March, 
1919. A fe.w always winter there. 

171. Nyroca nyroca nyroca. Ferruginous Duck. 

Fairly numerous every winter, and a few generally to be 
seen or flushed out of the reeds on the Birket Accrashi from 
October lo March. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Lower Egi/pt. 373 

172. Nyroca fuligula. Tufted Duck, 

Although numerous elsewhere in Egypt — where deeper 
water occurs — this species rarely turned up at Abu Zabaal ; 
but I obtained a few, notably on 26 October, 191C, when a 
pair were shot out of several seen. 

173. Pelecanus sp. ? Pelican. 

I saw small lots of Pelicans flying over during the 
autumn, but they never alighted to my knowledge. On 
6 August, 1918, three flew over at no great height, going 
towards the Nile, and a flock of over fifty were observed 
steering a similar course on 2G November, 1918. 

174. Podiceps ruficollis capensis. Little Grebe. 

On 11 November, 1918, when returning to Abu Zabaal by 
train, I saw some birds on a pool of deep water in the base 
of some disused quarries. Two days later I walked up there 
to see what they were, and was agreeably surprised to 
identify them as this species. I was astonished to observe 
three young birds still in the down, one pair of birds in 
full summer plumage, and three adults in winter plumage. 
There are practically no reeds or vegetation about the place, 
which is surrounded by desert. The nest was a mass of 
rubbish moored against a rock, and was extremely con- 
spicuous. I secured one of the adults in summer plumage 
for purposes of identification, and on 18 November Mr. J. L. 
Bonhote and Major F. W. Borman came down to see the 
others. Little Grebes probably always remain there, and 
although only a short mile from my quarters I liad never 
really investigated the place before. Throughout the winter 
of 1918-19 the numbers increased somewhat, and on 6 April, 
1919, I found a nest containing four fresh eggs, having four 
days previously taken an odd egg from another nest. On 
this date four birds were in summer plunuige and five in 
winter. My departure from Abu Zabaal soon after pre- 
vented me making further observations of these interesting- 
birds. 

[A clutch of two eggs in my collection was taken at 
Inchas on 5 June, 1909 : probably a second brood. — R. S.] 



374 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

175. Columba livia schimperi. Schimper's Rock-Dove. 
Although I never actually shot a specimen, I frequently 

saw birds which I think were referable to this subspecies, 
but tame pigeons are so numerous that its status is rather 
uncertain. I include it as an Abu Zabaal bird because some 
flocks observed in the springtime were so uniform in colour 
and kept such regular lines of flight as to make me feel 
justified in ascribing them to this form. On 5 April, 1918, 
my friend Dr. Beven, of Cairo, shot a bird from a nest 
containing two fresh eggs. It proved to be an undoubted 
example of this race. It had built its nest in an old well 
on the edge of the desert just south of the Giza Pyramids. 

176. Columba cenas oenas. Stock-Dove. 

I shot a Stock-Dove near Abu Zabaal on 17 December, 
1917, and frequently observed specimens in that locality. 
On 8 February, 1916, I had a good view of eight flying east 
along the edge of the desert. 

177. Streptopelia turtur turtur. Turtle-Dove. 

Very abundant in the autumn, when large numbers are 
shot at Abu Znbaal. It usunlly passes through in early 
Septembei". Less numerous, but still fairly common, in 
spring during the last week in April and the first week in 
May. 

178. Streptopelia turtur isabellina. Isabelline Turtle- 

Dove. 
I shot an example at Marg on 7 Sejttember, 1917. It was 
migrating along with the preceding species. I have no data 
relating to the breeding of this form in Egypt, and a specimen 
shot in the Fayum on 21 March, 1917, was not breeding. 
I also observed quite a few in the Wadi Natriin at the end 
of May 1918, but could discover no evidence of their 
breeding there. 

179. Streptopelia senegalensis segyptiaca. Palm-Dove. 
Common and resident. Breeds in all months from February 

to October inclusive. 



1921.] Birds of Loioer Egypt. 375 

[At Abbassia on 1 May, 1909, I took a clutch of three 
eggs on which incubation had begun : possibly tlie produce of 
two females. Eggs were also taken at Luxor on 31 March, 
1910.— R.S.] 

180. Pterocles senegallus. Senegal Sand-Grouse. 

A few inhabit the desert south of Maro- near Abu Zabaal. 
They fly in to drink at the pools of water there during June, 
July, August, and September. There is no doubt that they 
breed there, but I was never able to get far enough out to 
locate them. 

181. Pterocles coronatus. Ch-owned Sand-Grouse. 
Occurs sparingly and spasmodically at Mai-g, where I 

have shot several in the breeding-season. On 29 August, 
1917, Mr. Bonhote, Dr. Beven, and myself shot eleven. It 
is a remarkable thing that both this species and P. senegallus 
only come in for water in the early morning, and are never 
seen through the day or in the evening. It doubtless 
breeds on the sand-dunes south of Marg, and my hunting- 
guide, Achmed, said the season was June. 

182. Pterocles senegalensis \_ = P. exustus ^viQ,i.'\. Singed 

Sand-Grouse. 

I include this species on the authority of a native hunting, 
guide — Achmed Ali Ferahi of Alag — who states that this 
species turns up with the two preceding ones at Marg about 
one year in five. I also heard of Englishmen who had 
obtained it there. Achmed Ali was with me when I shot 
several examples in the Fayum, and he identified it on sight 
and by its call before being shot. In the Fayum it is 
common near Tamiia and at Edwa. 

[I have a pair of eggs of this species taken on an island 
at Ayat on 9 May, 1894. I revisited the island in 1910, but 
failed to see any birds. — R. S.] 

183. Burhinus cedicnemus saharae. Saharan Stone-Curlew. 
Unlike the following species these birds show a marked 

preference for the open desert, only coming into the cultivation 
SER. XI. — VOL. III. 2 c 



376 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

in the evening* and night-time to feed. Common and 
resident at A1)U Zabaal, where it is nsiially seen in pairs, bnt 
is more oreo-arions in the winter months, when small parties 
feed on the edge of the cultivation. I have found manj 
of its eggs by tracking the birds' feet-marks on the sand. 
The eggs are usually laid well out on the desert from 
early April until late June. Sometimes only one egg is 
laid, and I never found three. Two clutches of eggs were 
taken in the Wadi Natrun at the end of May 1918, and the 
birds identified. 

[The only pair of eggs I have of this species were taken 
at Abu Roash on 15. iv. 09.— K S.] 

184. Burhinus senegalensis. Senegal Stone-Curlew. 

I identified this species at Abu Zabaal by shooting speci- 
mens there on 20 September and 23 October, 1918. At that 
time several were seen in a large orange-grove near the 
canal. The riots in the spring of 1919 prevented me hunting 
for their eggs there ; this was most disappointing, as I was 
very interested in its breeding-habits elsewhere. I took 
fresh eggs of this species at the Barrage near Cairo on 
28 April, 1918. These were found on the roof of a large 
low building, and as many as ten ])airs were counted using 
the same roof as a breeding resort. I never heard of this 
bird selecting any other site as a nesting-jjlace in Egypt, 
and it is common in Cairo itself, but rarely met with else- 
where. A pair of birds breed annually on the top of the 
Lion House in the Zoological Gardens at Giza, laying their 
pair of eggs on the bare concrete in the full sunlight. Four 
broods were raised there in 191G, the last clutch being laid 
dnring the first week in July. Mr. Nicoll quotes this 
pair as having raised three yonng ones on one occasion. 
I know of no method of distinguishing its eggs from 
those of Jj. OS. saliarcv. In habits, however, it is quite 
different from that species^ as it seems to prefer gardens and 
orchards, and its cry appeared to me to be much louder. 
During the fnll moon they were very noisy flying along 
the Nile. 



1921.] - Birds of Lower Egypt. 377 

185. Cursorius gallicus gallicus. Cream-coloured Courser. 
A few pairs are resident on tlie edge of tlie cultivation 

near Abu Zabaal, and also near Marg. Their numbers 
increase in August and September, when flocks of up to 
forty-five have been seen. These contained a percentage 
of immature birds. At all seasons the}' are inclined to be 
gregarious, and I noted the fact that they flew considerable 
distances at a regular time, about sundown, to feed on the 
camel-thorn patches which occur on the edge of the desert. 
There they consumed enormous numbers of small green 
cater[)illars. Throughout my stay the same line of flight 
was always used with a surprising regularitv. I spent more 
time looking for eggs of this bird than for any other species 
— and never succeeded. In 1916 I shot a bird of the year 
in August. In 1917 Captain W. Bigger and myself caught 
a young bird about a fortnight old, which was feeding with 
the adults on the edge of the desert. In 1918 Lieut. D. Paton 
discovered a pair of chicks about a day old. I saw these, 
and they must have been hatched on a patch of gravel about 
half a mile out in the desert. This was on 13 May, and two 
days later I located yet two other lots of young birds in 
similar situations. With these dates to work on I had hopes 
of finding eggs in 1919, but unfortunately the riots and my 
departure from Egypt prevented my doing so. I never 
met with more cunning and wide-awake birds, and as 
their breeding numbers were so small, finding their eggs 
was a difficult proposition. I saw young Coursers about a 
fortnight old on the desert at the Wadi Natrun on 24 May, 
1918, and have little doubt but that it breeds on the edge of 
the desert both east and west of the Nile, 

186. Glareola pratincola pratincola. Common Pratincole. 
Major F. W. Borman found the red-winged form breeding 

near Sidi Salem in 1918. 

On 29 May hard-set eggs and young birds were found by 
him on a piece of waste ground, Sidi Salem is in the Delta 
near the coast. The clutch appeared to be two or three. 

[At Inchas on 2^ April and 3 May, 1909, 1 shot specimens 

2 2 



378 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

of (Vmimon Pratincole witli ovaries much enlarged, but they 
did not remain at Inchas, as on 29 May I did not see a 
single bird. — 11. S. ] 

187. Glareola melanoptera. Black-winged Pratincole. 

I shot an iinniature bird of this species near the Birket 
Accrashi on 4 October, 1916. Parties of Pratincoles 
(species ?) were seen passing over on 14 April, 29 August, 
and 4 September, 1917, and on similar dates in 1918. 

188. Charadrius hiaticula hiaticula. Ringed Plover. 
Frequently observed on the Birket Accrashi from Septem- 
ber to March. 

189. Charadrius dubius curonicus. Lesser Ringed Plover. 
Equally numerous with the preceding species, with which it 

arrives and departs. One seen at Marg on 14 August, 1917. 

190. Charadrius alexandrinus alexandrinus. Kentish Plover. 

I first identified this species at Abu Zabaal by shooting- 
one there on 16 June, 1916. More were observed on 
13 July, and it often turned up with other Waders during 
the succeeding winter, but does not breed there. It is 
abundant nearer the sea-coast as a breeding species, and 
eggs have been taken there from April to June. I took a 
clutch of three fresh eggs in the Wadi Natrun on 27 May, 
1918, and observed numbers of young birds there about the 
same date. 

[A common breeding species on the islands in Lake Men- 
zaleh. On 20-22 May, 1909, I found six nests, all but one 
having hard-set eggs or young just hatching. The nests 
were in various situations : one on dry mud, several on red 
earth, others on a small beach covered with small shells. In 
the first two cases the nests were easy to find : in the latter 
difficult.— R. S.] 

191. Charadrius varius varius. Kittlitz Plover. 
Frequently observed and obtained at the Birket Accrashi 

during the winter months. It usually disappeared in early 
March, but I have seen it there until the end of that 



1921.] Birds of Loxcer Egypt. 379 

month. It is a remarkable tliino- that it does not remain 
to breed at Abii Zabaal or Iiicbas, where suitable gronnd 
is abundant, for it breeds nearer the coast, and is numerous 
in the nesting-season on the shores of Lake Qarun in the 
Fajum Province. In the latter locality I found five nests 
between the ]8th and 21st of March, 1917. Tw^o eggs are 
a full clutchj and the bird always covers the eggs prior to 
leaving them. They are completely covered up and very 
difficult to find, but 1 discovered tracking the bird in the 
sand quite a good plan, for they always run away whefl 
danger approaches. I shot a female j'rom the nest, and 
proved by a post-mortem that two was a full clutch. Some- 
times the eggs are laid near to the water's edge, but more 
frequently a hundred jards or more from the nearest water, 
and always quite in the open. By watching through a pair 
of field-glasses from a distance, one can see the bird rapidly 
scratching the sand or dry mud over the eggs when they are 
alarmed ; they then casually stroll off. We did not meet 
with this species in the Wadi Natrun in May 1918. 

Major F. W. Borman was able to confirm my observations 
in 1918, when he took three clutches of eggs at Sidi Salem 
on 29 May. Thus it would appear that this bird is at least 
double-brooded. 

[I took one fresh egg on waste ground near Lake Qariin 
on 27 March, 1910. In South Africa, where I found several 
nests, my observations agree with Mr. Raw's, but if one 
rode near the nest the bird, instead of running away, stood 
up over the eggs and flapped her wings, and on dismounting 
pecked at a friend's finger. This procedure is to drive off 
sheep and goats, and if a flock of goats were driven over the 
nesting-ground I believe every nest could be found. — R. S.] 

192. Charadrius mongohis geoffroyi. Geoffrey's Plover. 

A rare bird at Abu Zabaal. I only met Avith one bii-d, 
which I shot on 1 August, 1917. It was a bird of the year, 
and was feeding; with some Cream-coloured Coursers on the 
desert scrub. Fairly numerous on the coast in September 
191G. 



380 Mr. W. Raw on the [Ibis, 

li>3. Charadrius morinellus. Dotterel. 

Occasionally small parties were observed at Abu Zabaal. 
Usually seen on dry fallow land or tbe open desert. In 
some winters more numerous tlian otliers. Is always tame 
and confiding. Specimens obtained on ID December and 
2 January. 

194. Himantopus himantopus himantopus. Black-winged 

Stilt. 

This species passes through Abu Zabaal in spring and 
autumn. Observed between 22 March and 16 April and 
during the first fortnight in September. 

Major F. W. Borman and I found six pairs breeding in a 
n.ost foul swamp at the Wadi Natrun in 1*J18. We found 
three nests containing eggs much incubated on 25 May. 
Two nests contained three eggs, and one nest two. 

195. Hoplopterus spinosus. Spur-winged Plover. 
Common and resident at Inchas, and fairly numerous at 

Abu Zabaal. This species breeds from 10 April onwards, 
and I saw a clutch of four eggs near the Birket Accrashi as 
late as 10 August, 1910. The eggs ai-e frequently laid on 
the margin of a pool of stagnant water, and sometimes are 
quite conspicuous by being shown up in the white salty 
deposit left by the r(;ceding water. Four is the usual 
clutch, but I have found the bird sitting on two or tliree 
only. This species is very wary, and is much detested by 
shooters, as it gives a very noisy alarm on the approach of 
danger. Eggs were taken in the Wadi Natrun, and newly- 
hatched chicks seen at the end of May 1918. 

[My dates for fresh eggs taken at Inchas vary from 
20 April to 27 June, thougli mid-May seems to be the best 
time. I have one pair of eggs, incubated when found, 
which have a very strong erythristic tendency. — R. S.] 

19G. Eecurvirostra avosetta avosetta. Avocet. 
A flock of twelve were identified when fivins; over Abu 
Zabaal on 2S September, 1916. 



1921.] Birds of Lower Egypt. 381 

197. Chettusia leucura. White-tailed Plover. 

A single bird observed at the Birket Accrashi on 19 Sep- 
tember, 1917, where it remained for a week. Several shot 
near Tamiia, in the Fayum, in February and March. 

198. Vanellus vanellus. Green Plover. 

Large flocks appear at intervals at Abu Zabaal from 
October to March. Four were seen as late as 16 April, but 
I found no evidence of any remaining to breed in Egypt. 

199. Erolia ferruginea. Curlew Sandpiper. 

Never observed in the spring, but noted and obtained in 
the autumn ; notably, on 6 October, 191G, when I shot four 
out of a large bunch, on the Birket Accrashi. They were 
then in full winter plumage. 

200. Erolia alpina. Dunlin. 

Rather uncommon at Abu Zabaal, but occurs sparingly 
every winter. A specimen was shot on 11 October, 1916. 

20 L. Erolia minuta. Little Stint. 

Most numerous in October and March, when flocks haunt 
the open pools on the Birket Accrashi. Small lots appear at 
intervab throughout the winter. 

202. Erolia temminckii. Temminck's Stint. 

Less numerous than the preceding species, with which it 
consorts. Examples of each were shot ouc of the same flock. 

203. Triiiga tetanus totanus. Redshank. 

Not uncommon at the Birket Accrashi during the winter 
months. Usually arrives in early October, and noted as late 
as 10 May. 

201. Tringa stagnatalis. Marsh Sandpiper. 

A large flight observed and specimens obtained on 
6 October, 1916, on which date the Birket Accrashi was 
alive with Waders of various species. Observed sparingly 
throughout the winter. 



382 Mr. W. Raw on tlie [Ibis, 

205. Tringa nebularia. Green sluink. 

Occurs singly and rarely at Abu Zabaal. It was noted on 
14 August, 24 August, 7 September, 10 October, and 
11 February. 

20G. Tringa ochropus. Green Sandpiper. 

Winters at Abu Zabaal, and on the rice-fields at Marg. 
Arrives as early as 10 August, on which date, in 1918, I saw 
at least twenty. It is usually observed alone^ and is not 
nearly so gregarious as the following species. Some few birds 
remain until May before taking their departure. 

207. Tringa glareola. Wood-Sandpiper. 

More numerous than the preceding species. Small parties 
observed as early as 14 August, and as late as 22 Msij. 
Between these dates it is common at the Birket Accrashi. 

208. Tringa hypoleuca. Common Sandpiper. 

Single birds observed during nearly all the months of the 
year. Several seen on 21 Juh', and four on 8 August, 1917. 
Frequents the sides of the canals, and is rarely seen on the 
Birket Accrashi. I have no evidence of its breeding in 
Egypt, but should not be surprised if such is the case. 

209. Philomachiis pugnax. Buff. 

Large numbers of Bufi's are to be seen at the Birket 
Accrashi, especially in October and March, but less 
numerously between these dates. Early arrivals were 
noted on '6 September, and late birds linger until 1 May. 
I never saw one in anything" like full summer plun)age. 

210. Niimenius arquatus arquatus. ( 'urlew. 

Rarely observed at Abu Zabaal, but single birds noted on 
30 August, 7 September, 4 October, and 15 October, etc. 

211. Limosa liniosa limosa. Black-tailed Godvvit. 
Observed and obtained at the Birket Accrashi in sjiring 

and autumn, and seen sparingly throughout the winter. On 
22 Marih, 19J6,a bird of this species struck our aerial wires. 



1921.] Birds of Lower Egypt. 583 

and damaged its wino-. It lived for a considerable time in 
one of the aviaries at Giza. Earliest arrival noted on 

22 September. 

212. Limnocryptes gallinula. Jack Snipe. 

Not uncommon at the Birket Accrashi, where I have shot 
it from 7 October to 11 April. 

213. Scolopax rusticola rusticola. Woodcock. 

This species winters sparingly in the palm-groves at Alag 
and Marg, near Abu Zabaal. I shot specimens there on 

23 December, 1917, and 6 February, 1918, and have seen 
others between these dates. 

214. Rhynchaea bengalensis. Painted Snipe. 

Odd pairs are resident, but it seems to prefer small 
swamps to the Birket Accrashi, where it was but seldom 
observed. Its well-known skulking habits make observation 
largely a matter of luck. Dr. Beven found four fresh eggs 
in a small marsh, south of the Pyramids, on 7 April, 1918 ; 
and Major F. W. Borman and myself found a nest, con- 
taining three incubated eggs, in the Wadi Natrun, on 25 
May, 1918. 

215. Gallinago gallinago gallinago. Common Snipe. 
Numerous on the Birket Accrashi, where it affords good 

sport, from September to March. Early arrivals have been 
noted on 14 August, and some few remain until early May. 

216. Hydrochelidon ieucoptera. White-winged Black 

Tern. 
Small parties observed on the Birket Accrashi in spring 
and autumn. Noted on 30 April, 20 May, 27 August, 
1 September^ and 17 September. Examples wen^ obtained in 
both winter and summer plumage. Numbers were observed 
in the Wadi Natrun at the end of May 1918, but we found 
no trace of their breeding, although it looked a likely place. 
C^aptain Boyd records in ' The Ibis,' 1917, p. 55G, having seen 



384 Mr. W. Baw on the [Ills, 

Hydroclielidon hyhrida (= leucopareia) at Abu Zabasil, but I 
never met with it there myself. 

217. Larus ridibnndus. Black-heatled Gull. 

Observed only twice at Abu Zabaal. Two seen together 
on 17 January, 1918, and a single bird shot on 30 December, 
1917. 

218. Megalornis grus. Common Crane. 

On 30 April, 1918, I saw a large flock of Cranes flying 
over Abu Zabaal. d'hey were going due north. 

219. Eallus aquaticus aquaticus. Water-Rail. 

There can be little doubt that this species is a resident in 
the vicinity of Abu Zabaal, but the good cover lends itself 
to the Water-RaiFs skulking habits. I shot a specimen on 
30 December, 1916, and have seen and heard it on numerous 
occasions, but never found a nest there. As a breeding-bird 
it is very common in the Wadi Natrun, and Major F. W. 
Bormau and I found three nests, with hard-set eggs, there 
on 27 May, 1918. These nests were all found within a 
hundred yards radius, and were in a dense reed-bed. They 
contained six, seven, and eight eggs respectively. 

[This species nests at Inchas, and probably in many suit- 
able localities in the Delta. My dates are : Two eggs, 
addled, 30.iii. 10; five eggs, fresh, 15.vi.09 ; four eggs, 
fresh, 10. iv. 10 ; so that it is probabl}^ double-brooded. — 
R. S.] 

220. Porzana pusilla intermedia. Baillon's Crake. 

In addition to the specimen mentioned below, as having 
been shot on 19 April, 1917, I only secured one more, 
namely, a bird shot on the Birket Accrashi, on 3 October, 
1917. It is my opinion that both species breed in the 
Egyptian delta. 

221. Porzana parva. Little (h-ake. 

I first met with this species on 12 October, 1910, when I 
shot a s})ecimen on the Birket Accrashi. I shot a second 
specimen there on 20 October, 1910, and on 2"^ December, 



1921.] Birds of Lower Egypt. 385 

1916, a third on the old canal swamp near my quarters. 
During that winter, and throughout my stay in Egypt, I saw 
Crakes during each month of the year. (I shot a bird on 
19 A{)ril, 1917, which was wrongly identified as a Little 
Crake. It was in breeding condition. On 5 August, 1917, 
when com[>aring skins in the Giza Museum, this bird proved 
to be F. pusilla intermedia.) I searched diligently for a 
nest, and on 29 April succeeded in finding one containing 
six eggs, fifty per cent, incubated. These 1 took to belong 
to P. parva at the time, but subsequent comparison by the 
Rev. F. C. R. Jourdain with a large series, proves them to 
be^ in all probabilit}', F. p. intermedia. 

I could have made definitely certain, had 1 known at the 
time that any doubt existed, for, on 3 May in the same year, 
I caught two young Crakes ali\e in the same patch of reeds, 
and saw the parent birds creeping about several tiines^ but 
refrained from destroying them. Efforts were made by the 
Giza Zoological Service to rear these chicks, but were un- 
successful. 

I was never able to clear the matter up to my own satis- 
faction^ but shot specimens of F. parva on 28 February and 
2(j March, 1917, in the same locality as that in which I 
discovered the eggs and young, and on the old canal swamp 
on 28 December, 1918. In the latter place I saw young- 
Crakes on 19 May, 1918, but was unable to obtain an adult. 

[At Inchas on 20. iv. 10 I shot a (Jrake, which Mr. NicoU 
identified as F. parva, and I believe the skin is still in the 
Giza Museum. From the late date it ought to have been 
breeding, but I failed to find a nest. — R. S.] 

222. Gallinula chloropus. Moorhen. 

This species is a resident in suitable places, but is not very 
numerous at Abu Zabaal in the breedins-season. Its 
numbers are increased in the winter, at which season I often 
saw it. 

I found incubated eggs at Inchas on 17 May, 1916, and 
also on 12 May, 1917, in the same locality. On 29 Septem- 
ber, 1917, I shot a young bird, at Inchas, still unable to fiy. 



386 Oh the Birds of Loiver Egypt. [Ibis, 

[A common breeding species at Incbas. Dates for fresb 
eggs varied from 15 May to 15 June in 1909. The largest 
clutcb obtained was one of six. — R. S.] 

223. Porphyrio madagascariensis. Green-backed Galli- 

uule. 
At the end of April 1919 I was at Kantara. A gang of 
natives were cutting down the reeds, and the corporal in 
charge of this anti-mosquito measure informed me that he 
had had some eggs brought to him the previous day, which, 
from his description, I think must have belonged to this 
species. Unfortunately, they had been destroyed. I cer- 
tainly found the birds numerous in the immediate vicinity 
on the shores of Lake Menzaleh. I once saw Gallinules at 
Inchas. 

224. Fulica atra atra. Coot. 

Arrives in October, and remains at Abu Zabaal until 
March. In some winters very numerous, and in others com- 
paratively rare. AVhen shooting, on one occasion, I saw 
these birds in such numbers that two collided in mid-air, 
and both fell and were picked up dead. 

225. Coturnix coturnix coturnix. Quail. 

A few are resident, but are rarely met with. From 
3 February to the end of March large numbers pass through, 
affording good sport. The second week in March marks the 
height of the migration at Abu Zabaal. Fewer birds are 
met with on their return flight in September. On 18 April, 
1916, I took a clutch of eight Quail's eggs, in a field at 
Inchas. They were quite fresh. On 20 January, 1917, a 
native brought me three fresh Quail's eygs, which were all 
that were left of eight found in a nest, also at Inchas, and, 
when shooting there in May 1917, a single fresh egg was 
also brought to me. 

[Fresh eggs were brought to me by a native in April, 
189-1, from Ayat, and two fresh eggs from Luxor, on 
22 March, 1910. An oviduct egg with hard shell is unspotted 
and the colour of a pale English Partridge's egg. — K. S.] 



1 92 1.] First Impressions of Tunisia and Algeria. 387 

226. Ammoperdix heyi nicoUi. Nicoll's Desert Partridge. 

I saw a single specimen near Gebel Asfur (south of the 
Birket Accrashi) on 28 November, 1917. I am familiar 
with this subspecies, having shot it on tlie Wadi Hof and 
the Wadi Resheid, near Helouan. A female shot in the 
the former Wadi, on 11 March, 1918, was within a fort- 
night of laying, and was flushed from under a large rock, 
which concealed, what Dr. Beven and I thought looked like 
the beginning of a nest. Several pieces of grass and a lot of 
plant-heads were gathered together, with a slight depression 
in the centre. Dr. Beven informs me that he obtained 
young birds, just on the wing, in the Wadi Resheid, at the 
beginning of May 1919. I hope these slight indications 
will help future observers in Egypt to discover the eggs of 
this interesting recently described Partridge. 

Ebratum. — On p. 249 line 11, for Abbassia read Ibshawai. 



XXII. — First Impressions of Tunisia and Algeria. By 
David A. Bannerbian, M.B.E., B.A., M.B.O.U., F.R.G.S. 

(Plates II.-V.) 

Of late years considerable attention has been given by 
British Ornithologists to the ornis of northern Africa. 
Lord Rothschild and Dr. Hartert have, by their exhaustive 
explorations in Algeria, made the birds of that fascinating- 
country comparatively well known, whilst valuable supple- 
mentary notes have appeared from the pens of Messrs. 
Jourdain, Wallis, and Ratclilf. It is, therefore, with extreme 
diffidence that I present this short paper to the readers of 
'The Ibis.' In the first place, it contains nothing new, and, 
in the second [)lace, it is not the narrative of an Ornitho- 
logical Expedition : it is merely the account of a journey 
through Tunisia and Algeria which some ornithologists have 
already made and doubtless many others will make in the 
future. It is to give these latter some idea of the birds 
they may expect to encounter, and of the scenery they will 
pass through, that I have ventured to publish my notes. 



388 Mr. D. A. Bannerman : First Impressions [Ibis, 

Field-glasses were substituted for the cullector^s gun, and 
much of my time — some eight weeks in all —was taken up in 
visiting the marvellous Roman and Punic remains of which 
northern Africa holds such a woudert'nl store. 

We left Marseilles on a bitterly cold morning of February 
last, in the S.S. ' Due d'Aumale' — the best steamer of the 
r^fompagnie Transatlantique plying between that port and 
Tunis. The voyage was calm but uneventful, and to my 
surprise neither Petrels nor Shearwaters were seen. The 
change in twenty-four hours from heavy clouds and chilly 
east winds to a cloudless sky and hot sun was as welcome 
as it was sudden ; and as we passed along the entire ^^esterly 
coast of Sardinia within easy sight of the little white houses 
dotted along its cliffs, an interesting, though restricted, view 
of this island was obtained. From the sea it looked somewhat 
uninterestino-, monotonous low hills succeeding one another 
until the more mountaiuous southern extremity of the island 
was reached. 

In the early morning of the 4th of February we steamed 
past the ruins of ancient Carthage into the calm waters 
of the Bay of Tunis — up the canal wliich tlie French 
have ingeniously constructed through the lake to the pros- 
])erous capital of Tunisia. Tunis strikes the traveller 
immediately as being a thoroughly well-planned, well- 
administered town — the French have shown their wisdom 
in preserving intact the large Arab quarter, the souks and 
bazaars of whicli are probably without rival anywhere in the 
world. But it is of the impressions of an ornithologist that 
I wish to write, in the hope that others may be stimulated to 
follow the excellent example set by Mr. Joseph Whitaker 
and make Tunisia their "happy hunting-ground." 

The town of Tunis is itself by no means a bad centre for 
the ornithologist ; many delightful excursions can be made, 
and highly-interesting localities visited within a short dis- 
tance of the city. The electric train which runs to Carthage 
and La Marsa crosses and then partly encircles the wide 
Lac de Tunis — a broad sheet of water which has long been 
the haunt of the Flamingo (Plioenicopterus antiquoruni). 



1 92 1.] of Tunisia and Algeria. 389 

A glimpse of these nne birds standing knee-deep in the lake 
may often be enjoyed from the windows of the train, and 
the sight of a flock rising against the cloudless l)lne sky with 
the sunlight catching their rosy plumage is alone almost 
recompense for the long journey from England. The 
number of Coots {Fulica atra atra) on this lake is really 
astounding. They are absolutely tame here, and paddle 
about in hundreds within a few yards of the line. 

Bordering the railway-track on the northern side of the 
lake is a low stone wall, the haunt of numbers of Redshanks 
(and doubtless other waders besides), which, usually shy 
birds in England, here do not even cease feeding as the 
train rushes by. Herons (^Ardea cinerea^ stand sentinel on 
the wall every hundred yards or so ; Little Grebes {Podiceps 
rnficollis) in pairs swim about close to the shore exhibiting 
little more alarm than their companions ; while out on the 
open water flocks of ducks skim over the surface, keeping, 
however, well out of gunshot of the shore. Like most 
salt or brackish lakes, the Lac de Tunis is absolutely 
devoid of vegetation around its shores, and in consequence 
those birds which do frequent its muddy margin are easily 
observed with field-glasses. 

Quite apart from the wonderful Roman and Punic reniains 
so skilfully excavated by Pere Delattre, the environs of Car- 
thage are well worthy of a visit for the sake of the birds which 
frequent this world-famous site. In the brilliant sunlight the 
fields are remarkably green in the month of Febrnary, and 
even the sea-cliffs present nothing of the barrenness usually 
associated with the north African coast in the minds of home- 
dwelling ornithologists. From the young corn many Crested 
Larks * sprang up as we passed, gently quivering to eiirth with 
wings and tail fully extended, plainly showing the three pairs 
of dark tail-feathers contrasting with the pale outer and central 
pairs. Tunisia is, as Whitaker has said, par excellence the land 
in which to study these remarkably interesting birds, though 
doubtless Hartert would cite Algeria, and Nicoll Egypt, as 

* The long-billed form of this district is Galerida cvistata carthaffinis, 
the short-billed form Galerida thcklce harterti. 



390 Mr. D. A. Bannerman : First Impreftswns [Ibis, 

the countries where the burning- questions associated with 
them may best be settled ! Of the varied races of the 
Crested Lark known to inhabit Tunisia, I shall have more to 
say later : the country between Carthage and La Marsa is 
suited rather to Blackbirds, Thrushes, Chaffinches, "Whin- 
chats, Whitethroats, Grrey Wagtails, Blackcaps, Black Red- 
starts^ and Serin finches, all o£ which werenoted in lesser or 
o-reater numbers on the walk along the cliffs. The Sparrows 
of Tunisia and Algeria have long been a source of ])erplexity 
to systematic ornithologists. Whitaker tackled the question 
in his delightful book (' Birds of Tunisia,' vol. i. pp. 203-204), 
and showed that the common Sparrow of the Regency was 
Passer hispaniolensis hispaniolensis, though P. domest'icus 
inhabited the western districts and interbred extensively 
with the Spanish Sparrow : while in the south Sparrows 
which he referred to P. italice were obtained. Hartert has 
discussed the status of the Algerian Sparrows at great length 
(Nov. Zool. xviii. 1912, pp. 479-482), and from his care- 
fully considered observations we find that Passer Jiispaniolensis 
hispaniolensis occurs in Tunisia, as noted by W^liitaker, but 
that the House Sparrow of Tunisia, which interbreeds so 
largely with the Spanish Sparrow, is Passer domesticus tinyi- 
tanns, while the Sparrows from southern Tunisia (Gafsa) were 
named fucldgeri by Zedlitz, though they are in reality only 
hybrids, and are not therefore eligible for snbspecific rank. 
These are the birds which Whitaker and others placed under 
the name P. italice, though Whitaker pointed out that they 
were by no means typical examples. 

An excursion of exceptional interest both to the ornitholo- 
gist and the archffiologist is to motor from Tunis to Dougga, 
the site of the most w^onderful collection of Roman ruins in 
Tunisia. Dougga lies over 100 kilometres to the south-west 
of Tunis, and the excellent road passes through varied 
scenery. In the immediate vicinity of Tunis the country is 
very flat, a wide and remarkably fertile plain stretching for 
miles. Just after leaving the outskirts of the town a 
delightful view of the Sebkra es-Sedjounii is obtained from 
slio-htly rising ground. The lagoon which lies on the south- 



1 92 1.] of Tunisia and Algeria. 391 

west of the town is surrounded bj a wide stretch of sand, or, 
rather, mud, and must be largely resorted to by Waders. We 
wore too far from it to note what birds were about, but two 
Herons (^Ardea cinerea) were recognised flying heavily from 
shore to shore^ just as the sun was rising and tipping the 
distant hills with gold. In all directions the hind was under 
cultivation, green with the young corn, or else in course of 
being ploughed up by teams of eight oxen. Crested Larks 
wore here observed in great numbers, and as the car flew 
along many seemed to court death by dusting themselves in 
the road, escaping the wheels as if by a miracle. Quite a 
number of Lapwings were noticed, not in flocks but singly 
or two or three together, and all very tame, not attempting 
to stir as we passed. Corn-Buntings, Starlings, Sparrows, 
and Goldfinches were all numerous in flocks, particularl}- the 
Goldfinches (^Ca^'duelis carduelis afr'icana). Brown Linnets 
[Acanthis cannahitta mediterranea) were also seen, but not in 
such numbers. Gradually the aspect of the country began 
to change, green fields gave way to olive-orchards, where 
Blackbirds* and Thrushes were noted for the first time. 
Several Common Kestrels were circling overhead, and as we 
dashed over a bridge a pair of Southern Little Owls (^Athene 
noctua glaux) dai'tod out of an old olive-trunk. The road 
now began to ascend, and the slopes were everywhere thickly 
covered with scrub. Several Moorish Magpies {Pica jnca 
mauretauira) were hero noticed, while the Algerian Shrike 
(Lanius e.reubitor algeriensis) was seen perched on the summit 
of a thorn-bush. As we gradually reached higher altitudes 
the sun was completely blotted out by many clouds which 
our chauffeur informed us always lay like a blanket over this 
particular part of the hilly countryside. Certainly it was 
unpleasantly cold, but as we neared Dougga the sun again 
flooded the landscape and lit up the truly wonderful ruins 

* It does not seem to have been settled whether the Blackbird 
inhabiting northern Tunisia is T. m. algirus — the race which inhabits 
northern Algeria — or whether it is T. m. mauretanicus — the race which 
is found in southern Tunisia and southern Algeria ; probably it will 
prove to be the former. 

SER. XI. — VOL. III. 2 D 



392 Mr. D. A. Bannerman : First Impressions [Ibis, 

we liaJ come to see. Surrounded by olive-trees, imposingly 
situated on the mountain-slope, from which a magnificent 
view of the adjoining country is obtainetl, the i-uined Roman 
Capitol, Temples, and Theatre bear silent witness to the 
wonders of the Roman occupation.- It was on the terraced 
steps of the Theatre that I made the acquaintance of one of 
the most delightful of Tunisian birds^ Moussier's Redstart 
(^J)iplootocus moiissieri), a male bird with his orange-brown 
breast and rump, black wings and head, and strikingly pure 
white frontal band, eye-stripe and alar patch, making a 
charming picture in such unique surroundings. Moussier's 
Redstart is a typically northern African mountain bird, 
and certainly reminds one more of a Redstart than a Stone- 
chat. It is to be met with in both the northern and southern 
Atlas Ranges of Tunisia, Algeria, and Morocco. I found it 
myself both at Dougga and at Hammam Meskoutine in the 
northern Atlas in February, while Hartert and Rothschild 
record it from the southern Atlas Ranges during the breed- 
ino-season and from the northern S:diara in winter. It is 
common in the Aures mountains of Algeria, and Whitaker 
notes that it is plentiful in the southern oases of Tunisia, 
leaving these districts in spring for the liigher altitudes 
farther north. In the Moroccan Atlas this species is met 
with up to consitlerable altitudes, ant! Ca})tain Lynes recently 
found it breeding commonly in the "Middle-Atlas" Range 
(Ibis, 1920, p. 296). 

Birds were plentiful in the olive-groves of Dougga, Star- 
lino's and Thrushes (both winter visitors), Cliaffinches, and 
Blue-Tits being observed. The former is a resident Tunisian 
subs[)ecies [Frinyilla cwlebs spodiogenys), while the latter is 
the common north-west African race of the Blue Titmous(^ 
(Parus cdiruleus ultramarinus) . In some high cliffs close to 
Dougga a number of Rock-Pigeons were observed. As none 
were obtained, I cannot say to which race they belonged. 
Considering that the day was spent in examining Roman 
remains, the number of birds seen which could be identified 
without any doubt was distinctly encouraging, for of course 
a few others were noted which I dare not attempt to name. 



1 92 1.] of Tunisia and Algeria. ' 393 

Certainly more than one species of Lark and Pipit were 
seen, but who would dare to name a Pipit from a passing 
car ! The return journey to Tunis added no fresh species to 
my list, save a couple of Ravens flying high overhead. The 
Moroccan Raven (Corviis corax tingitanus) is an extremely 
abundant resident in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. Once 
more v^e disturbed the Liltle Owls, which had returned to 
the same olive-tree from which we had already frightened 
them, and by 5 P.M. we were again in busy Tunis. 

Two days after returning from Dougga I made, in company 
with the Editor of ' The Ibis,' a delightful trip by car to the 
Arab city of Kairouan, thence journeying south to El Djem, 
the most southern point we reached, and thence again to Tunis 
via Susa, an insignificant port on the coast. 

Though birds were not the prime object of our journey, 
the expedition afforded us an opportunity of seeing for the 
first time (at any rate as far as the writer was concerned) a 
number of interesting species, and we obtained a good first- 
hand knowledge of the varied types of country through 
which we passed. Whitaker, in the Introduction to his 
' Birds of Tunisia,' notes that " Tunisia has been divided by 
geographers into three natural divisions or regions, each of 
these differing from the other two in its climate, hydrography, 
and topography, and consequently in its flora and fauna." 
In the excellent map provided in his book these three regions 
are differently coloured, and the divisions can thus be seen 
at a glance. Whereas Tunis itself lies at the north-east of 
the northern division, the towns we set out to visit are all 
situated in the central division, that which lies between the 
Atlas Mountains and the southern region of the Chotts and 
deserts. 

It was not until we had passed through the broken chain 
ol mountains, which run in a north-easterly direction from 
El Oubira to Hammamet, and had gained the great plains 
which stretch almost uninterruptedly to Kairouan, that we 
noticed the change in the avifauna. North of the mountains 
we had seen only the usual species which frequent the more 
fertile parts of the Regency, such as Goldfinches, Brown 

2d2 



394 Mr. D. A. Bunnerman : First Impressions [Ibis, 

Linnets, Corn-Bantings, innumerable Sparrows, Starlings, 
etc., but once the semi-desert plains with their scrubby 
veoetation were reached, these lovers o£ cultivated lands 
were left behind, and instead we saw Common Cranes, Sand- 
Grouse, Bustards, and close to Bdj el Menzel, near a sheet 
o£ water, innumerable small wading birds which, however, 
we were quite unable to identify from the car. Crested 
Larks* were again numerous, but other small birds were 
seldom seen, save an occasional Shrike or so. Cranes flying 
in small parties over the scrub, or else standing in little groups 
on the plain feeding unconcernedly within a few hundred 
yards of the car, made a charming picture, especially as w e 
had somehow never expected to meet them. According 
to Whitaker the Common (h-ane is abundant in Tunisia in 
winter and during migration, and is then to be seen in large 
flocks close to Tunis and Clarthage. We had not, however, 
seen any in the northern part of the Regency during our 
brief visit. It has not been known to breeil in Tunisia, but, 
curiously enough, the Demoiselle Crane {AntJiropoides virgo), 
though quite a rare species in Tunisia, has been known to 
breed near Susa. 

We passed close to Sebkra Kelbia, a great expanse of 
water which looked very much out of place in this flat and 
otherwise arid landscape. These inland lakes are very 
remarkable, and must surely be the haunt of vast numbers of 
waterfowl at certain seasons of the year. From the nature 
of their position, surrounded by the open plain, and their 
entire lack of undergrowth, birds resting on the surface 
would be quite unapproachable from any direction. To 
explore thoroughly these vast plains and Sebkras it would 
be necessary to take a tent and camp, the distances being too 
oreat to work the ground conveniently from the nearest 
French hostelry, though much good work could certainly be 
done by a naturalist staying in Kairouan itself. The climate 
of Tunisia is delightful, the rain-fall, particularly in the 
central and southern divisions of the Regency, very small, 
and we may take Mr. Whi taker's word for it that "as a 
* Probably Galerida thekke superjiua, but none obtamed. 



1921.] of Tunisia and Algeria. 395 

country for caravan-travel and nomad-life the Tunisian 
Regency is perhaps unrivalled.'' No naturalist, however 
narrow his interest may be, can fail to be delighted with his 
first impression of Kairouan, up till the entry of the French 
in 1881, one of the four sacred Mohammedan cities, through 
the gates of which none but the followers of the Prophet 
durst enter. Kairouan is a town of purely Arabic type, 
surrounded by a remarkably high vvall. With its beautiful 
domed Mosques and towering minarets, and its entirely 
unspoilt appearance, tliis wonderful white city has an 
atmosphere which it is quite impossible to describe, but 
which grips one from the moment its ancient gates are 
entered. Wandering through the streets we often encoun- 
tered Arabs hawkino- large bunches of Starlinos for sale, 
evidently netted close to the town and eaten largely by the 
natives. The loathsome practice of bird-liming is also 
carried on here, and we saw a number of miserable Corn- 
Buntings being tortured by their thoughtless youthful 
captivators in the streets of the town and we hastily put them 
out of their «misery. Many of the Arabs keep cage-birds, 
the African Goldfinch being evidently the favourite, though 
Blackbirds were also seen and occasionally Turtle-Doves. 

On our way to the " Mosque of the Barber " we were 
interested to see a Southern Little Owl {Athene noctua glaitx) 
perched on a tomb in the Arab Cemetery, quietl}^ sleeping 
in the blazing sun. Within a short distance of the Owl the 
white hunched-up figure of an Arab rocked in prayer, but 
the bird seemed undisturbed by the proximity of the droning 
voice. Our Mohammedan guide told us that the '"Booma" 
— as they call the Little Owl — was a very wicked bird at 
whose door many vile charges are laid. The bird, he 
explained, would attack young babies the moment the 
mother's back was turned, and by swiftly pecking the child's 
forehead would cause its death unless prevented in time ! 
This astounding story was evidently implicitly believed in 
by the narrator, and as he had witnessed such a deed " with 
his own eyes " it would have been but waste of time to 
question its authenticity ! 



396 Mr. D. A. Bannerman : First Impressions [Ibis, 

The Southern Little Owl is abundant throughout Tunisia, 
frequenting both the olive-groves of the north and the 
deserts of the south. Unlike the Scops Owl (Otus scoj^s 
scops), which we did not meet with, but which, according to 
Y/Hiitaker, is found frequently nfter the end of March, the 
Little Owl is often to be seen in the day-time, as I had 
already proved for myself. 

From the minaret of the Great Mosque a magnificent 
view of the surrounding country is obtained, and we then 
realised how isolated this once sacred town really is. On all 
sides stretched the great plain, not reddish or golden as the 
Sahara, but uniformly brown save where the crops were 
shooting through the sunburnt soil, stony in nature and 
partially covered with plant-growth or camel-grass. This 
was unquestionably the country of the Crested Lark, and, 
indeed, save for an occasional Hawk or Harrier, the land- 
scape was otherwise singularly devoid of bird-life. 

The Crested Larks of Tunisia have been dealt with at 
length by Mr. Whitaker in his book, and the members 
of the genus found in Algeria have been Veviewed by 
Dr. Hartert in Nov. Zool. xviii. 1912, pp. 488-496. 

Of the long-billed form G. cristata, Whitaker recognises 
only two subspecies, arenicola (a pale race) and macrorliyncha 
(a darker race), but he does not give the exact range of these 
two forms in the Regency : macrorliyncha^ he notes, inhabits 
country where " plains and large tracts of level country 
appear .... and where plains adjoin or are not far distant 
from mountains"; arenicola, on the other hand, is said by 
Whitaker to be confined to the inland semi-desert districts 
of the centre and south of the Regency, not extending north 
of the Atlas, or even (as far as he was aware) to the sea- 
coast" — Whitaker found it plentiful on the plains west of 
Gafsa and on the dry salt marshes of the Chott district. 

Since Whitaker published his book_, Kleinschmidt and 
Hilgert have turned their attention to the long-billed Crested 
Larks of Tunisia, naming, between them, three forms. 
They showed that the bird which Whitaker referred to as 
macrorhynclia from northern Tunisia was distinct from the 



1921.] of Tunisia and Algeria. 397 

Algerian bird and required a new name, and tliey proposed 
to call it G. c. cartha(jinis (Klein. & Hilg. Orn. Men. 1905, 
p. 188 : Tunis). In this tliey seem to have been quite 
correct. 

The bird which Whitaker referred to as arenicola thoj 
apparently split up, naming those from Gabes to Gafsa 
Galerida crhtata (jafs>r, (Orn. Mon. 1904, p. 189 : Seggi), 
while the birds from the region of the Chott el Djerid (Tozer, 
Douz, Kebilli) they named Galerida cristata reichenoun (Orn. 
Mon. 1905, p. 189 : Kebilli). Hilgert, in his (Catalogue of 
the Erlanger Collection^ 1908, pp. 102-104:, again reviews 
these Larks and upholds the three names. 

Hartert, in his Vog. Pal. Faun. yoI. i. p. xxvi, footnote, 
states that he considers both gafscc and reiclienoxci to be 
synonyms of arenicola, which he evidently believes to 
range from the line El Kantara-Touggourt-Bledet-Ahmar 
in Algeria eastwards through the deserts of southern Tunisia. 

The British Museum is singularly deficient in Crested 
Larks from Tunisia and Algeria, but the few we have at our 
disposal does not prove Hartert to be wrong ! It certainly 
appears to me that the long-billed Crested Larks from the 
extreme south-east corner of Tunisia (a district cut oft" from 
the rest of the desert country by a range of mountains — the 
Djebel Matmata) is distinct and requires a name, but as we 
have not sufficient material from this region, I shall refrain 
from giving it one for the present. Birds from Tatahouine 
appear to be much more rufescent in colouring than either 
so-called reichenowi or gafsa\ 

Of the short-billed group Whitaker recognised four forms 
in Tunisia : (a) Galerida tliehlai major, (b) G. t. saperjiua, 
(c) G. t. deicJderi, (d) G. t. Carolina'. 

Three of these names still hold good, but the bird which 
inhabits the north of the Regency extending to the Atlas 
Mts. which Whitaker called G. t. major, we now know by 
the name of G. t. harterti — the same form which is found 
in the north of Algeria. Mr. AVhitaker notes that the bird 
found at the higher elevations is still darker than his major, 
so that there may be yet another form. 



398 Mr. D. A. Bannermaii : Fh'st Impressions [Ibis, 

G. t. stiper/iaa, according to AVhitaker, inhabits tlie central 
division of Tunisia and the less desert-like districts of the south. 

G. t. deichleri is an isabelline form which inhabits the 
semi-desert inland country of southern Tunisia and does not 
occur apparently north. of Gnfsa, while G. t. carolince is a 
rufous form inhabiting tlie rocky inland plains of the south- 
east of Tunisia. 

Until we have a very large series from Tunisia of these 
Larks we catniot add anything to tlie distribution as given 
by Mr, Whitaker in his ' Birds of Tunisia.' It seems desir- 
able to ascertain the range of each particular form of both 
the long-billed and short-billed Crested Larks with more 
precision than has been done in the past. A list of actual 
localities from which the various races have been obtained 
would greatly help in defining the territory inhabited by the 
six races up to now described. Dr. Hartert and Lord lioth- 
schild have already carried this out as regards the Algerian 
species and subspecies. 

As I did not collect anv Larks I can add nothino; to the 
discussions which have already taken place, but should I 
return to Tunisia I shall certainly obtain a series wherever 
I go. That representatives of both the long-billed (Galerida 
cristata) and short-billed (^Galerida theklcr) species are very 
abundant I can testify from the tour I took in the northern 
and central parts of the Regency, and I did not enter the 
southern desert zone at all, where the Larks are of even 
greater interest than those from the north. 

Tunisia is indeed a wonderful country for Larks of many 
species. Apart from the several forms of Crested Lark (of 
which there are at least six and possibly more), Whitaker 
enumerates no fewer than fifteen other species and subspecies 
belonging to the family Alaudida3 ; the genera Akcmon, 
Chersopliiliis, Alauda, Ammomanes, Calandrella, Melano- 
corypha, liliamplwcorys, and Otocorys, all being represented 
by one or more forms. Unquestionably there still remains 
good work to be done in determining the exact range of 
these birds, particularl}'^ as regards the members of the genus 
Galerida. 



1 92 1.] of Tunisia and Algeria. 399 

Two nights were spent in Kairouan, and from there we 
travelled south over the vast plain passing the great salt 
lake Sebkra Sidi-el-Hani, and thence in a south-easterly 
direction to El Djera. Quite a number of Cranes were seen 
on this part of the journey, but little else of interest save 
the ever present Larks. El Djem boasts a railway station, 
a small but quite comfortable hotel, an exceedingly filthy 
Arab village, ami the finest monument left by the Romans in 
Tunisia, an Amphitlientre, colossal in size and wonderfully 
well preserved, rivalling the Colosseum in Rome. The 
Amphitheatre is evidently the breeding-place of numerous 
Rock-Pigeons (^Cohimba liria) and many Kestrels, Six or 
eight of the latter could be seen snaring above the ruin, 
or else busily engaged in nesting preparations on the highest 
remaining tiers. Near the Arab village, I remarked a 
Crested Lark with exceptionally pale sandy-coloured plumage, 
but as I did not obtain it, I will not venture to give it a 
name. One would not expect to find either of the true 
desert forms so far north as El Djem. The first part of the 
route from El Djem to Susa passes through much the same 
type of country, the same desert aspect and the same paucity 
of bird-life as observed between Kairouan and El Djem. 
As we neared the latter town the landscape quickly changed, 
rolling olive-clad hills, broken up by deep nullahs, succeeded 
the plains, and the birds of the orchards at once made their 
appearance : Turtle-Doves were seen for the first time^ as 
well as Blackbirds, Thrushes, Buntings, Warblers, etc. 

Staying the night at Susa, we returned to Tunis by the 
coast-road. From what I saw of the north I am sure a tour 
in the south — Gabes, Sfnx, Gafsa, Neftaj etc. — would prove 
ot" exceptional interest, especially to anyone attracted, as I 
am, by desert scenery and desert fauna and flora. A very 
pleasant trip, and one which would give the traveller an 
excellent insight into desert life, would be to travel from 
(jrabes — a port on the south-east coast of Tunisia — by train 
or car to Nefta, and from there by camel caravan into 
Algeria via El Oued and Touggourt, whence the railway 
would bring him to Biskra in nine hours. While at 



400 Mr. D. A. Bannerman : First Impressions [Ihis, 

Tunis I had, with Mr. Sclater, the pleasure of meeting- 
Monsieur Lavauden, a French ornithologist, who is in 
charge of the "Woods and Forests" department of the 
Government in Tunisia. Mons. liavauden has an excellent 
knowledge of Tunisian birds, and gave us much interesting- 
information on the suoject ; he has compiled a most useful 
little brochure on the Tunisian birds, which is noticed in the 
last number of ' The Ibis ' {cf. p. 326). Mr. Sclater also visited 
Mons. Blanchet, a local naturalist of considerable repute, 
whom 1 regret I did not have the pleasure of meeting. 
Both these gentlemen would, I feel sure, be willing to give 
unstintingly of their ornithological knowledge to any 
members of the B. 0. U. who niay chance to visit Tunisia. 

tShooting restrictions in Tunisia are much simpler than in 
the adjoining country of Algeria. Firearms may be taken 
into the country so long as they are declared at the port of 
arrival. Grun licences cost under two francs, and only a 
small tax is charged on the importation of loaded cart- 
ridges. 

In the south game is said to be plentiful, the widely dis- 
tributed Dorcas Grazelle {^Gazella dorcas dovcas) and Loder's 
Gazelle {Gazella leptoceros loderi), as well as the Addax 
Antelope (^Addax nasomaculatus nasomacxdatus), with its fine 
spiral horns, being found. The ordinary shooting-season 
lasts from the middle of August, at which early date few 
sportsmen will be tempted to brave the blazing sun of the 
plains, until the end of February; while doubtless the 
season would be extended for anyone collecting for scientific 
purposes, the French authorities looking with a friendly eye 
on all such pursuits. 

We left Tunis with deep regret in the early morning of 
February 16th, travelling by train into Algeria. Our 
destination was Hammam-Meskoutine, which took eleven 
hours to reach, but the magnificent scenery through which 
the line passes prevented any thought of tedium. Passing 
at first through fertile valleys, olive-clad slopes, and then 
bare hills, the scenery becomes grander as the higher alti- 
tudes are approached, often skirting, often crossing and 



1 92 1.] of Tunisia and Algeria. 401 

re-crossing the great bed of the Medjerda river, the course 
of which the line follows tor a considerable distance ; the 
train gradually ascends until surrounded on all sides by a 
tumbling mass of mountains clothed at the highest points 
with maoiiificeiit forests of ('ork and Evergreen Oaks. 

I do not know whether any ornithologist has ever worked 
in this country, but 1 can imagine no more suitable district 
for studying the mountain and forest fauna than that just 
described, particnlarly when the Tunisian-Algerian boundary 
has been crossed. The stretch of mountain scenery between 
Souk-Ahras (2297 ft.) and Ain-Tahamimine (1100 ft.;, 
which reaches at Laverdure an altitude of over 2500 ft. with 
mountains of 4150 ft. towering above, is incomparably 
beautiful. Eagles on more than one occasion were seen, 
one bird flying for some distance parallel with the train and 
almost within gunshot of the carriage. Owing to the sun 
I was unable to get a satisfactory view of its plumage, but 
I believe it to have been the Golden Eagle, which is found 
sparingly throughout the northern Atlas Mountains of 
Algeria and generally throughout the more mountainous 
parts of Tunisia. 

Tlie line now gradually descends, and as we neared 
Hammam-Meskoutine the country opened out, olives once 
more clothed the slopes, and in every direction the country 
bore a highly [irosperous and luxuriant appearance. 

Hammam-Meskoutine or The Baths o£ the Petrified, as 
its name implies, from an ancient Arab legend, is charm- 
ingly situated from an ornithologist's point of view. The 
hotel and farm buildings are almost the only houses in sight. 
In the pretty courtyard, round which the hotel is built, 
palms, orange and lemon trees are the haunt of numerous 
Dusky Bulbuls {Pycnonotus harhatus harhatus), the first we 
had met with. Redbreasts {Eritliacns ruhecula subsp. ?) 
hopped about under the shade of the trees, a Grey Wagtail 
(^Alotacilla cinerea cinerea) frequented the irrigation stream, 
and innumerable Sjiarrows filled the air with their noisy 
chatter. Lord liothschild and Dr. Hartert paid particular . 
attention to the Sparrows at Hammam-Meskoutine and 



402 Mr. D. A. Bannerman : First Imp^'essions [Ibis, 

collected a large series here. Typical exani})les o£ both 
Passer hispaniolensis h'lspaniolensis and P. domesticus tingi- 
taaus were obtained by them, and their remarks on the 
interoradino' of these two forms as observed at Hammam- 
Meskoutine will be found in Nov. Zool. xviii. 1912, p. 4bl). 
I had the advantage of having a copy of this paper with me, 
and with the aid of my powerful field-glasses was able to 
match from live birds under my observation quite a number 
of the Sparrows' heads depicted in PI. xi. of the paper cited. 
The Redbreasts puzzled me somewhat. They appeared very 
pale-breasted, but then I am used to watching the fine 
Erithacxis ruhecula superhus of certain of the Canary Islands, 
with its rich coloured breast. Mr. Jourdain believed that 
most of the Robins which Mr. Wallis met with at Hammam- 
Meskoutine in 1910 were migrants from I'hirope. Dr. 
Hurtert, in addition to many typical specimens, shot an 
example of E. r. luitherhyi at this place in February 1911. 
I confess I am unable to tell this race apart in life. 

So many ornithologists have worked in this district that 
the birds of the neighbourhood are now comparatively well 
known. A short description of the surrounding country 
may, however, be of interest to those who have not seen it 
for themselves. Hammam-Meskoutine lies in the northern 
Atlas range at a height of 1312 ft. In the vicinity of the 
hotel the country is very open, and in February wonderfully 
green, the wide valleys are everywhere sown with corn, the 
lower hill-slopes covered with grass for grazing or planted 
with olive-trees, which in some directions cover the hillsides 
as far as the eye can reach. Hot springs bubble up in many 
places, and the water, which issues from the ground at a 
temperature of 205° F., finds its way through a tangle of 
luxuriant vegetation down the bed of the valley, its course 
clearly visible by the constantly rising steam. Great clumps 
of palm-trees grow luxuriantly in these valleys, their presence 
appearing somewhat incongruous in this typically park-like 
landscape (Plate II. fig. 1). On all sides mountains rise 
in the distance, covered closely with scrub four or five feet 
in height, or else bare save for the scant coarse grass which 



IBIS. 1921 PL. 




1. A typical landscape, Hammam-Meskoutine. 




2. The Oued bou Hamdane, Hammam-Meskoutine. 



1 92 1.] of lunisia and Algeria. 403 

gives a patchy appearance, resembling from a distance a 
well-burnt Scottish moor. 

Every day for two weeks I rode over these hills on the 
excellent little Arab horses to be hired at the hotel, or else 
explored the river-bed of the Oued bou Haiiidane (Plate II. 
fig. 2), in places almost dry save for two or three narrow 
channels easily fordable at almost any point. 

No matter what direction is taken birds are everywhere 
really plentiful. Close to the hotel, in the thick under- 
growth of the valleys and on the olive-clad slopes, we 
observed Greenfinches ( Chloris cliloris aurantiiventris) in 
small numbers almost every day. Chaffinches (Fringilla 
coelebs africana), numerous Blackbirds {Turdus merida 
algirus), Song-Thrushes {Turdus pMlomelus philomelus), 
Redbreasts (apparently Erithacus ruhenda ruhecula), 
Dusky Bulbuls {Pgcnonotus harhatus barhatiis), Brown 
Linnets {Acantliis cannxdnna meditery'anea) in small flocks, 
and Goldfinches {Carduelis carduelis africana) in consider- 
able numbers, Starlings (Sturmis vulgaris vulgaris) in 
huge flocks, Sparrows, Corn-Buntings {Emberiza calandra 
ealandra), Blue Titmice [Parus ca'ruletis idtramarinus) very 
few. Blackcaps (Si/lvia atricapilla atricapilla) rather rare. 
Sardinian Warblers {Sglvia melanocephala melanocephala\ 
and Kestrels ( Cerclineis tinnuncidtis tinnunculus) . 

On the more rocky ground, covered with grass, small 
scrub, and olives, the Barbary Partridge (Alectoris barbara 
barbara) is plentiful. All were paired by the time I arrived 
on the 17th of Februar3\ In the reeds of the dry river-bed 
I caught a hasty glimpse of a Warbler, but am uncertain of 
the species to which it belonged. Birds of Prey were nearly 
always observed once the higher ground had been reached. 
Most commonly seen was the Golden Eagle (Agtula 
chri/saetus). On the 25tli of February I saw three together 
sailing majestically along the hillside, whilst another eagle, 
observed on one occasion only^ was, I believe, Bonelli's 
Eagle {Eutolmaetus fasciatus fasciatus), a bird with which 
I am unfamiliar. Bonelli's Eagle is recorded by Messrs. 
Wallis and Jourdain (Ibis, 1915, p. 157) as breeding at 



404 Mr, D. A. Bannerman : First Impressions [Tbis, 

Hanimani-Meskoutine in February 190G, uinl the species 
was seen b}-- the former observer iu 1910 and 1912 in the 
same locality. Hartert also records Bonelli's Eagle (Nov. 
Zool. xviii. p. 534) from the same place, so that I feel 
pretty sure of my identification. 

Ii-by-'s Raven [Corvus corax tmgitanits) was also occasion- 
ally seen in pairs. 

Crested Larks are very plentiful on the cultivated lands, 
and they seem to love particularly the grassy strips left on 
either side of the dusty main roads. It is a dark race, as 
might be expected, which frequents this district, known as 
Galerida tlieklce harterti. 

I can only add two species (by name) to the list of 
Hammam-Meskoutine birds recorded by Rothschild, Hartert, 
Wallis, and Jourdain, one being Moussier's Redstart (IHplo- 
otocus moussieri). On two occasions I saw a male of this 
unmistakable species, once close to the " Petrified Arabs," 
the huge cone-shaped deposits of calcareous tufa, which are 
such a remarkable sight close fo the boiling waterfall, and a 
single bird was seen on higher ground when Mr. Sclater and 
I were out riding on the 21st of February. The other bird, 
which I believe has not previously been seen, though Hartert 
heard it, was the Barn-Owl. Just as we were leaving on the 
26th of February, my attention was called to a tree in the hotel 
garden in which a number of Bulbuls were making a tre- 
mendous noise. On approaching I found tliey were mobbing 
a Barn-Owl, which, I believe, from its very white breast, 
to have been Ti/to alba alba. The Bulbuls were keepiug a 
very respectful distance from their unwelcome visitor, ex- 
tending their tails and wings, which they kept in a constant 
state of motion, while twittering and scolding incessantly. 
The Barn-Owl is evidently a rare bird in Algeria. Only 
once did I see a bird during my stay at Hammam which 
really puzzled me. I was forcing my horse along a moun- 
tain path in the direction of Roknia, through particularly 
thick scrub, when I saw^ something i-unning under a bush. 
Pushing the horse towards it off the track, I managed to 
flush a bird, which might have been a glorified quail. It 



IBIS. 1921. PL. III. 




The Gorge of the Rumtnel, Constantine. 



1 92 1.] of Tunisia and Algeria. 405 

certainly had no tail to speak of, and had very rounded 
wings, dark upper parts, not a particularly lono bill, and the 
legs were not visible. It seemed quite dazed by tlie sun, 
anil with slow almost butterfly-like flight dropped into the 
bush again some 20 feet from me, whence I failed to dis- 
lodge it. It was not an Owl as has been suggested. It 
might have been a short-legged Rail, but what a curious 
place in which to find one ! In size it reminded me of a 
young Partridge on the 1st of September. 

Quite a number of birds recorded by other ornithologists 
were not seen by me at Hammam-Meskoutine, as, for in- 
stance, the Hawfinch {Coccothraustes coecothraustes buvryi), 
' noted by Hartert, and met with by Mr. Wallis abundantly 
in March and April 1911, the Golden Oriole (Oriolus oriohis 
oriolus), recorded by Wallis on 1st March, and Hartert on 
20th May, the Serin (Serinus canarius serinus), recorded by 
Wallis on 21st April, and by Hartert in February, the Siskin 
(Carduelis spimcs), seen by Hartert in February 1911. The 
('Onnnon Chaffinch [Fringilla coelehs coelehs) was seen in this 
district by Hartert, as well as F. c. africana, but all those 
observed by me belonged to the latter North African race. 
The African Ilock-Bunting {Emberiza cia africana), recorded 
by Wallis in April, was absent, and a long list of other species 
including a number of birds of passage, all of which will be 
be found enumerated in the two papers cited. No true 
migrants were observed, Swifts, Swallows, and Martins were 
conspicuously absent, and members of the Warbler family 
were remarkablv scarce. The great rush to Europe had not 
yet commenced. 

Hammam-Meskoutine is indeed a splendid centre from 
which to gain a first-hand knowledge of the birds of the 
more mountainous parts of northern Africa. We left this 
interesting district on the2Gth of February, making our way 
west to Constanline, a town about wdiich much has ah-eady 
been written. The line passes close to the rugged Ujebel 
Taya, famous as the habitat of the North African Bearded 
Vulture {GypaetKS harhatus harhatas). Constantine enjovsa 
unique position on a hill surrounded on three sides by the 



406 Mr. D. A. Bannerman : First Impressions [Ibis, 

wonderful Ruinmel Grorge (Plate III.), varying in places from 
330 to 690 £t. in depth and from 230 to ioO ft. in breadth. 
Its precipitous sides are the breeding-place of countless 
numbers of Lesser and Common Kestrels, Jackdaws, and 
Rock-Pigeons. It is, as Dr. Hartert has, I think, already 
said, one of the few places in the world where one may 
stand in a busy thoroughfare and gaze down upon all, these 
birds soaring below, and maybe a Peregrine Falcon will be 
seen, as I had the luck to see one, dashing under the great 
suspension bridge (,551 ft. in length and 671 ft, above the 
river) which leads to the hospital; Egyptian Vultures and 
Ravens were also seen in the Gorge, and later in the season 
it is frequented by numerous Alpine Swifts, which, however, 
had not arrived by the 3rd of March. All round the top of this 
gorge runs a fine carriage drive, from which is obtained one 
of the finest views imaginable. To the west and north-west 
stretches a tremendous valley backed as far as the eye can 
reach with mountains. Whether viewed under the merci- 
less rays of the noon-day sun, or during the softer lights 
at sunset, the panorama is exceedingly beautiful. Pallid 
Swifts had not yet made their appearance, but on the 1st of 
March a number of House-Martins, which were certainly not 
there on the previous days, were seen flying up to their old 
nests under the eaves of a public building on the ramparts. 
I counted the nests on this building, and I found 91 old, but 
for the most part habitable, nests on the front alone. The 
building had a frontage of 93 ft., two feet of which were 
occupied by water-pipes. At the back there were 90 nests 
at least, and on one of the sides 15, while on the other side 
the architecture did not allow of one nest to be built. The 
total was the prodigious number of 196 nests on only a 
moderate-sized building. On the hillside east of the town 
lies a small forest of fir-trees singularly devoid of bird-life 
on the day of my visit, while below the River Rummel winds 
through the wide valley towards El Guerrah, the junction of 
th'j line to Biskra. Constantine will live in my memory, 
not only for the unique Rummel Gorge and the marvellous 
views obtained from the ramparts, but also for the remarkable 



IBIS. 1921. PL. IV. 




c 

c 
eg 
t/i 

c 
o 

O 



o 

I- 

JD 






c 
o 

O 



1 92 1.] oj Tunisia and Algeria. 407 

number of Wbite Storks (Ciconia ciconia ciconia) which 
make their home in the Arab quarter of the town. On the 
picturesque old red roofs of the houses which rise in tiers to the 
north-east of the bridge of El Rached (Plate IV.), I counted 
as many as forty Storks sitting or standing by their great 
nests, while a number of others w^ere flying overhead, their 
long necks and legs stretched out to their full extent. This, 
of course, is the usual position in which the Stork flies, but 
I have also seen them wheeling overhead at a considerable 
altitude with their legs drooping down, as if preparatory to 
alighting. Unmolested by the Arabs, the Storks of Con- 
stantino add greatly to the already wonderfully picturesque 
Eue Perregaux, from various points of which the great birds 
and their nests may be observed at close quarters. 

In the early morning of 3rd March we left Constantine 
for Biskra by the now well-known tourist route to the oasis 
on the fringe of the desert. At this early hour numerous 
Storks Avere seen in the fields, busily feeding ; at Kroubs, 
where they were particularly numerous, I noticed four huge 
nests built in one small tree bare of leaves, which hardly 
appeared large enough to support one such ungainly structure. 
Between Ain M'lila and Ain Yagout the train traverses an 
immense flat stony plain, for the most part covered with 
grass, to the west of which rugged limestone hills rise 
abruptly. Lapwings, Starlings, Larks, and great numbers 
of Sparrows were constantly seen from the train. East of 
the line the distant mountains were white with snow. 
Several shallow salt-lakes were passed surrounded by rough, 
rush-covered ground with here and there inviting pools, 
where a great many small wading birds were observed. 

The line runs close to the Salt Chotts Tinzilts and 
Ez Zemoul absolutely bare of vegetation around their edges. 
To my disappointment not a bird was to be seen. On 
the 20th of Febrjiary, thirteen years previously. Dr. Hartert 
found on the former sheet of water many Ducks, a few 
Grulls, and hundreds of Flamingoes. The station, " Les 
Lacs," is on the very edge of the lake, and as the train pulls 
up there for a few minutes and then sweeps round one side 

SER. XI. VOL. III. 2 E 



408 Mr. D. A. Bannerman : First Impressions [Ibis, 

o£ Cliott Tinzilts, birds, if present, could not escape notice. 
Backed by distant snow-capped mountains, the blue expanse 
o£ water, surrounded by low, absolutely barren, reddish- 
tinted hills, made a singularly attractive picture, and only 
needed the Flamingoes to complete the scene. 

Beyond " Les Lacs " great plains stretch to El Mahder, 
covered when not under cultivation with camel grass, where 
numerous large flocks of Starlings {^Sturnus vulgaris vulgaris) 
were observed. Considering the poor quality of much of 
the soil, the extent of land under cultivation is really 
remarkable. As we neared Batna the mountains, still 
deeply capped with snow, increased in altitude, and were, 
as we soon discovered, thickly clothed with forest and scrub; 
the forest covers a large area as seen from the train alone, 
and consists, I believe, chiefly of cedar mixed with oak. 

Batna, which is also the home of a great number of White 
Storks, is perhaps the best centre from which to explore the 
Aures Mountains. It was from here that Dr. Hartert set 
out to ascend Djebel Mahmel^ the type-locality of Seebohm's 
Wheatear ((Enanthe cenantlie seehohmi), whilst the oak woods 
above Lambese may be conveniently worked from that place. 
Between Batna and Biskra the train carries one past varied 
scenery — first through a wide valley flanked on either side by 
hills thickly covered with cedar forest, known as the Forct 
d'Ichali, then through plains partly cultivated, partly grazing 
land, but with every kilometer the vegetation becomes more 
scanty and less green than farther north. By the time 
Tamarin is reached the country has already taken on quite 
a desert aspect. Close to the little station, where pome- 
granates, apricots, and tamarisks — the fruit-trees in full 
blossom — seemed to be almost the last sign of cultivation, 
six Common Cranes were seen in a field. South of Tamarin, 
barren undulating hills, cut up by dry nullahs, heralded the 
approach of the desert, and soon the line ascended into wild 
mountainous country, where the rugged hills were clothed 
only with the scantiest of plant-life. There was not a tree 
in sight, not even a nomad's tent. We were now close to 
the famous gorge of El Kantara, and eagerly scanned the 



1 92 1.] of Tunisia and Ah/eria. 409 

sky for a chance sight of a Bearded Vulture (Gypaetus 
harhatus harhatus) . 

Just before the gorge is entered the train pulls up at the 
station of El Kantara. Ornithologists are recommended to 
make a stay at the Hotel Bertrand, which has been built 
in a picturesque position almost in the mouth of the gorge 
itself. Apart from the possibility of seeing the Bearded 
Vulture, the great cliffs of the Djebel Metlili and the imme- 
diate ranges east of El Kantara are the breeding-place of 
Egyptian Vultures [Neophron percnopterus percnopterus), 
Golden Eagles {Aquila chri/saetus), and Bonelli's Eagles 
[Fjutolmaetus fasciatus fasciatus), African Buzzards (Bufeo 
ferox eirtensis), Algerian Lanner Falcons (Falco hiarmicus 
erlan<jeri). Black Kites {^Alilrus mufrans migrans), and pro- 
bably other accipitrine birds as well, a sufficiently interesting- 
collection to entice most ornithologists to break their journey 
to Biskra at this favoured spot. Many other birds, other 
than birds-of-prey, may be seen in the neighbourhood of 
El Kantara, and a week at least can be comfortably spent 
there, even if time is pressing. 

Many pens have doubtless attempted to desci'ibe the swift 
passage I'rom the dark towering precipices of El Kantara 
and the grandeur of the Aures Mountains to the solitude and 
glare of the great Sahara. Truly has the gorge been called 
the Gate of the Desert. As the train a})proaches the 
apparently solid wall of rock, as viewed from the station, 
a glimpse is caught of a turbulent boulder-strewn stream 
rushing through the narrow pass and lined on either bank 
with palm and fruit trees ; above rise the great jagged cliffs, 
throwing everything far and wide into shade. The train 
winds in and out of three short tunnels, between which 
fascinating glimpses of the palms and bed of the rushing 
torrent are obtained. Suddenly the wall of cliff ends, and 
in a flood of light one gazes down upon a sea of wavino" 
palm-trees, and beyond the infinite space of the desert. 

Over the great plain of El Outa'ia, the forecourt of the 
Sahara, entirely encircled by mountains, the train slowly 
winds its way, stopping for a short while at the village and 

2 E 2 



410 Mr. D. A. Bnnnernian : First Impressions [Ibis, 

palm oasis from which the plain takes its name. Both Kites 
and Kestrels were seen in the neighbourhood, the former 
doubtless the Black Kite (Milvus migrans migrans). The 
huge expanse, flat as a billiard-table save for the inter- 
secting dry watercourses, is absolutely bare and sandy, 
partly covered with small stones and partly cultivated, 
patches of exceedingly green corn standing out in striking 
contrast to the drab desert soil. This is the home of 
many interesting birds — the C^alandra Lark (^MeJanocoryplia 
calandra calandra), the Algerian Desert Lark [Ammomanes 
deserti algeriensis), Hilgert's Crested Lark {Galerida tltefcke 
liilgerti), the Western Russet Wheatear {(JtJnantlie Inspanica 
hispanica), the African Black C^hat [(Jilnantlie leucura 
syenitiixi), the Pied Chat [fEnantlie lugens halophila), and 
several other desert birds which I found there on future 
visits. 

The plain takes some time to cross, but gradually we drew 
near to the low range which obscures the view of Biskra 
and the true desert beyond. Running parallel with the 
course of a wide river-bed, the line passes through a cutting 
in the Chaine du Sfa, and as we emerged from the hills the 
oreat oasis of Biskra came into view, with a single white 
tower standing conspicuously above the palms and cypresses. 
To the east and west the Aures Mountains recede into the 
distance, while to the south stretches the immeasurable 
golden desert, broken only by lines of dark green marking 
other oases on the horizon — and so the edge of the Sahara is 
reached at last. 

Three delightful weeks were spent in the oasis exploring 
the neighbourhood. For a naturalist arriving at Biskra for 
the first time, there is so much to see, and so much to do, that 
the time slips away before half is accomplished. Dr. Hartert 
had kindly instructed me where to go and Avhat to look for, 
and armed with his paper " Ornithological Explorations in 
Algeria" (ex Nov. Zool. xviii.), with Mr. Jourdain's "Notes 
on the Bird j:.ife of Eastern Algeria " (Ibis, 1915), Whitaker's 
' Birds of Tunisia/ and Witherby's ' Practical Handbook of 
British Birds ' — the last-named invaluable for the identifying 



192 1.] of Tmns'm and Algeria. 411 

of migrants — I found Biskra and its environs all that its 
admirers had claimed for it. From our comfortable quarters 
in the Hotel du Sahara we were able to make easy expe- 
ditions in many directions — on horseback, in carriages, on 
camel, or on foot. Thus the plain of El Outai'a is within 
easy reach, also the sand-dunes, the stony desert, the sandy 
desert, the bare rugged hills, and the wide bed of the 
Oued Biskra, the extensive pahn-groves of Vieux Biskra, 
the wonderful garden of Count Landon, each holding their 
own particular birds, only a cursory knowledge of which 
can be obtained in a three weeks' visit. Later in the season 
(we left Biskra on the 24th of March) the oasis is full of 
migrants passing on their long journey north. On March 
13th I met a French sportsman returning with four or five 
couple of Quail, which he had shot in the fields on the 
outskirts of the oasis — the first arrivals of the season, so he 
informed me. By the third week in March, Swallows and 
House-Martins had become common, frequenting particularly 
the Oued Biskra and the cornfields on the outskirts of the 
oasis. The young palm-groves were teeming with Warblers, 
apparently on passage ; but of other migrants, such as Bee- 
eaters, Rollers, Swifts, and Redstarts, none had yet arrived. 
Had we remained another month we should doubtless have 
found them in numbers. Rock-Martins were, however, 
observed in one place only, half a dozen of these birds flying 
round the old watch tower, built on a commanding rock near 
the entrance to the town. Hartert records them from near 
Biskra in Februarj^, March, and April. 

The birds of Biskra and its neighbourhood have been so 
thoroughly studied by Lord Rothschild, Dr. Hartert, and 
others, that I can add nothing whatever to their exhaustive 
work. On 16th March we left for Touggourt — an Arab 
market-town of considerable importance 132 miles south of 
Biskra. The comfortable train, running twice weekly, takes 
from 8 A.M. until 4.30 p.m. to cover the distance, but the 
leisurely journey gives one ample time to study the topo- 
graphy of the real desert, so unlike the Sahara as seen in 
our childhood's picture-books ! A great part of the way 



412 Mr. D. A. Bannorman : First Invpressions [Ibis, 

from Biskra to Touggourt the desert was partially covered 
with plant-life — heavy rains had fallen, and the result was 
abundantly manifest. The formation of the niyrisids of tiny 
sand-mounds which dot the plain, through the agency of the 
bushes Limoniastrum, Salsola, etc., has already been ably 
explained by Dr. Hartert, and even from the carriage 
windows it is evident that these little hillocks are the centre 
of the animal life of the desert. The line passes within view 
of the Ohott Melrir and Chott Merouan^ and the sight of 
these vast sheets of water alone upsets one's preconceived 
idea of the Sahara. Unfortunately^ now that it is no longer 
necessary to spend three or four days over the journey, the 
ornithologist must not expect to get much idea of the bird- 
life ; he will not, for instance, catch a glimpse of Galerida 
theklce deichleri, the pale Crested Lark which is found on the 
stony patches amidst the sandy desert, nor of Ammomanes 
phoenicura arenicolor, of Ereinopliila alpestns hilojyha. or 
even of Ahi'mon alaudipes alaudipes, the Bifasciated Lark 
which occurs, we know from past explorers, in the sandy 
parts of the desert and even on the bare dunes. To see 
these birds in their home-surroundings the journey must be 
made on camels, as Lord Rothschild and Dr. Hartert have 
always done in the past. The remarkable spectacle of a 
whirlwind of powdered saltpetre was witnessed at one point 
during our journey, when the train was passing over a plain 
glistening white as freshly fallen snow, the surface being 
encrusted with crystallized nitre. This part of the desert lies 
considerably below the level of the sea. Two or three days 
were spent at Touggourt, and from there my wife and I rode 
on mules to Temacin and Zaouia-, taking mint tea at the 
latter village with the renowned Marabout who had enter- 
tained Lord Rothschild and his party in 1909. 

Between Touggourt and Temacin the desert is of a very 
diiferent nature from that farther north ; much of the way 
leads through sand-dunes (Plate V. fig. 1), where only 
Galerida cristata arenicola was observed. Larg-e tracts of the 
desert, particularly where the sand is hard, are covered with 
pieces of gypsum, which sparkle in the sunlight like pieces 



IBIS. 1921. PL. V. 




1. The Desert, nearing Temacin. 




2. The Oasis of Temacin, Algerian Sahara. 



SEABORNE LTD.. LONDO^ 



tgii."] of Tunisia and Algeria. * 413 

of glass. Temacin and Zaouia are well worth a visit, as they 
are purely Saharan villages of very considerable interest. 
They give one a splendid idea of what a Saharan oasis really 
is like. Arab life and customs are here quite untouched by 
French influence or tourists, which can not be said of Biskra 
or even of Touggourt. Birds were very scarce in Temacin 
and Zaouia, with the exception of one or two White Wagtails, 
and Palm-Doves, which were numerous, walking about on 
the flat roofs of the mud-built houses and also in the streets. 
A wonderful view of the desert is obtained from the minaret 
of the Mosque at Temacin (Plate Y . fig. 2), the immense 
dunes lying between Touggourt and El Oued being plainly 
visible, while three sheets of water appear not so very 
far away. 

After a journey such as this into the desert, the bird-life 
at Biskra strikes one as being remarkably plentiful — Siskins, 
Blue -Tits, Saharan Buntings ^, Blackbirds j, Hoopoes, 
Warblers, Wagtails, Swallows, Martins, Sparrows, and 
Palm-Doves enlivening the oasis, not to speak of the 
Wheatears, Ohats, and innumerable Larks which can be 
found in the surroundino- desert vv'ithin ten minutes' walk 
of the principal hotels. It was therefore with great regret 
that we finally left Biskra on the 24th of March for the town 
of Algiers. Crossing the plain of El Outaia, two Cranes and 
a Black Kite were seen, the former evidently on passage, 
but the latter breeds in the neighbourhood. An even better 
view of the Gorge of El Kantara is obtained when ap- 
proaching it from the south, the remarkable folds in the 
strata of the hills to the west of the gorge arresting the 
attention from a long distance : again no Vultures were in 
sight, but fourteen Irby's Ravens were wheeling in great 
circles overhead. As we climbed once more into the wild 
country lying immediately north of the gorge, the moun- 
tains were lit up by a magnificent sunset and their barren 
slopes turned to gold and red and purple, a desolate but 
grand panorama impossible to describe. To what a different 

* Emberiza striolata sahari. 
t Turdus merula mauritanicus. 



'il4 First Impressions of Tunisia and Ahjeria. [Ibis, 

scene we awoke next morning. The train was nearing 
Algiers, rushing through the most luxuriant countryside, 
woods carpeted with wild flowers, orchards in blossom, 
vineyards, acres o£ waving corn, and fields which looked 
greener than those in southern France ! Goldfinches and 
Chaffinches and many woodland birds were seen on all sides; 
everywhere there were streams swollen beyond their banks. 
The town of Algiers — even if one stays at Mustapha 
Superieur — is not in itself a convenient place from which 
to observe bird-life. Although the pine-woods at the back 
of Mustapha seemed full of the common species, and Green- 
finches, Chaffinches, Goldfinches, Corn-Buntings, etc., were 
observed in some numbers in the neighbourhood, the district 
is too populated to be really of much interest to the orni- 
thologist. Two Cuckoos were seen and heard in a pine-wood 
close to the hotel on 27th March — the first we had met with 
during our travels, and the only true birds of passage noted. 
Our last excursion was to the Ruisseau des Singes and the 
grand Gorge of Chiffa, a delightful drive, especially in the 
early spring. The views of tlie mountains were superb, and 
soon after entering the deep gorge, two great birds, which 
may have been Griffon Vultures, were observed sweeping 
along the mountain side many hundred feet above us, but at 
too great an elevation to identify. Three Kites were also 
seen at very close quarters just before we reached the gorge 
mouth. The apes which swarm on the mountain side, close 
to the little hotel, have become extraordinarily tame and 
come down in numbers — old males, females, and young — to 
be fed by the excursionists who make this naturally secluded 
spot their goal on a holiday. The sight of the apes running 
all over the roof of the hotel and climbing from balcony to 
balcony, entering the bedrooms whenever a chance occurred, 
did not inspire us to remain for the night, and we forthwith 
returned to Aimers. 

The following day, 29th March, we sailed for Marseilles in 
the S.S. ' Timgad,' full of regrets at leaving this wonderful 
country of forests and orchards, mountains and deserts. 



1^2 1. J 0)t the Birds of Alderney. 415 



XXIII. — Notes on the Birds of Alderney. 
By Major W. R. Thompson, R.A., M.B.O.U. 

For much of the infonnation contained in the following 
notes I am indebted to my friend, that good sportsman, 
Major L. J. A. Lanolois, of the Royal Alderney Artillery 
and Engineers. Without his aid they would have been 
far less full, and more especially are my thanks due to him 
for that valuable table giving the date of arrival on the 
island of the first Woodcock. 

Langlois has lived and shot, or I should rather say, shot and 
lived — he himself would put the shooting first — in Alderney 
since 1885, and has at his house, "Holmwood," a small but 
well set up collection of many of the rarer visitors — birds, 
not human beings — to the island. I make further acknow- 
ledgement of his assistance in the text, where, since his 
name would perforce appear so frequently, I have denoted 
him by his initial " L."" 

My own observations of the avifauna of the island com- 
menced on the date of my first joining the station in 
November 1912, and continued, with intervals, until the 
1st of August, 1914, when, owing to the imminence of war, 
the Garrison Company in which I was then serving left the 
island. I was again posted to Alderney in 1918, and landed 
on the 8th of November, since when my observations have 
continued to the present time, July 1920^ with the all impor- 
tant exception of a period of six weeks during the autumn 
migration of 1919, when I had the misfortune to be away 
on duty. 

The Island of Alderney will be found fully described in 
the guide books, but a few remarks from an ornithological 
view-point are perhaps called for. The island, then, is situated 
in latitude 49° 43' North and longitude 2° 12' West. It is 
the most northerly of the Channel Islands, and lies about 
nine miles in a westerly direction from the nearest point 
on the coast of France, Cap de la Hague, on the Cotentin 
Peninsula. From the point of view of migration it is the 



416 Mcajor W. E. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

most important of this group of islands, and prior to the con- 
struction of the Aldernej Lighthouse Avas, by all accounts, 
of even greater interest. The Alderney Lighthouse, first 
opened in 1912, lies at the eastern end of the island, and its 
value to the seafaring community at large is exemplified by 
the almost total cessation, since its construction, of the very 
numerous shipwrecks which formerly took place here, but 
since "one man's meat is another man's poison," it may be 
remarked that the islanders are the poorer for being deprived 
of that part of their livelihood which was closely connected 
with the afore-mentioned wrecks — at least so tradition 
has it. 

And as an ornithologist I can to some extent sympathise 
with them, inasmuch as, whatever be the exact explanation, 
it appears certain that, since the Alderney Light came into 
use, the stream of migration has been somehow diverted and 
does not now pass so closely to the island as formerly, with 
the result that far fewer birds of passage are observed. 

Many theories have been advanced to account for this 
change, but so many new lights have been constructed along 
the coasts of France and England, that it may be due to one 
or a combination of these, or even to a cause quite uncon- 
nected with any of them, but one interesting theory I have 
heard, and which may have something in it, is as follows. 
Before the Alderney Light was constructed, the only light 
in the immediate neighbourhood was that of the Casquets, 
and, since Alderney lies in a direct line between the nearest 
point on the French coast and the Casquets Light, it has 
been thought that the flights, on leaving the Continent, were 
attracted by the nearest light and, passing immediately over 
Alderney, many individuals were induced to land and rest 
there, and vice versa on their return journey. They are now 
attracted by the Alderney Light on the extreme eastern end 
of the island, and thus, for the most part, miss the land 
altogether. 

Alderney itself is a very small island some 3^ square 
miles in area. Its greatest length from east to west is 
3^ miles, and its average width about one mile. Its southern 



1 92 1.] Birds of AWernei). 417 

and western seaboards are high and rocky, the cliffs being 
rugged, much broken, and very picturesque. The height of 
these cliffs varies from 230 feet to nearly 300 feet near 
Telegraph Bay, their highest point. They fall almost verti- 
cally into the sea, and there is, consequently, little or no 
foreshore exposed on this side of the island at low water, 
with the exception of Longy Bay, at the eastern termination 
of the cliffs, where a comparatively large extent of sand and 
seaweed -covered rocks is uncovered as the tide recedes, 
affording feeding grounds for many Waders, ])rincipally 
Oyster-catchers and Turnstones. 

From the high southern edge a plateau generally extends 
towards the interior of the island, and then falls away 
gradually to the northern shore. The main harbour and 
roadstead are on this side, the coast being here, for the most 
part, of sand and shingle, with here and there outcrops of 
granite forming bold forelands in miniature between the 
sand}^ bays. The western end and elevated interior of the 
island are mostly under cultivation, fields being separated 
by loosely built stone walls, or rubble and stone banks, the 
interstices in which form convenient nesting places for some 
of the smaller birds. These walls and banks are of no great 
height, and are generally out of repair. A similar wall runs 
along the greater part of the western and southern edges, 
"divides the desert from the sown," and leaves between it 
and the edge of the cliff a space some hundreds of yards in 
breadth of rough stony land overgrown with furze, bracken, 
bramble, heather, and coarse grasses. 

The eastern end of the island lies low and is unfit for 
cultivation by reason of its rocky and sandy nature ; it is 
overgrown with weeds, coarse grasses, and furze. 

The island contains no river, but here and there small 
streamlets of fresh water are found. Most of the disused 
stone quarries hold water, and near Longy Bay is a pond 
filled with rushes. 

The island is almost destitute of trees, but there are some 
rather fine ones in the vicinity of St. Anne's, which, however, 
it is to be regretted, are in process of being -cut down by the 



418 IMajor W. R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

inhabitants for use as firewood, and it is hoped that legislation 
will step in to preserve those remaining. 

Included with Alderney is the small islet of Burhon^ 
about 1^ miles distant and separated from it by the passage 
known as the Swinge, through which, at spring tides, the 
current sets with great violence. There are also several out- 
lying rocks of which the most notable are the Casquets, the 
Ortac, the Garden Rocks, and Coque Lithou. Both Burhou 
and tl^<^ above mentioned outlying rocks are exceedingly 
dilhcult to approach owing to the strong and uncertain 
currents, and can only be visited in calm weather. 

Owing to the propinquity of the French coast many birds 
pass to and fro at will in both winter and summer, either as 
the spirit moves them or as the weather conditions dictate, 
so that a species which is very numerous one day may be 
absent or almost entirely absent on another, and for this 
reason it is sometimes very difficult to discriminate accurately 
between a resident and a bird of passage. 

Very little appears to have been written on the ornithology 
of Alderney. ' The Channel Islands,' by Ansted and Latham, 
published in 18G2, contains a list of birds purporting to be 
found in Alderney, but, admirable as this work undoubtedly 
is in other respects, it can scarcely be looked upon as an 
authority on ornithology, if only by reason of the Editor's 
remarks in his preface, where he states : " The Editor not 
being conversant with the details of Botany and Zoology, 
has sought and obtained the assistance of many friends and 
acquaintances." 

The next book in point of time would appear to be 'The 
Birds of Guernsey and the neighbouring Islands of Alderney, 
Sark, Herm, Jethou,' by Cecil Smith, published in 1879. 
This book appears to be reliable and is very interesting 
reading. Although now very out of date in many respects, 
it still remains the text-book on the subject. 

In the autumn of 1898 the island was visited by Dr. W. 
Eagle Clarke, and his observations on the birds appeared in 
'The Ibis' for April 1899. He remained but a week, and 



1 92 1.] Birds of Alderney. 419 

the number of birds noticed by him in this short period is 
remarkable, even allowing for the fact that the autumn 
migration was in full swing ; but a week is far too short a 
period on which to form conclusions, and the habit of many 
species, as noted above, of passing across the Race from the 
French coast to the island and vice versa at will, appears to 
have led him into some wrong assumptions wath regard 
to the relative abundance of different species. 

Corvus corax. The Raven. 

The bird is a resid(>nt, and a pair may usually be met with 
along the shore or cliffs, attention being probably first 
attracted to them by their well-known harsh cry. 

At least one pair breed here, and in February 1911 I 
visited a nest which contained six eggs. It was a pleasure 
to find that the same nest was still being occupied in 1920. 
The bird also breeds in Guernsey where, in 1909, I visited 
a nest. It contained five nearly fledged young ones, and I 
was induced to take one as a pet. It was an interesting and 
amusing bird, and no trouble so long as it had sufficient food ; 
but eventually its appetite grew to such an extent and it 
did so much damage in the garden, by biting off' the young 
shoots and buds, that I gave it to the Brighton Zoological 
Gardens, where, however, it did not live long. 

Mr. Cecil Smith, writing in 1879, was of opinion that the 
bird did not breed on any of the islands. He says : "The 
Raven can now only be looked upon as an occasional straggler. 
I do not think it breeds at present in any of the islands, as I 
have not seen it anywhere about in the breeding season since 
1866, when I saw a pair near the cliffs on the south end of the 
island (Guernsey) in June ; but as the Raven is a very early 
breeder, these may only have been wanderers." Mr. Eagle 
C'larke saw three Ravens in Sark on tli(^ 29th of September, 
1898, which he concluded, and no doubt rightly, were 
residents. It would therefore appear that the Raven is not 
only holding its own, but actually increasing in numbers, at 
any rate locally. 



420 Major W. R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

Corvus corone. Tho Carrion-Crow. 

A very common resident, and becoming more so. It is to 
be found nesting on the low trees on the island, but more 
commonly, owing no doubt to the scarcity o£ trees, it nests 
on the outlying rocks, often close to the ground and not far 
above high-water mark, ('uriously enough it does not 
appear to make much us(^ of the safer situation afforded by 
the high cliffs of the southern shore, although a few pairs do 
nest there'. The birds arc more nuuierous in the autumn and 
winter months, but this may be due to the young birds 
remaining with the family until th(^ approach of the next 
breeding-season, when they probably depart to make a home 
for themselves elsewhere. These birds are very bold during 
the breeding-season and frequently take toll of young 
chickens. 

Corvus comix. The Hooded Crow. 

I saw one of these birds on the 20th of November, 1918, 
and a flock of ten — the largest number 1 have seen together 
on the island — on the 30th of October, 1919, and another on 
the 15tli of November, 1919. L. tells me he sees some 
during the month of October every year, and that they 
usually arrive just before the first Woodcock, their appear- 
ance being looked upon by the islanders as an indication 
that Cock may be expected. Several Cocks were shot on 
the day after I had seen the floidv of ten Crows mentioned 
above. Mr. Cecil Smith says : '' The Hooded Crow can only 
be considered an occasional autumnal and winter visitant — 
Mr. MacCulloch writes me word that the Hooded Crow is 
a very rare visitant, and only, as far as he knows, in very 
cold weather ; and, he adds, it is strange that we should see 
it so rarel}', as it is very common about St. Malo." Neither 
Langlois nor myself, with the exceptions of the two birds 
mentioned above as seen in November, and which I prefer, 
owing to the extreme mildness of the season, to regard as 
late migrants, have seen this bird in Alderney during the 
winter months, even in hard weather, and it must therefore, 
at present, be considered as a bird of passage only, although 



I92I-] Birds of Alder neij. 421 

there would appear to be no reason why it shouhl not be met 
with in winter. I have no record o£ it in the spring. 

Corvus monedula. The Jackdaw. 

This bird breeds here and is a resident, although not 
common outside the breeding-season, and frequently almost 
entirely absent. Those which breed here arrive, doubtless 
from the adjacent French coast, in the early spring, when for 
some days a flock of perhaps twenty or thirty birds may be 
seen performing evolutions in the air, at intervals returning 
to ground, and evidently reconnoitring the cliffs foi- a suit- 
able nesting-place. After the breeding-season they disappear 
except for a few isolated individuals, the flock appearing 
again at uncertain intervals during summer and winter, to 
depart again after a few days' visit. 

Pica pica. The Magpie. 

I have not observed this bird myself on the island, and 
it must be considered as a rare visitor only, the absence 
of high trees and tall undergrowth no doul)t accounting 
for this. 

L. saw three of them together in about the year 1000, but 
is uncertain of the date. He also saw three in September 
1919, and tells me that during the hard winter of 1870 they 
were very numerous, and that many were caught atid kept 
as pets by the islanders. 

The bird is fairly common in Guernsey. 

Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax. The Chough. 

Mr. Cecil Smith writes : "In Sark the Choughs have by 
no means so easy a time, as the Jackdaws outnumber them 
about the cliffs, and will j)robahly eventually drive them out 
of the islantl ; indeed, I am afraid they have don(^ this in 
Alderney, as I did not see any when there in the sunnner of 
1876, nor in this last summer (1878). I, however, saAV some 
there in previous visits, l)ut now for some reason, probably 
the increase of Jackdaws, the Choughs appear to be nearly, 
if not quite, to have deserted the island." This is, and 
probably will remain, the last record of the Chouoh in 



422 Major W. R. ThoiDpson on the [Ibis, 

Aklernoy, and it disappeared from the cliffs o£ the Dorset 
coast opposite not many years later. I have been unable to 
obtain any record of its having been seen here by the " oldest 
inhabitant," although the bird is one not difficult to describe. 
However, we may yet hope to record Choughs in Alderney, 
as I see in one of our latest works — ' A Practical Handbook 
of British Birds ' — the Channel Islands are given as a 
habitat for it, and in ' British Birds ' for February 1920, 
one is recorded by Mr, H. B. Baillie as having been seen by 
him in Guernsey on the 22nd of April, 1919. 

Sturnus vulgaris. Tlie Starling. 

A common resident, ))ut less common in summer than 
winter, when their number is largely increased by arrivals 
from overseas. 

Chloris chloris. The Greenfinch. 

This bird is a resident in small numbers and breeds here, 
but a large proportion of the residents a|)pear to leave the 
island for the purpose of breeding, owing probably to the 
limited number of suitable hedgerows, returning again in 
July and the rest of tlie summer and wintering here. Its 
numbers are also temporarily increased in spring and 
autumn l)y birds of passage. It is more common some 
years than others. 

Coccothraustes coccothraustes. The Hawfinch. 

Mr. Tourgis, of Alderney, has in his possession a stuffed 
specimen, which was shot on the island by Mr. R. Herival. 

Mr. Cecil Smith, writing in 1879, states : '■ The bird- 
stuffer and carpenter in Alderney had one spread out on a 
board and hung up behind his door, which had been shot by 
his friend who shot the Greenland Falcon, in the winter of 
1876-1877, somewhere about Christmas." 

Carduelis carduelis britannica. The British Goldfinch. 

The bird is resident in small numbers and breeds here. As 
a \nvd of passage it occurs in fair numbers in spring and 
autumn. 



1921.] Birds of Alderney. 423 

Passer domesticus. The Houso-Sparrow. 

A common residdit. Its numbei-s appear to x'omain con- 
stant throughout the year. Less numerous than in most 
parts of England. 

Fringilla ccelebs. The Chaffinch. 

A resident breeding here, but its numbers are greatly 
increased during the winter months by migration. 

Mr. Eagle Clarke, who visited the island in September, 
1898, for about a week, considered it decidedly uncommon — 
a mistake due doubtless to his short stay, when possibly the 
main body was on one of its periodical visits to the French 
coast. 

Acanthis cannabina. The Linnet. 

A common resident. Its numbers are increased during 
the winter months by migration^ and as a bird of passage it 
is in some years extremely numerous for a few days or 
weeks, according to circumstances, most probably the weather 
conditions. In the spring of 11)19, from the 1st to the 5th 
of May, after a continuance of ver}^ cold north winds, large 
flocks were present on the island. I estimated these flocks 
to contain many thousands of individuals. 

Pyrrhula pyrrhula pileata. The British Bullfinch. 

A scarce resident, at least one pair breeding here, and I 
have occasionally met with it at irregular intervals in both 
summer and winter. At times it appears to be entirely 
absent, probably visiting the French coast. This is the only 
record I can find of the occurrence of the Bullfinch in 
Alderney, and the inhabitants do not appear to have noticed 
it. As I write (7th of July, 1920) a family of recently 
fledged young ones are not far away, the nest, which I found 
wdth eggs in the middle of May, having fortunately escaped 
the attention of the boys. 

Emberiza calandra. The Corn-Bunting. 
L. has shot five on the island, one in the autumn of each 
of the following years :— 1892, 1893, 1894, 1896, and 1911. 

SEK. XI. VOL. Ill, 2 F 



424 Major W. R. Tliompson on the [Ibis, 

It is not a rosiJent, so tliat tliosc shot must liave been 
mioratin^i;', and it may probably best be considered as a rare 
bird of passa<4('. I have not my self observed it. L. has one 
of the five birds mentioned above in his collection. 

Emberiza citrinella. The Yellow-Ham mer. 

This bird has so fur defeated me, and I can only conclude 
that it has disappeared from the island in reqent years, as I 
have never come across it. Mr. Cecil Smith, writing in 
1879, says : " The Yellow-Hammer, though resident and 
breeding in all the islands, is by no means so common as in 
many parts of England. In Alderney it is perhaps rather 
moie common than in Guernsey, as I saw some near the 
Artillery Barracks this summer, 1878, and Captain Hubbach 
told me he had seen two or three pairs about there all the 
yoar.- 

Mr. Eagle Clarke reports it as being common in Alderney 
in September 1898, and L. tells me that he has fre(|uently 
found it nesting here. 

Emberiza cirlus. The Cirl Bunting. 

I killed a specimen of this bird on tho 24th of December, 
1913. It was at the time feeding on a dust-heap, in com- 
pany with a mixed flock of linnets, sparrows, and chaffinches. 
I also observed it on the following occasions, when it was 
doubtless on migration to th(^ south coast of England, where 
it breeds : — 

20th of April, 1914— a flock of about twelve. 
22nd of April, 1914 — several in my garden. 
23rd of April, 1914 — one near Fort Tourgis. 

I have not seen it during the summer months, and do not 
think it breeds here, but on the 21st of January, 1919, I 
noticed on(> or two amongst a number of Rock-Pipits, so 
probably it occasionally winters h(u-e. Mr. Cecil Smith, 
writing in 1879, says of this bird : " 1 have never seen the 
Cirl Bunting in any of the islands, nor has it, as far as I 
know, been recorded from them, which seems rather sur- 
prising, as it is common on the south coast of Devon, and 



1 92 1.] Birds of Alderney. 425 

migratory, but not nuraerons on the north coast of France, 
so it is very probable that it may yet occur." Mr. Smith's 
prophecy has been realised after a lapse of thirty-four years. 

Plectrophenax nivalis. The Snow-Bunting. 

Mr. Cecil Smith states : " Captain Hubbach writes me 
word that ho shot three out of a flock of five in Aldevney in 
January 1863." 

Alauda arvensis. The Sky-Lark. 

A common resident. Its numbers are, however, augmented 
during the winter months by migration. 

Motacilla alba. The White Wagtail. 

Four birds of this species settled in my garden on the 
evening of the 15th of March, 1919, having evidently just 
arrived from overseas. They were fairly numerous on the 
24th of March, 1919, after which I saw none until the 6th of 
April, when I observed a single individual. It is a bird of 
passage. 

Motacilla lugubris. The Pied Wagtail. 

I have met with this bird at rare intervals in both summer 
and winter, so 1 think it must be looked upon as a scarce 
resident, although I have not found it nesting here. As a 
bird of passage it is not uncommon. Mr. Eagle Clarke 
found it quite common in September 1898. 

Motacilla cinerea. The Grey Wagtail. 

As a winter visitor this bird is not uncommon, and during 
this period single individuals can almost always be met with 
if searched for along the numerous small streams. I have 
never seen it here in the summer. 

Motacilla rail. The Yellow Waotail. 

Is very common as a bird of passage, especially during the 
spring migration, but is also a summer visitor, a few pairs 
remaining to breed every year, more having remained this 
year (1920), I think, than usual. During the spring of 
1919 the migration of all birds was much delayed by bad 
weather, and a iiock of these birds passed over the island, 
going north, as late as the 7th of May. 

2f2 



426 Major W. R. Thompson on tie [Ibis, 

Anthus trivialis. The Tree-Pipft. 

Mr. Cecil Smith, writing in 1879, says o£ this bird : " A 
very numerous summer visitant to all the islands, breeding 
in great numbers in parts suited to it.'' 

I found this bird to be common on migration during the 
latter part of August 1920. I obtained one on the 23rd of 
August, 1920. 

Anthus pratensis. The Meadow-Pipit, 
A common resident, I do not think its numbers are 
much, if at all, increased by migration. 

Anthus petrosus. The Rock-Pipit. 

A common resident, more common than the last species. 
It breeds on all the outlying rocks, as well as the main 
island. I do not think its numbers are increased by 
migration. 

Certhia familiaris britannica. The British Tree-Creeper. 

I constantly observed a single individual of this species 
throughout the winter of 1919-1920, and hoped that it 
would remain to breed, and I even put up a nesting-box for 
its acconnnodation, but in the spring, instead of being joined 
by a mate, it disappeared. 

Regulus regulus. The Golden-crested Wren. 

I have only noticed this bird on one occasion — on the 2nd 
of November, 1919. On this date I saw three in my garden, 
and there were doubtless others, but it was towards evening 
and getting dark. I only noticed the first one by almost 
stepping on it amongst some weeds which I was polling up. 
Poor little birds, they appeared to be quite done up after a 
week of strong cold north-east winds. 

I went to the house for a butterfly-net, and had no diffi- 
culty in catching one for identification, thinking it might be 
the Fire-crest, after which I let it go. 

Mr. Eagle Clarke saw many of these birds on the island 
on the 25th and 26th of September, 1898, and L. tells me 
that it is usually very numerous as a bird of passage ; but I 



1921.] Birds of Alderney. 427 

think few have occurred since the severe winter of 1916- 
1917j when there were so many casualties. 

Parus major newtoni. The British Great Tit. 

A common resident breeding here, but more numerous 
outside the breeding-season and especially in winter. Like 
so many of the other residents, and doubtless owing to the 
restricted area of the island, the majority are absent from the 
island durino- the breedino-season, Throuo-hout the whole 
of the autumn and winter of 1919-1920 there was a (juite 
abnormal numl)er of these birds al)out, and a few were nt^arly 
always in sight, in fact it must have been almost the com- 
monest bird on the island, but nc^arly all departed on the 
approach of spring. 

Parus caeruleus obscurus. Th(^ British Blue Tit. 
A scarce resident. Its numbers are not noticeably affected 
by migration. 

Lanius excubitor. The Great Grey Shrike. 

L. shot one of these birds on the island in 1888, and has it 
in his collection. This is, I think, the only record of this 
bird for the island. 

Ampelis garrulus. The Waxwing. 

Mr. A. C Tourgisj of Les Chevaliers, Alderney, has one of 
these birds in his collection. He shot it at Rose Farm, 
Alderney, in the autumn of 1897. 

Sylvia communis. The Whitethroat. 

A common summer visitor, and bird of passage. Con- 
siderable numbers remained to breed in 1920. 

Sylvia curruca. The Lesser Whitethroat. 

I have only noticed this bird in small numbers as a bird of 
passage. Doubtless it occasionally remains to breed, as there 
are many suitable places for it. 

Sylvia simplex. The Garden-Warbler. 

Not uncommon during migration, especially in some 
years. I have not found it breeding here, nor have I seen 
it during the summer months. 



428 Major W. R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

Sylvia atricapilla. The Blackcap. 

Occurs regularly as a bird of passage. The males were 
very numerous here on the 6th of May, 1919, but, as 
already remarked, the spring migration was much delayed 
that year. 

Acrocephalns scirpaceus. The Reed-Warbler. 

In the ' diannel Islands,' by Ansted & Latham, 
Mr. Galliene in his remarks accompanying his list of Birds 
of the Channel Islands, says : — " I have put the Reed-Warbler 
as doubtful for Guernsey, but I have seen a nest of this 
bird found at Alderney." I have not myself seen this bird 
and do not think it now breeds here. 

Phylloscopus trochilus. The Willow-Warbler. 
A common bird of passage. I have not found it breeding 
here. 

Phylloscopus collybita. The Chiffchaff. 

A common bird of passage, a few generally remaining to 
breed. A few individuals wintered here during 1919-1920, 
and so it must also be looked upon as a scarce resident. 

Turdus viscivorus. TIk^ Missel-Thrush. 

Common in winter during cold weather. L. tells ire that 
he has found it nesting here, but I think it has almost, 
if not quite, ceased to do so, as I have not observed it 
during the breeding-season. 

Turdus musicus clarkii. The Song-Thrush. 
A common resident. 

Turdus iliacus. The Redwing. 

Common in winter during cold spells, or continuous strong 
north-east winds. At other times not often seen. 

Turdus pilaris. The Fieldfare. 

As in the case of the last species, it is common during cold 
weather or strong north-east winds, but unlike that species, 
it does not disappear so quickly on the weather moderating, 
and a few may usually be met with throughout the winter, 
even in mild weather. 



1921.] Birds of Alderney. 421) 

Turdus merula. The Blackbird. 

A common resident^ being slightly more numerous than 
the Thrush. 

Turdus torquatus. The Ring-Ouzel. 

L, tells me that these birds are usually common durino- 
th(i autumn migration, arriving towards the end of: September 
and remaining about a month. Dr. Eagle Olurke noticed it 
here in September 189b, and it appears to be more numerous 
in autumn than in spring. I saw one near my house on the 
20th o£ April, 1919. 

Phcenicurus phcenicurus. The Redstart. 
A common bird of passage. 

Phcenicurus ochrurus gibraltariensis. The Black Redstart, 
A few generally winter on the island, but I saw none here 

last winter, and think that it was absent that year (1919- 

1920). 

Erithacus rubecula melophilus. The Robin. 
A common resident. I do not think its numbers are at all 
affected by migration. 

Saxicola rubicola. The Stonechat. 

A connnon summer visitor, a lew remaining through the 
winter, and therefore also a scarce resident. I shot one on 
the 10th of December, 1913. 

Saxicola rubetra. The Whinchat. 

A bird of passage in small numbers. I have only noticed 
it during the spring migrations, and do not think that it ever 
remains to breed, although there seems to be no reason why 
it should not do so. Mr. Eagle Clarke saw it here in 
September 1898. 

(Enanthe cenanthe. The Wheatear. 

A conmion bird of passage and a summer visitor, many 
remaining to breed. 

Accentor modularis. The Hedge-Sparrow. 
A connnon resident. I do not think its numbers are at all 
affected by migration. 



430 Major W. R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

Cinclus cinclus britannicus. The Dipper. 

Mr. Cecil kSinith states in regard to this bird: "Ca[)tain 
Hubbach writes me word he saw one in Alderney in the 
winter of 1861-1862." This is the only record of this bird, 
and I do not think it now occurs. 

Troglodytes troglodytes. The Wren. 

A common resident. I do not think its numbers arc 
affected by migration. 

Muscicapa grisola. The Spotted Flycatcher. 
A connnon bird of passage. I do not know that it over 
remains to breed. 

Muscicapa atricapilla. The Pied Flycatcher. 

A few occur annually as birds of passage. Mr. Eagle 
Clarke records one in " female " plumage, as seen by himself 
and his friend Mr. Laidlaw in the island on the 27th of 
September, 1898. 

Hirundo rustica. The Swallow. 
A common summer visitor. 

Delichon urbica. The Martin. 

Mr. Cecil Smith says of this bird : *' It is spread over all 
the islands, but confined to certain spots in each. In 
Alderney there were a great many nests about Scott's Hotel 
and a few more in the town." None of these birds are 
breeding here this year (1920). I have been round the whole 
town and carc^f ally inspected Scott's Hotel, and there is no 
sign of a nest, nor are there any birds about. Unfortunately 
I did not pay much attention to this bird last year, but do 
not think it bred, as otherwise there should be some sign of 
the old nests under the eaves of the houses. I cannot under- 
stand why it should not breed here, as conditions appear 
suitable, and it is a common bird of passage. This year a 
large flock remained several weeks on the island, and indeed 
did not depart until the 24th of May, when they all left 
together. 



1921.] Birds of Aldevne;/. 431 

Riparia riparia. The ?^aii(]-Martin. 

A common birtl ot" passage. It never remains to breed ; 
there are no suitable nesting-places for it. 

Dryobates sp. ? The Spottetl Woodpecker. 

L. tells me that a Spotted Woodpecker, either the Great 
or Lesser, was shot here in Novend^er 1891, by a Mr. Levens, 
who has left the island. Unfortunately it does not appear to 
have been preserved. 

lynx torquilla. The Wryneck. 

A common summer visitor. As Mr. Cecil Smith says, its 
numbers vary considerably in different years. It is particu- 
larly numerous in Alderney this year, and at present (the 
middle of July 1920) the young may be met with along 
almost any wall or hedgerow. 

Cuculus canorus. The Cuckoo. 

A common summer visitor, more numerous than I have 
anywhere seen it in England. Its numbers vary in different 
years. In 1919 it was unusually numerous. 

Micropus apus. The Swift. 

A very common summer visitor, breeding numerously, not 
only in the old forts and houses on the island, but also in 
the cracks and crannies of the sea-cliffs. 

Caprimulgus europasus. The Nightjar. 

Occurs annually as a bird of passage in both spring and 
autumn. I have not found its nest, but it probably breeds 
here, as one or two may be seen at intervals throughout the 
summer. 

Merops apiaster. The Bee-eater. 

L. has one in his collection. It is a male bird, and he 
obtained it in his garden on the 18th of May, 1917. This 
is, I think, the only record of it for Alderney. 

Upupa epops. The Hoopoe. 

Mr. Cecil Smith says of this bird : " I have one obtained 
in Alderney in August, though I have not the exact date," 



432 Major W. R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

neither does he give the year, but it must have been prior to 
1879, when his book was pubhshed. I have not myself seen 
it here, nor does an3'one seem to have preserved a specimen ; 
but I have several notes of its occurrence, and as it is a 
bird that caunot well be mistaken, and as I obtained the 
records from good observers, I think they are worth giving. 
L. has seen two on the island, one in September 1910, and 
the other about the year 1877. He tells me that the late 
Mr. R (>. May, of Alderney, once shot one here. 
Mr. Nicholas Gaudion tells me that he shot one back in the 
seventies, but he has not the exact date. 

Alcedo ispida. The Kingfisher. 

Before the war the Kingfisher was a not uncommon bird 
on the island, and one or two could always be seen in winter 
around the cliffs or fishing from the rocks. It was also 
present during the summer months, though less numerous, 
and I have little doubt it occasionally nested here. During 
the last two years, however, I have not seen a single specimen, 
nor do I know of anyone who has, and it seems to have quite 
disappeared ; it is hoped not permanently. 

Mr. Eagle Olarke found it not uncommon during his visit 
in September 1898. 

Flammea flammea. The Barn-Owl. 

A resident, but by no means common. L, has two in his 
collection, and tells me he has shot four in all, and has 
observed it on several other occasions. I had noticed one of 
these birds about all last summer and located the hole occupied 
by* it, but it was not easy of access and I did not visit it, 
although I felt pretty certain it was breeding there. This 
year, however, seeing it in the same vicinity, I determined to 
clear up the question, and, with the aid of a rope, descended 
to the hole. No sooner had my feet come opposite the hole 
than a barn-owl left it and disappeared round a corner, and 
on looking into the hole I saw three young ones, two nearly 
fledged and the other much younger and about half the size 
of the other two. This, I think, is the first record of the 
Barn-Owl breeding in Alderney. Dat(^ of visiting nest, 
18 July, 1920. 



I921.] Birds of Alderney. 433 

Asio otus. The Lono-eared Owl. 

A bird o£ passage^ but by no means common, and so far 
only noticed in the autunni. L. has one in his collection and 
has shot four of them — one in the autumn of each of the 
following years, 1893, 1899, 1900, 1904. Bearing in mind 
how seldom even our common residential owls are seen, the 
fact of this species having been observed on four occasions in 
twenty-seven years, whilst passing through the island on 
migration, argues that it is of frequent occurrence as a bird 
of passage, and is probably a regular visitor. It is curious 
how seldom this bird is noticed during the spring migration. 
It usually occurs here in November, so it would appear to be 
a late migrant at this period. I have not myself seen this 
bird. 

Asio accipitrinus. The Short-eared Owl. 

A common bird of passage and also a winter visitor, but 
the numbers remaining for the winter months vary consider- 
ably in different years. As a bird of passage it occurs more 
frequently in the autumn than the spring. L. tells me he 
once shot a specimen here in August. 

Circus aeruginosus. The Marsh-Harrier. 

L. has two in his collection — a male and a female. He 
shot the male on the 21st of August, 1899, and the female 
the following day. 

Mr. A. C. Tourgis also had a young male in his collection. 
He shot it here about the year 1894. 

Circus pygargus. Montagu's Harrier, 

Mr. Cecil Smith says of this bird : " Miss C. B. Carey 
records one in the ' Zoologist' for 1873 as having been shot 
in Alderney in July of that year. She adds that it was an 
adult male in full plumage, and that she saw it herelf at 
Mr. Couch's shop." 

The above is the only record I have for this bird. 

Buteo buteo. The Buzzard. 

L. tells me he shot one in the autumn of 1886. 

The only other record for the occurrence of this bird in 



434 Major W. R. Thompson on the [Ibi^i, 

Aldernev that T can find is contained in the following 
quotation from Mr. Cecil Smith's book : " The Buzzard is a 
tolerably reoular, and by no means unconnnon, autumnal 
visitant, sj)ecimens occurring from some of the islands almost 
every autumn. Rut it is, I believe, an autumnal visitant 
only, as I do not know of a single specimen taken at any 
other time of year, nor can I find a record of one. I have 
seen examples in the flesh from both Alderney and Herm, in 
both of which islands it occurs at least as frequently as it 
does in Guernsey, though still only as an autumnal visitant." 

1 do not think it ever visits the island at the present time. 

Buteo lagopus. The Rough-legged Buzzard. 

Mr. Cecil Smith, in his book, states that on his visit to 
Alderney in June 1878,. h(^ found one of these birds at the 
bird-stufFer and carpenter's shop there which had been shot 
in Alderney about two years previously. I have no other 
record of this bird. 

Haliaetus albicilla. The White-tailed Eagle. 

L. has one in his collection^ which he shot on the 7th of 
November, 1887. It is a young bird and said to be a male, 
though its measurements scarcely bear this out — 3 feet 

2 inches, across wings 7 feet 6 inches. 

On the 2nd of November, 1871, a specimen was shot by a 
Mr. Edwards and is now set up in Scott's Hotel. This is no 
doubt the bird spoken of by Mr. Cecil Smith — at all events 
the dates coincide. 

On the 26th of October, 1899, one was shot by Mr. A. C. 
Tourgis on Burhou, the measurements beino- the same as the 
1887 specimen mentioned above. Mr. Tourgis has it in his 
collection. 

In the autumn of 1908 one was shot by Mr. T. Simon of 
Alderney. 

It is, I think, a not uncommon occasional visitor to the 
island in autumn and winter, but owing to the fact that 
it keeps principally to the outlying rocks and Burhou, 
it is not often seen. During the autumn and winter months, 
owing to the danger of approach, a bird might remain in 



1 92 1.] Birds of Alderney. 435 

such situations unmolosted for comparatively lono- periods, 
whilst the rabbits on Burhou would doubtless aftord a very 
succulent dietary. 

Accipiter nisus. The Sparrow-Hawk. 

An occasional, and not uncommon visitor during both 
winter and summer, except during the breeding-season, but 
it is more usually met with in winter. L. has one in his 
collection, and tells me he has shot six at various times. It 
is_, I think, becoming less common. 

Hierofalco islandus candicans. The Greenland Falcon. 

Mr. Cecil Smith records that, during his visit to Alderney 
in 1878 he saw a stuffed specimen of this bird, which had 
been shot on the island somewhere about the autumn 
of 1876. 

This is the only record I have. 

Falco peregrinus. The Peregrine Falcon. 

L. has shot two— a female on the 28th of October, 1889, 
and a male on the 12th of March, 1891. 

Mr. Eaole Clarke saw one on the cliffs on the 20th of 
September, 1898. It is somewhat surprising that it has not 
been more often recorded, as there are several ap])arently 
suitable breeding-places for it at Alderney. I have not 
myself noticed it. 

Falco subhuteo. The Hobby. 

I saw one of these birds on the afternoon of the 19th of 
April, 1920. It stooped to one of the swallow tribe, which 
it missed, and in doing so came within twenty yards of me, 
affording an excellent view. I again saw it later on the 
same afternoon in my garden, but it was doubtless on 
migration, as it was not about the next day. 

Falco assalon. TIk^ IMerlin. 

L. tells me he has seen two, both daring autumn, and that 
Mr. May of Alderney once shot one. 

Mr. Eagle Clarke noticed one at the west end of the island 
on the 23rd of September, 1898. 



436 Major W. "R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

Falco tinnunculus. The Kestrel. 

A common resident ; in fact, more nnmerons here than 
I have ever seen it in any part o£ Enoland, except possibly 
in one locality in the Isle of AVight last autumn, when it 
may, perhaps, have been migrating. 

Mr. Eagle (-lark found it extremely abundant during the 
last weeks in September 1898, and concluded thorefrom that, 
in the case of Alderney, Mr. Cecil Smith was mistaken in 
his assumption that its numbers are not increased during the 
migratory season. My own opinion, however, based on 
several seasons^ observation, is that Mr. Cecil Smith was 
correct and that this bird does not visit Alderney as a bird of 
passage, at least to any appreciable extent. 

The number actually present on the island is constantly 
varying throughout the year by interchange of visits to and 
from the coast of France, and I think that very likely during 
Mr. Eagle Clarke's visit some of the French birds may have 
been here, but it may also be that he underestimated the 
number of residential birds. In walking round the island 
I should expect to encounter, in normal times, from twelve 
to twenty birds and very possibly more, whilst the occnsions 
when one or two are not iji sight are rare. If this number 
were collected together on one part of the ishmd for any 
reason, such as the abundance of coleoptera, it might easily 
account for the number seen, and if in addition, and probably 
for the same reason, individuals had arrived from France, 
the numb(n' would be still more easily accounted for. 

Phalacrocorax carbo. The Cormorant. 

An uncommon winter visitor, and possibly a resident in 
very small numbers, but I have not myself found it breeding 
here, nor do I think that I have seen it here in the breeding- 
season, and I only include it as a resident on the authority 
of Mr. Cecil Smith, who states that one or two pairs breed 
at Bnrhou. Mr. Eagle Clarke found this species very 
abundant during his visit in September 1898. I have myself 
only very occasionally noticed it in the winter months, and 
have only once seen as many as three together. According 



1921."! Birds of Alderneij. 437 

to my experience, one would not expect to find the cor- 
morant here except as a casual visitor, as the locality with 
its strong tides, deep water, and rough rock-bound coast 
is not suited to it. A cormorant's natural habitats are 
shallow land-locked bays, and shallow muddy harbours and 
estuaries. 

Phalacrocorax graculus. The 8hag. 

A coannon resident breeding here in some numbers, and 
as in most green water situations, taking the place o£ the 
cormorant. 

I cannot understand how Mr. Eagle Clarke failed to 
observe it here in September 1898^ as I cannot recall having 
ever failed to find several when I wished to, either feeding 
in the tide-way, or, as is often their habit, obtaining their 
food from the seaweed on the rocks exposed at low water. 

Sula bassana. Th(^ Gannet. 

This bird is not often seen near the shore, althouoh it is a 
regular visitor outside the breeding-season, and usually in 
winter. 

In December 1912 an immature bird was found on the 
golf links here with a broken wing and was killed by the 
man in charge of the links. It had doubtless tried conclusions 
with a telephone wire. 

On the 8th of December, 1918, T was so fortunate as to have 
under close observation for some time from a point of vantage 
on shore, an adult male of this species. It was fishing at the 
entrance to Longy Bay, and I was on the top of an old fort 
overlooking and within 150 yards of it. The water was 
extremely clear and the surface smooth, and I could distinctly 
see the bird's movements under water. In one of its dives 
it turned through a considerable angle just beneath the 
surface, apparently by aid of its wings, and in order to follow 
its })rey. On another occasion it entered the water ahnost 
horizontally at great speed, and moving rapidly just below 
the surface, either with its remaining velocity, or perhaps by 
use of its feet — it did not ai)pear to use its wino-s — emeroed 
from the water not less than 8 or 10 feet from the point of 



438 Major W. "R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

piitrance. I have not before had the opportunity of studying 
this bird at close quarters, and cannot say if this is its usual 
method, but have always thought that it fell vertically on to 
its prey. 

The only time I have seen this bird here in any numbers 
was on the 19th of May, 1920, when a flock consisting of 
nine adults and two immature birds were observed fishing 
close to the shore. At this time, it was reported by the 
fishermen that large quantities of small pollack were off the 
coast, and a herd of at least fifty porpoises (J)elphimis 
phoca'iia) of all ages was constantly patrolling round the 
island, so there were certain abnormal conditions to account 
for this, and the same conditions obtained still a week later, 
when large numbers of gannets were reported between 
Alderney and Guernsey. 

Anser anser. Th<- Grey-lag Goose. 

L. tells me that this bird is an occasional winter visitor, 
coming to the island during hard wcuthei-, and usually in 
small trips of six oi* seven individuals, A number have been 
shot at various timers. I have not myself observed it, but the 
winters 1 have passed on the island have been comparatively 
mild. 

Anser brachyrhynchus. The Pink-footed Goose. 

I killed one of these birds durino- a strono- north-east gale 
on the 19th of December, 1913. It was by itself and rose 
from the rough grass bordering Longy Bay. 

Branta bernicla. The Brent Goose. 

Small trips of these liirds are often seen off the rocks 
during th<^ winter months. A winter visitor, but varying 
much in numbers according to the se\erity of the weather. 

Anas boschas. The Wild Duck. 

A winter visitor in small nund)ers and during severe 
weatluM- only. They do not remain long, as they are almost 
immediately shot at. I have observed it occasionally in the 
autumn as a bird of passage. 



1 92 1.] B'nxls of Alderney. 489 

Querquedula crecca. The Teal. 

A winter visitor in small numbers during hard weather 
and never remaining long. L. tells me he usually sees a 
few in August and September, so it is also a bird of passage. 

Mareca penelope. The Wigeon. 

As in the case of the last two, this bird is a winter visitor 
in hard weather only, and in quite small numbers. It departs 
as soon as the weather modifies, if not in the meantime 
accounted for by the local sportsman. I cannot find that it 
ever occurs as a bird of passage. 

Dafila acuta. The Pintail. 

]Mr. Cecil Smith says of this bird: — " ( 'apbiin Hubbach 
writes me word that he shot one in Alderney in January 
18G3.^' 

(Edemia nigra. The Common Scoter. 

Mr. Cecil Smith says : — "The Scoter is a common autumn 
and winter visitant to all the islands, generally making its 
appearance in considerable flocks." ] am afraid its numbers 
must have sadly diminished since Mr. Smith's day, as I do 
not remember seeing it when stationed in Guernsey, nor on 
my fairly frequent winter passages between Alderney and 
Guernsey. 1 shot an immature female of this species in 
Longy Bay on the 9tli of August, 1919. It was by itself 
and dou1)tless a straggler from some flock. I have no other 
record oi it for the ishind, though it no doubt visits Burhou 
and some of the outlying rocks during winter. 

Mergus merganser. The Goosander. 

Mr. Cecil Smith says: — " The Goosander is a regular and 
tolerably numerous visitant to all the islands, arriving in 
the autumn and remaining throughout the winter." I have 
no other record of it, but birds which keep the sea, such as 
the divers and diving-ducks^ are difficult to observe from 
land. Had I the facilities for going afloat during winter, I 
have little doubt but that this list could have be(m added tO;, 
In one or two particulars. 

SEE. XI. VOL. III. 2 G 



440 jMajor "\V. R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

Mergus serrator. The Red-broasted Merganser. 

This bird is occasionally seen in the autumn as a bird of 
passage, and a few visit the island in winter, usually during 
hard weather, or strong winds. 

Mergellus albellus. The Smew. 

I saw one of these birds, either a female or immature 
male, in Longy Bay in December 1918. It had been blowing 
hard from the north-oast for some days. 

Ardea cinerea. The Heron. 

This bii-d pays the island an occasional visit both in the 
late summer and in winter. They presumably come from 
the French shore, and, so far as my observations go, usually 
make their appearance during spring-tides, when, doubtless, 
the fishing amongst the rocks at low water is better and 
more secure. I have never seen more than one at a time 
and they do not stay long. 

L. saj^s they are occasionally seen in winter, and on one 
occasion a pair remained throughout the summer. In 1917 
he, on one occasion, saw three together on the rocks in 
Longy Bay. 

Ardea purpurea. The Purple Heron. 

Mr. (Jecil Smith records one as being shot in Alderney 
about the middle of May^l878, and quotes Mr. MacCulloch 
as the authority for another one shot here on the 8th of 
May. 1867. 

Botaurus stellaris. The Bittern. 

Mr. Cecil Smith says of this bird : — " The birdstufFer in 
Alderney (Mr. Grieve) and his friend told me they had shot 
Bitterns in that island, but did not remember the date.'^ 

Mr. Tourgis informs me that he once shot a Bittern here. 
It was durino- the winter of either 1892 or 1893. L. tells 
me that his father, Mr. J. A. Langlois, and a Mr. Sandford 
each shot a Bittern here sometime between 1880 and 1882. 

Platalea leucorodia. The Spoonbill. 

Mr. Godfrey, of Mannez Farm, Alderney, informs me 



1 92 1.] Birds oj Aldernei/. 441 

that he shot a Spoonbill on the rocks near Longy Bay, 
about fifteen years ago, and that he kept the beak for some 
time. Neither this nor the preceding bird can easily be 
mistaken for others, and I have little doubt that they were 
correctly identified. 

(Edicnemns cedicnemus. The Stone-Cnrlew. 
L. tells me that he shot one out of a little lot of four in 
December 1887. Mr. Tourgis also once shot one. 

Phalaropus fulicarius. The Grey Phalarope. 

Mr. Cecil Smith says : — " The Grey Phalarope is a 
tolerably regular and occasionally numerous autumnal 
visitant to all the islands.'^ This does not apply now, and 
if it occurs at all it does so very seldom, although there 
seems to be no reason why it should not, as it is still, at 
times, fairly numerous on the opposite coast of Dorset. 

Scolopax rusticola. The Woodcock. 

It is to these birds that the islanders owe the greater part 
of their sport. They come over from the French coast 
in some numbers during the winter months, when the 
wind is in the east, or, better still, the south-east. They 
also come in calm weather and especially when there is a 
fog, and would doubtless remain were it not for the sporting 
proclivities of the inhabitants. They are met with princi- 
pally on the cliffs, and a good spaniel is necessary to insure 
sport. 

The Woodcock may often be soon coming over from the 
opposite coast at dusk, more especially if there is a moon, 
and I think that, in favourable weather, these birds, as well 
as the Snipe, make a regular flight across the Race, arrivino- 
here soon after dark, and the majority leaving for the 
French coast just before daylight. The followino- table 
giving the date of the first Cock of the season shot in 
Alderney since 1889, has been very kindly given to me by 
L., and since it possesses a certain human, as well as a 
scientific, interest, I give it here in its entirety and as 
received from him. 

2g2 



•142 



Major AV. R. Thompson on tlie 



[Ibis. 



Record of f lie date tJie first Woodcod. has been sJiot in Alderney 

since 188'J. 



Year. 
1889. 


Month. 


Shot by. 


Locality. 


Wind. 


Remarks. 


Oct. 18. 


Mr. L. J. A. Langlois. 


Martin's 


W. 










Bridge. 






1890. 


Oct. 19. 


Mr. J. Herivel. 


La Quoire. 


S.E. 




1891. 


Oct. 24. 


Mr. A. C. Tourgis. 


Bon Terre. 


N.W. 




1892. 


Oct. 14. 


Serg-t.-Maj. R. McLernon. 


Clonque. 


W. 




1893. 


Oct. 20. 


Mr. J. Brooks. 


Telegraph. 


s.w. 




1894. 


Oct. 16. 


Mr. N. Gaudion. 


Begignes. 


w. 




1895. 


Oct. 17. 


Mr. H. Oliver. 


Giffoine. 


N.W. 




189G. 


Oct. 17. 


Mr. R. G. May. 


Vallongy. 


N.E. 




1897. 


Oct. 19. 


Mr. T. Brooks. 


Val du Sud. 


S. 




1898. 


Oct. 21. 


Mr. A. C. Tonrgis. 


Bon Terre. 


N.W. 


Missed by V. Petite 
on the 15th. 


1899. 


Oct. 23. 


Capt. L. J. A. Langlois. 


Vallongy. 


N.E. 




1900. 


Oct. 12. 


Mr. R. G. May. 


Essex. 


S.E. 




1901. 


Oct. 29. 


Mr. A. C. Tourgis. 


Begignes. 


W. 




1902. 


Oct. 17. 


Mr. N. Gaudion. 


Trois Vaux. 


w.s.w. 


Flushed on the 11th 
by R. Herivel. 


1903. 


Oct. 23. 


Mr. Jas. M. Gautier. 


Longy drain. 


S.E. 


Seen flying over Braye j 
on the 19th. 


1904. 


Oct. 3. 


Mr. J. Brooks. 


Bon Terre. 


N.W. 




1905. 


Oct. 11. 


Capt. Theobald. 


Essex. 


E.S.E. 




1906. 


Oct. 12. 


Mr. J. Brooks. 





W. 




1907. 


Oct. 21. 


Mr. R. G. May. 


Essex. 


E.S.E. 




1908. 


Oct. 20. 


Manor L. .J. A. Langlois. 


Mouriaux. 


N.N.W. 


Mrs. L. Langlois 




. 






flushed it on the 












18th. 


1909. 


Oct. 26. 


Mr. W. LeCocq. 


Trois Vaux. 


W.S.W. 




1910. 


Oct. 17. 


Mr. Jas. M. Gautier. 


Longy drain. 


S.E. 




1911. 


Oct. 2. 


Mr. A. C. Tourgis. 


Trois Vaux. 


W.S.W. 




1912. 


Oct. 23. Mr. J. P. Simon. 


Essex. 


E.S.E. 




1913. 


Oct. 16. Mr. E. Gautier. 


Manez. 


N.E. 


V. Petite missed one 
on the 11th. 


1914. 


Oct. 15. ! Major L. J. A. Lang-lois. 


Essex. 


E.S.E. 


Mrs. L. Langlois 












flushed one in Pre 












gardens on 5th, and 












Major H. de L. 












Walters missed one 












in Essex on the 8th. 


1915. 


Oct. 20. 


Mr. C. Cooley. 




N.E. 




1916. 


Oct. 20. 


Mr. W. LeCocq. 




S.W. 




1917. 


Nov. 5. 


Major L. J. A. Langlois. 


Val du Sud. 


S. 




1918. 


Oct. 19. 


Mr. V. Petite. 




W. 




1919. 


Oct. 9. 


Mr. N. W. Gaudion. 


Essex. 


N.E. 





1921.] Birds of A Iderneij. 443 

Gallinago gallinago. The (Vjinmon Snipe. 

A few are nearly always to be met with during" tlie 
winter nionth.s, but it becomes more numerous durino- spells 
of hard weather. L. tells me that in 1899 Mr. AV. LcOocq 
shot one of the dark variety of this bird formerly known as 
Sabine's Snipe, but. it was unfortunately not preserved. I 
am of the opinion that, in favourable weather, this bird, as 
well as the Woodcock, pays regular visits to the island, 
crossinp; the Race at dusk and returning to the Cotentin at 
dawn. I have on several occasions seen it arriving in the 
evening from the direction of France. 

Gallinago media. The Great Snipe. 

Ij. tells me that he once saw one of these birds_, and that 
Mr. R. G. May has, at various times, shot three. None of 
them seem to have been preserved, and this is the only 
record I can iind of it. 

Limnocryptes gallinula. The Jack Snipe. 
A few usually to be met with during the winter months, 
becoming more numerous in severe weather. 

Tringa maritima. Tlie Purple Sandpiper. 

I had one of these birds under close observation for over 
half an hour on the 13th of December, 1913. It was 
feeding among the seaweed on the rocks at the base of 
the breakwater. I have no other record of this bird, which 
is not uncommon, in suitable localities, on the opposite coast 
of Dorset. 

Tringa alpina. The Dunlin. 

The Dunlin occurs most numerously as a bird of passage, 
although a few invariably winter here, and in hard weather 
it even becomes plentiful. A flock of six of these birds in 
summer plumage frequented Longy Bay during the first 
week of May, 1919. 

Calidris arenaria. The Sanderling. 

Mr. Cecil Smith says : — " The Sanderling is a regular 
and rather earl}' visitant to all the islands." I have not 



444 Major W. R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

noticed it myself, iuid it has undoubtedly become more scarce 
since Mr. Smith's time. 

Langlois has one of these birds in his collection, shot by 
himself in Alderney some jears ago. 1 had previously 
overlooked it, mistaking it for a Dunlin, 

Tetanus tetanus. The Redshank, 

This bird is fairly common in the late summer and autumn 
as a bird of passage, but is less frequent in the spring. The 
first birds usually make their appearance towards the end of 
July and depart again early in September, although one or 
two generally winter here. 

Tetanus nebularius. The Greenshank. 

I saw a single individual of this species feeding in Longy 
Bay on the 22nd of July, 1919. This is the only record 
I have for Alderno}-. 

Tetanus hypoleucus. The Common Sandpiper. 

This Sandpiper is not uncommon during the spring and 
autumn migrations, and some few, doubtless non-'breeding 
birds, usually pass the summer here ; but the majority arrive 
about the middle of July, and remain until September. 
These birds have been particularly numerous this year 
(1920), and a large number have remained throughout the 
summer. 

Limosa lapponica. The Bar-tailed Godwit. 

These birds arc occasionally met with as birds of passage 
in spring and autumn. Two were obtained at the Casquets 
Light in the spring of 1916, and I saw one feeding in 
Longy Bay on the 21st of August, 1919. 

Numenius arquata. The Curlew. 

Common during the winter months, a flock of some thirty 
birds or so being usually seen in the vicinity of Longy Bay. 
They usually make their first appearance in July. Mr. Cecil 
Smith says that they remain throughout the summer, but 
I do not think this is the case nowadays, except in isolated 



1921.] Birds of Alderney, 445 

cases. A pair have, however, remained here throughout this 
present summer (1920). 

Numenius phseopus. The Whimbrel. 

Common as a bird of passage in the spring, and usually 
remaining throughout the greater part of May. It is far less 
common in the autumn. I saw one in Longy Bay on the 
21st of August, 1919. 

Charadrius apricarius. The Golden Plover. 

Occurs as a bird of passage in both spring and autumn, 
and often appears in large flocks during hard weather in 
winter, but in mild winters few or none are seen. Last year, 
however, was an exception, and a flock of fifteen or sixteen 
birds arrived about the middle of October (1919) and 
remained for about a fortnight, although the weather was 
quite mild. 

Squatarola squatarola. The Grey Plover. 

An occasional winter visitor in small numbers, but never 
numerous nor seen in large flocks. I shot one in Longy Bay 
on the 10th of December, 1919, and another in summer 
plumage on the 19th of April, 1920. 

iEgialitis hiaticula. The Ringed Plover. 

Common in late summer and winter. I have not noticed 
it here in the breeding-season and do not think it nests 
here, certainly not in any numbers. 

^gialitis alexandrina. The 'Kentish Plover. 

A fairly common summer visitor. I shot one out of three 
in Longy Bay on the 27th of March, 1919 — a very early 
date. A few pairs breed in the neighbourhood, but their 
numbers are decreasing. Three eggs appear to be the 
maximum number they lay, and they often do not lay more 
than two. The eggs of this bird are not easy to find, as 
before incubation takes place there is usually no sign of a 
nest, and the eggs are, in most cases, more than three-fourths 
covered with sand, whilst after the bird has commenced to 
sit, the eggs will generally be found fully exposed and 



440 Major W. R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

resting in a neatly rounded hollow. I was at first much 
puzzled over' this circumstance and imagined it was a 
method adopted by the bird to conceal its eggs ; but lat- 
terly, and with more experience of other small objects 
resting on this sand — some of which are still beneath it, — 
I have inclined to the opinion that it was due to the wind 
blowing the sand over the nest and thus tilling up the hollow 
and almost covering the eggs. This would naturally not 
take place when the bird was sitting. 

Eudromias morinellus. The Dotterel. 

L. has shot three — one in 181)^, one in 1900, and 
one in 1902 — all in the early spring. He has one in his 
collection. I saw two of these birds in the flesh, which had 
been shot by a man in Longy Bay on the 1st of September, 
1919. 

Vanellus vanellus. The Lapwing. 

There are usually a few about during the autumn and 
winter months, but these are often augmented by the arrival 
of large flocks during hard weather. 1 saw a flock of ten 
as late as the 1st of April, 1914. I have no evidence that 
they breed here, and have not seen them here in the 
■ summer. 

Haematopus ostralegus. The Oystercatcher. 

The Oystercatcher is a very common resident, breeding 
numerously in the vicinity. I do not think its numbers are 
appreciably, if at all, affected by migration. During the 
ye:irs 1913 and 1914, I had frequently noticed a white 
variety of this bird. It was usually to be seen feeding 
among the others in the neighbourhood of Longy Bay. 
It appeared to be almost pure white, and, at a distance, had 
much the appearance of a Kittiwake, showing up plainly 
against the dark background of seaweed and rock. On my 
return to Alderney in the autumn of 1918, I again saw a 
white Oystercatcher in the same neighbourhood. Was it, 
I wonder, the same bird? 

The Oystercatcher usually lays three eggs, but I have on 



t92i.] Birds of AUlernejj. 447 

two occasions found nosts contaiiiinp; four. The nests of this 
bird an^ very varied in construction, and well worth studyinn-. 
Porha[)S more otten than not, no nest is constructed at all, 
but the eggs deposited amongst the stones of the beach. 
Again, the eggs are often laid in ;i hollow formed against 
the seaweed thrown up at high spring-tides. I once found 
two eggs jambed in a crevice between two large stones, 
their small ends v(>rticallv downwards — an extraordinary 
and one would imagine inicomfortable position, especially 
for the young birds, if they ever hatched out. Nests are 
often carefully lined with small limpet shells, some half an 
inch in diameter, with their small ends uppermost, and as 
these have usually been washec] smooth and white by the 
action of the waves, the nests thus formed are very 
conspicuous. I once found one in an old fort. It was 
placed in a hollow^ against the racer of an old gun (Mnplace- 
ment, and lined with granite-gravel taken from the old 
pathway in the fort. This gravel, which normally is rough 
and angular, was most carefully laid and fitted together, 
a flat surface of each pebble upwards, giving the appearance 
of an old Roman mosaic work. 

Areniria interpres. The Turnstone. 

A common winter visitor, arriving in late August or 
September. A few remain throughout the year, but, I think, 
only non-breeding birds. Mr. Cecil Smith considered that 
they bred on the islands, but the evidence of this seemed to 
be uncertain even in his time, and I do not know that the 
nest and eggs have actually been found. 

Larus canus. The Common Gull. 

Mr. Cecil Smith says :—" The Common Gull, though by 
no means uncommon in the Channel Islands during the 
winter, never remains to breed." 

Larus argeutatus. Th(> Herring-Gull. 

A connnon resident, but more plentiful during the 
breeding-season than at other times of the year. 



448 Major W. R. Thompson nn the [This, 

Larus marinus. The Greater Black-backed Gull. 
A resident, breeding here. 

Larus fuscus affinis. The British Lesser Black-backed 
Gull. 

A common resident, breeding here, though less numerous 
than the Herring-Gull. The llerrino-Gull and the Lesser 
Black-backed Gull breed here in the same localities and in 
some cases in the same colony, but it' one carefully observes 
these birds whilst on their nests, it will be noticed that in 
most cases the Herring-Gull chooses the bare rock or face 
of a cliff, whilst the Black-backed Gull, although nesting- 
close at hand, seems to prefer to place its nest amongst 
grass and undergrowth, or on the soil. The Greater Black- 
backed Gull is a solitary individual ; it does not nest in 
colonies, and when possible seems to prefer a small isolated 
rock to itself. 

Larus ridibundus. The Black-headed Gull. 
A few may generally be met with in winter. 

Larus minutus. The Little Gull. 

This Gull is not uncommon during the winter months, 
but it prefers to keep some distance from shore ayd so is 
not often seen. It appears to be more numerous during 
heavy gales. 

Rissa tridactyla. The Kittiwake. 

Some usually to be seen during winter, and I have noticed 
one or two throughout the summer, but these are probably 
non-breeding birds. 

Sterna hirundo. The Common Tern. 

Before the war this bird occurred as a bird of passage in 
small numbers, but I did not see it either last year (1919) 
or this spring, which is curious, seeing that a colony breed 
near Guernsey. 

Sterna paradisea. The Arctic Tern. 

These birds were common in Longy Bay and off the coast 
during the first week in September 1920. 



1 9 2 1 . ] Birds of A Idem ey . 449 

Sterna miimta. The Little Tern. 

On the 5th of September, 1919, I saw a few of these 
birds fishing in Longy Bav. This is the only record I 
have for it. 

Sterna sandvicensis. The Sandwich Tern. 

Some hundreds^ quite possibly over a thousand^ of these 
birds appeared off the coast on the 12tli of September, 
1920, after all the Arctic Terns, mentioned above, had left. 
It was difficult to estimate the number, as Alderney Race, 
as far as the eye could see, appeared to be full of them. 
They were fishing busily, some quite close to the shore. 
On the 13th, however, they had evidently passed on, and 
there wore none to be seen. I had previously seen two 
of these birds in Longy Bay on the 9th inst., one of which 
I obtained. 

Alca torda. The Razorbill. 

A resident, but more numerous in the breeding-season 
than at other times. 

Uria troille. The Common Guillemot. 

A resident, less common than the last species, but, as in 
the case of that l)ird, more numerous during the nesting- 
season than at other times. 

Fratercula arctica. The Puffin. 

A very common summer visitor, breeding here in large 
numbers. In Aujiust 1913 a disease seems to have attacked 
the colony of Puffins breeding on Burhou, and the whole 
island was thickly covered with the dead bodies of these 
birds. 

Thalassidroma pelagica. The Stormy Petrel. 

Whether the Stormy Petrel should be considered a resident 
or a summer visitor I am not certain. It still breeds in the 
neighbourhood in some numbers, but I have not noticed it 
at other times of the year. This is however, perhaps, not 
unnatural, considering its habits. 



4oO Major W. R. Thompson on the [Ibis, 

PufRnus puffinus. The Manx Shearwater. 

I have only come across this bird on one occasion. During 
the hist week in May and the first day or two in June ot' 
this year (^11)20; it was comparatively plentiful off the sliore. 
1 do not know that it breeds here, but if not, its appearance 
at this time of year is certainly curious. I uiay add, how- 
ever, as a possible explanation of the circumstance, that 
the period referred to was notic(^able for the large shoals 
of young pollack, the' herds of porj)oises, and the flocks of 
gannets in the vicinity. 

Mr. Eagle Clarke found it very numerous oif the Casquets 
on the 30th of September, 189<S, and Mr. Cecil Smith 
considers it an occasional wanderer to the Channel Islands. 

Puffinus gravis. The Great Shearwater. 

Mr. Eagle Clarke saw a single example of this bird, 
among the Manx Shearwaters, off the Casquets on the 
30th of Se})tember, 1898, and Mr. Cecil Smith includes 
it as an occasional wanderer to the Islantls, on the strength 
of having seen a small flock of four or five of them in 
the (Channel in July 186G, whilst still within sight of the 
Casquets. I have myself occasionally noticed this bird 
whilst crossing between Guernsey and Weymouth. 

Colymbus arcticus. The Black-throated Diver. 
I saw one of these birds in the Roads on the 15th of 
April, 1914. It was fishing close under the breakwater. 

Colymbus immer. The Great Northern Diver. 

Mr. Cecil Smith says : — " The Great Northern Diver is a 
common autumn and winter visitant to all the Islands." 
I have not myself seen it, and think that they have become 
less numerous since Mr. Smith's time — at any rate in this 
locality. 

Colymbus stellatus. The Red-throated Diver. 
Occasionally visits the Roads and Longy Bay in winter, 
usuall}' during rough weather or after a storm. 



1 92 1.] Birds of Alderneij. 451 

Podiceps auritus. Tlie Slavonian Grrebe. 

A regular winter visitor in small numbers. This, as well 
as the next S[)ecies, is usually met with either off the 
Platte Saline beach or in Longy Bay. 

Podiceps cristatus. The Great Crested Grrebe, 
A regular winter visitor in small numbers, but perhaps 
slightly less numerous than the last species. 

Ralhis aquaticus. The Water-TJail. 

A l)y no means uncommon winter visitor. I cannot find 
that it breeds here, nor have I met with it during the 
breeding-season. L. tells me that, when out shooting, 
he has frequently seen this bird sitting on a fence, or the 
branch of a tree, watching the dog working in the ditch 
below. This is, of course, a rather usual habit of the Moor- 
hen, but I have not before heard of the Water-Rail 
behaving thus. 

Porzana porzana. The Spotted Crake. 

L. shot one here on the 10th of November, 1891, and 
has it in his collection. 

Porzana pusilla intermedia. Baillon's Crake. 

L. shot one in the autumn of 1<S91, the same year 
in which he shot the Spotted Crake, but he has not the 
exact date. The bird is in his collection. 

Crex crex. The Land-Rail. 

A common summer visitor and also a bird of passage, but 
as such is more frequently met with in autumn than in spring. 
L. says of this bird : — " From the end of August to October 
large flights arrive with north-west and north-east winds. 
Mr. R. G. May shot fifty on one day in September 1886. 
My largest bag in one day was twenty-seven, but of late 
years they do not come in such large numbers. When a 
flight arrives it never remains over the second nioht." 
The record of these large flights in September is very 
interesting. Mr. Cecil Smith makes no mention of these 



452 On the IJinIs uf Alderneij. [Ibis, 

flights in his book ; so it would seom as i£ Guernsey were 
rather out of their line of migration. 

There would seem to be reasons, indicated above, which 
might account for these birds not remaining over the second 
night. 

Gallinula chloropus. The Moorhen. 

Occasionally met with in winter, and it would appear 
from the following account that it probably sometimes 
breeds here, which I should not think unlikely. I saw one 
shot at the bottom of my garden in the autumn of 1919. 
L. says : — " I have shot seven at various times and killed 
the eighth on the 21st of January, 1914. During the 
summer of 1916 there were eight in the Longy pond — cocks 
and hens. I watched them daily for hours playing about 
on the edge of the pond, and think they must have bred 
there." 

Fulica atra. The Coot. 

L. tells me that he has seen at least two, which were shot 
here at different times many years ago. This is the only 
record I have for it. 

Columba palumbus. The Wood-Pigeon. 

The Wood-Pigoon is common as a bird of passage, espe- 
cially during spring, when it often arrives in large flocks 
towards the latter end of April or beginning of May, and 
only remains a short time. Its late arrival is somewhat 
curious, as in England it is an early breeder. It is also met 
with in small numbers in the late summer, when the harvest 
is being gathered and at odd times durino- the winter months. 
I have not found it breeding hero. 

Colnmha livia. The Rock-Dove. 

One or two of these birds frequent the island throughout 
the year, and despite its small numbers it can, I think, 
be looked upon as a resident. I found a pair nesting here 
during the last season (1920), and expect that a pair or two 
do so regularly. 



1 92 1.] On Birds in South Russia. 453 

Coturnix coturnix. The Quail. 

From the fact that these birds occasionally winter in the 
south of England, it might be thought that some would pass 
the winter in Alderney ; Imt this does not appear to be the 
case, and Langlois can only recall one instance of the Quail 
beino- seen there during the winter months, and this was one 
he shot in November many years ago. All the breeding- 
birds leave the island early, and mostly before the opening 
of the shooting-season. 



XXIV. — Notes on Birds in South Bussia. 
By Lieut. J. N. Kennedy, M.C, R.A., F.R.G.S., M.B.O.U. 

During my recent service with the British Military Mission 
in southern Russia, I made occasional notes on birds, and I 
have now put them together in this paper, more in the hope 
that they may prove of use to future observers in these 
regions, than in the belief that they contain any original 
observations of value. 

After an extended tour through central and south Russia 
during the autumn and early winter of 1919, I found 
myself at Novorossisk, a little seaport near the northern 
extremity of the Caucasus range. Our activities had been 
much limited by the retreat and disorganisation of Denikin^s 
Army, and at Novorossisk we were awaiting for some two 
months the inevitable order to embark with the remains of 
the forces. It was during this period that I found leisure 
to make a small collection of bird-skins, and to compile the 
notes which form the first section of this article. 

In the Crimea, after a short period of re-organisation of 
the White Army, now commanded by General Wrangel, we 
were involved once more, during the spring and summer 
of 1920, in active operations, and I was unable to make any 
systematic ornithological observations. I have therefore 
contented myself, in the second section, with a few general 
remarks on the Crimea, in which I include some suggestions 
given to me by Lieutenant Y. Mtirtino, of the Russian Army, 



454 Lient. J. N. Kennedy on [Ibi«. 

as to local subspecies which have not yet been described in 
Russia, Perchance some fellow member of the B.O.U., 
visitino- the Crimea, mav find these latter a nseful indication 
for future research. 

I would here express my indebtedness to my brother, 
Lieut. J. R. Kennedy, M.C., R.A., who collaborated with me 
at Novorossisk, and to Lieut. V. Martino, of Sebastopol, who 
helped me in the Crimea. 

Dr. E. Hartert has been so very kind as to verify my 
identification of the skins, and to assign them to their proper 
subspecies as far as possible. 

The skins I have presented to the Natural History 
Museum, with the exception of that of the Blue Tit shot at 
Novorossisk, which is now in the Tring Collection. 

The eo-ffs mentioned in the second section are now in the 
collection of Mr. J. G. Gordon, Corsemalzie, Whauphill. 

I. Novorossisk. 

Novorossisk is a small town lying round an open bay near 
the northern end of the Caucasus Mountains and not far 
south of the Straits of Kertch. The hills rise steeply from 
the shore, their slopes being rocky and clothed generally 
with low trees and bushes. Behind the hills lies Circassia 
and the steppe-land, the Scythia of two thousand years ago, 
where the fabled one-eyed Arimaspians waged everlasting 
warfare with griffins which guarded treasures of gold. 

The winter climate of Novorossisk is more severe than a 
studv of the map might lead one to suppose — the thermo- 
meter often falls to '20° F. below freezing-point, and the sea 
freezes alono- the shore, althouoh not to such a sreat extent 
as in the Sea of Azov, where we had some skating and ice- 
boating. Tlio chief feature of the weather is the north-east 
wind, which blows with incredible velocitj' for a few days at 
a time at irregular intervals. This wind makes the port a 
tlangerons one, and while it blows, ships lying close inshore, 
even inside the breakwater, are unable to connnunicate with 
the land l)y boat. On occasion, during the nor''easter, some 
of our officers had to crawl on hands and knees from 



1 92 1.] B'rds in South Bitssia. 455 

their quarters to the mess, being unable to stand upright. 
(I. may remark that this did not happen after dinner !) One 
of our motor cyclists was once blown into the sea with his 
machine while proceeding along the shore-road. 

My brother and I used to venture up the hillsides in 
search of birds when the nor'easter was blowing, in the hope 
of falling in with some of the rarer species which might be 
driven down from the mountains, but the birds were generally 
all congregated in the lower valleys and about the houses 
at such times, and we seldom saw anything except an occa- 
sional Woodcock or a few Goldfinches, which seemed to stand 
the cold better than most other birds. Whilst scramblino- 
about the slopes on those expeditions, clad in great coats 
and fur caps, and grasping the trees and bushes with one 
hand wdiilst the other held a gun, we would hear every few 
minutes a roar, like that of an express train, heralding the 
approach of an especially violent gust as it came tearino- 
down from the hill-tops, driving clouds of snow before it. 
We would then cling with both hands to a tree-trunk until 
it swept down past us, the snow first blotting out the town 
below and then billowing away across the waters of the bay, 
which would bo lashed into flying spray. 

The periods of these winds were usually follow^ed by mild 
summer-like spells, during which the great flocks of Duck, 
which had been brought down to the bay by the cold, would 
gradually dwindle and disappear to inland waters. Towards 
the end of March the duck became so weak and tame during 
the storms that they would take shelter in the streets of the 
town and allow themselves to be captured by hand or 
knocked over with stones. Bramblings and other small 
birds also suffered greatly from the cold. 

Most of my observations were made on the eastern side of 
the bay and in the bay itself, where we used to shoot Duck 
frequently. This sport was rendered somewhat exciting by 
the fact that the Russian soldiers shot at the Duck with rifles 
from the shore to such an extent that one might almost have 
imagined at times that a sharp engagement was in progress. 
When duck-shooting we used to keep our hands in our gloves 

SER. XI. — VOL. Ill, '2 11 



456 * Lieut. J. N. Kennedy on [Ibis, 

until tlie moment came to seize the gun, and thrust them 
l)ack whenever the shot had been taken. Even so, our fingers 
would be excruciatingh'^ painful for a few seconds after 
contact with the metal. We sometimes returned from these 
expeditions sheeted in ice formed of frozen spray. 

The following notes were nil made during February and 
March, 1920. 

Garrulus glandarius (subsp. ?). Jay. 

One example was seen in a glen near the town on 2G. ii. 20, 
and its iiarsh cry was subsequently heard among the trees 
on several occasions. 

Sturnus vulgaris sophiae. Starling. 
2 . Novorossisk, 3. ii. 20. 

Four of these birds were seen during a cold spell on 
3. ii. 20. They were very shy, but one was secured. This 
is my only record. 

Dr. Hartert says of this skin : "It is Sturiuis r. soph'ur if 
that is a ' good ' subspecies ; it seems generally quite recog- 
nisable, but is sometimes difficult to distinguish." 

In the field this Starling struck me as being much lighter 
in general colourino- than Sturnus v. vulaaris. 

Coccothraustes coccothraustes coccothraustes. Hawfinch. 

cJ . Novorossisk, 2. ii. 20. 

? . Novorossisk, 2. ii. 20. 

A few Hawfinches were always to be seen about the 
valleys near the tow^n. 

Chloris chloris chloris. Greenfinch. 
S . Novorossisk, 3. ii. 20. 
? . Novorossisk, 3. ii. 20. 
Fairly common, consorting often with Bramblings. 

Carduelis carduelis (subsp. ?). Goldfinch. 
? . Novorossisk, G. ii. 20. 

Flocks were frequently seen, one consisting of over forty 
birds. They seemed to occur at higher altitudes than most 
other sjiocies during the cold winds, and I have remarked 



1 92 1.] Birds in South I^iissia. 457 

more than once that they were the only small birds to be 
seen on the upper slopes during a nor'easter. 

Dr. Hartert is doubtful of the subspecies of my specimen, 
although it is a good skin, and considers a series necessary 
to determine this. 

Fringilla coelebs coelebs. Cyhaffinch. 
c?. Novorossisk, lO.ii. 20. 

Fairly common, several always being noted during a walk 
along the hillsides. 

Fringilla montifringilla. Brambling. 

c? . Novorossisk, 2. ii. 20. 
? . Novorossisk, 7. ii. 20. 

Perhaps the commonest species, large flocks constantly 
frequenting the vicinity of the town. During the nor^easter 
they would become so tame that they could be caught by 
hand, and large numbers died of cold. They had all dis- 
appeared by 12 March. 

Passer domesticus domesticus. House-Sparrow. 
(*ommon in the town. 

Emberiza cia cia. Meadow-Bunting. 

cJ . Novorossisk, 8. ii. 20. 

Rather uncommon, but regularly seen. 

Melanocorypha calandra. Calandra Lark. 
? . Novorossisk, 12.iii.20. 

This species was not observed before 12 March. On 
this day, while seated at my window, I saw a flock of some 
forty of these birds come northwards up the bay, evidently 
on migration. Taking ni]' collecting-gun, I went in search 
of them on the hillside, where I presently found them 
sheltering behind bushes, and succeeded in obtaining one 
specimen. 

I see that Mr. P. J. C. McGregor, writing in ' The Ibis ' 
(1917, p. 10) notes 10 March as the first date in 11)10 of 
the occurrence of this species at Erzerum, which is 300 miles 
south of Novorossisk. ' 

2ii2 



458 Lieut. J. N. Kennedy on [This, 

Galerida cristata (subsp. ?) . Crested Lark. 
(^ . Novorossisk, 6. ii. 20. 

A few of these birds frequented the hillside and the neigh- 
bourhood of the shore. 

Alauda arvensis cinerascens. Sky-Lark. 
S . Novorossisk, 5. ii. 20. 
o Novorossisk, 1. ii. 20. 
Very common, 

Anthus pratensis. Meadow-Pipit. 

Novorossisk, 3. ii. 20. 

A few were always to be seen about the hillsides and along 
the shore. 

Monticola saxatilis. Rock-Thrush. 

1 saw this species once only, a male having been observed 
on 27. i. 20 daring a spell of cold weather. Owing partly 
to its shorter tail, the Rock-Thrush strikes one as being much 
plumper than our Song-Thrush. 

Motacilla alba alba. White AVagtail. 

cT . Novorossisk, G. ii. 20. 

Occasionally seen near the shore in February. 

Motacilla flava (subsp. ?). Yellow AVagtail. 
One example of a form of Yellow Wagtail was seen near 
the shore in February. 

Certhia familiaris familiaris. Tree-(Jreeper. 

o Novorossisk,. 1. ii. 20. 

One example onh^ was met with. 

Parus major major. Great Tit. 
o Novorossisk, 3. ii. 20. 
(■ommon. 

Parus cseruleus orientalis. Blue Tit. 
o Novorossisk, 6. ii. 20. 
Rather scarce. 



192 1.] Birds ill South Russia. 459 

Tardus pilaris. Fieldfure. 
? . Novorossisk, 7. ii. 20. 

Uucoininon. Three small cotnpauies were seen high on 
the hillsides during a fine spell oE weather in early February. 

Turdus viscivorus viscivorus. Mistle-Thrush. 
Four or five pairs were observed in a valley near the town 
towards the end of February. 

Turdus merula (subsp.?). Blackbird. 
A few were always to be seen. 

Phcenicurns ochrurus gibraltariensis. Black Redstart. 
c? . Novorossisk, 5. ii. 20. 

I have six records of this handsome species. It frequented 
the rocky slopes in the vicinity of houses. 

Erithacus rubecula rubecula. Robin. 

o Novorossisk, 2. ii. 20. 

Rather uncommon, only one or two having been observed. 

Prunella modularis (subsp. ?). Hedge-Sparrow. 

Novorossisk, 8. ii. 20. 

1 have two records only of this species, both on the 8th of 
February. 

Troglodytes troglodytes troglodytes. Wren. 
(^ . Novorossisk, 3. ii. 20. 
Not at all common. 

Dryobates minor (subsp. ?). Lesser Spotted Woodpecker. 

One example of a form of Lesser Spotted Woodpecker 
was twice seen among the trees on the hillside on 6.ii.20 
and 8. ii. 20. I should have liked to shoot this bird for 
determination of subspecies, but on the only occasion when 
I found myself within range of it there was a jammed 
cartridge case in my gun. 

Falco peregrinus (subsp.?). Peregrine Falcon. 

One frequented the hills near the town and was often seen. 

Falco tinnunculus tinnunculus. Kestrel. 
Only one record in February. 



•ifiO Lieut. J. N. Kennedy on [Ibis, 

Anas platyrhyncha platyrhyncha. Wild Duck. 

A few were i^een, and one was shot in the bavin February. 

Anas penelope. Wigeon. 
Only once seen in February. 

Nyroca ferina fevina. Pochard. 
(S . Novorossisk, G. ii. 20. 

Fairly coinnion in small companies in the bay, where we 
shot a number. 

Nyroca fuligula. Tufted Duck. 

(^ . Novorossisk, G. ii. 20. 

This was by fai- the commonest Duck, flocks of several 
hundreds of birds frequenting the bay. They always 
increased noticeably in numbers after the cold nor'easter bad 
been blowing. This Duck is also very numerous in winter 
along the south coast of the Crimea. 

Nyroca marila marila. Scaup. 

Tiie Scaup was numerous in the bay, where it occurred in 
large flocks. This Duck was frequently shot. 

Netta rufina. Red-crested Pochard. 

c? . Novorossisk, 12. ii. 20. 

Several of these Ducks appeared in the bay among the 
flocks of Tufted Duck and Pochard on 12. ii. 20, after a spell 
of very cold weather. 

Mergus serrator. Red-breasted Merganser. 
Occasionally seen in the bay. 

Phalacrocorax carbo (subsp.?) (cormorant. 
Several were seen in the harbour from time to time. 

Phalacrocorax graculus (subsp.?) Shag. 
A few were observed. 

Podiceps cristatus cristatus. Great Crested Grebe. 

o Novorossisk, 4. ii. 20. 

These birds frequented the harbour and the bay in 



tgil.j Birds in South Biissia. -Abl 

companies of from four to ten hirds and, more commonly, in 
pairs. 

Podiceps ruficollis ruficollis. Little Grebe. 
One or two Little Grebes were seen feeding close in shore 
during February. 

Scolopax rusticola. Woodcock. 

The Woodcock was not uncommon on the snow-covered 
hillsides, especially during the nor'easter, when they had 
probably crossed to the lee side of the mountains for shelter. 

• 

Lams ridibundus. Black-headed Gull. 

Numerous about the shores of the bay. 

Larus argentatus cachinnans. Herring-Gull. 
Common. Eighty were counted wheeling over the 
harbour on 5 February. 

Tetraogallus caucasicus. Caucasian Snow-Partridge. 

My brother saw a bird on 4.ii. 20 which was probably of 
this species. The white marking of the wings was distinctly 
seen. This record would seem to indicate that the Snow- 
Partridge occurs at rather low altitudes (300 ft.) during 
extremely cold and stormy weather. 

II. The C'Rimka. 

The (Crimea offers a wide field of enterprise to the field 
naturalist, comprising as it does such a varied terrain, and 
having such an interesting geological history. Along the 
southern coast-line extends a range of mountains, for the 
most part wild and rocky and well-wooded, although of late 
years the Tartars have felled trees to such an extent that the 
climate is said to have been affected. On the seaward 
slopes there is a profusion of blossoming trees, and, during a 
short walking tour in April, I observed many of our garden 
flowers, such as peonies and narcissi, growing wild. North 
of these mountains lie the steppes, stretching away like the 



462 Lieut. J. N. Kennedy on [Ibis, 

sea tor nul(>s on every hand, and carpeted in spring with 
tulips and pop[)ies of every hue. In the north, along the 
shores of the Putrid Sea (deriving its name from an 
unpleasant odour, chiefly noticeable during a breeze and 
due to its stagnant and enclosed nature), lie great marshes — 
the haunt of Duck and Wadersi. Here there arc banks 
and islands which are the nesting haunts of innumerable 
sea-birds. 

My bird-notes from the (Jrin;ea are of the scantiest, but 
perhaps a few remarks may be of interest. I was there from 
April to June, 1920. 

I am not a geologist, but I will set down the following 
theory of geological history which was described to me by 
Russians there, as it will, if correct, be of interest to orni- 
thologists. The hypothesis is that in the remote past the 
Crimean Mountains were a prolongation of the Caucasus 
range, and that they were subsequently cut oft' by the sea, 
and formed an island for some time. It was presumably 
during this period that island forms of life developed charac- 
teristic^ which have persisted to the present day, even after 
the uplift of the Crimean steppes which have formed a 
junction with the mainland to the north. It would there- 
fore appear that the hill district in the south is the true 
home of subspecies peculiar to the Crimea. 

Lieut. Martino indicated the following subspecific forms 
us not yet having been described owung to lack of complete 
series of specimens, and I feel sure he would have no 
objection to my making his suggestions more widely 
known : — 

Astur palumharius (subsp. Y). 

Regulus crisfatus (subsj). ?) . 

Accento7' modular is (subsp. ?K 

Ardea cinerea (subspl ?). 

Ijoxia curvirostris (subsp. ?). 

Ruticilla mesoleuca (subsp. '(]. 

Motacilla hoarula (subsj). ?). 

Tardus merula (ji\xhiiY>.'^). 

I retain his own nomenclature. 



1^21.] Birds in South liiissSa. 4b3 

He informed me that the following subs})ecies have 
already heen described and recognised by the Russians : — 

Coccothraustes coceotliraustes nigricans. 

Frinyilla coslehs solomki. 

Fringilla carduelis nikolski. 

Cldoris chloris mensfieri. 

Picxis major pinetorum. 

Cyanistes caeruleus hrauneri. 

Acredida rosea taurica. 

Stnrnus vulgaris tauricits. 

Certhia certhia huturlini. 

Troglodytes parvulns liyrcanvs. 
Of the foregoing I obtained skins of the Chaffinch 
{^ Mackenzie Heights, 20. vi. 20, and ? Mackenzie Heights, 
20. vi. 20), Greenfinch ( S Mackenzie Heights, 21. vi. 20), and 
Blue Tit ( ? Mackenzie Heights, 20. vi. 20). The first two 
Dr. Hartert ussigns, without comment, to Fringilla c. cwlehs 
and Chloris r. chloris respectively, whilst he finds the last 
skin to be too bad for identification of the subs))ecies. 

Specimens of the Tree-Pipit (Anthus f. trivialis) and of the 
Red-backed Shrike {Lanins c. colluiio) * were also obtained 
in June from the Mackenzie Heights and Inkerman. 

The Bee-eater (^lUerops apiaster) is not uncommon, and 
was frequently seen perching on telegraph-wires. These 
birds do not appear to form colonies here as they are said to 
do in Spain. The Rook (Corvus f. frugilegus) is very 
common everywhere, and small rookeries are seen all over 
the Crimea. 

On the steppes there are vast numbers of Larks. The 
Great Bustard (^Otis tarda} was often met with, and 
companies of three or four birds were more than once seen 
circling in ponderous flight over the plain. The Hoopoe 
( Upupa e. epops) is a very common species in the Crimea, a 
few pairs frequenting the vicinity of every village. One 

* Dr. Hartert says of my specimen of the Red-backed Shrike: "There 
is a supposed Caucasian race, but its characters and distribution are 
doubtful ; it is supposed to have less rufous on the back and smaller bill, 
but both characters are quite doubtful and variable. This specimen 
agrees with some others not from the Caucasus." 



4-fi4 On Birds in South Ifussia. [This, 

nest containing nine eggs in various stages oE incubation 
was found on 15 May in the root" ot a peasant's hut, nearly 
all the tiles having been removed in the process of search, 
much to the disgust of the owner, who was only pacified by 
an assurance tliat his name would be entered on the data label. 

In the marshes and on the sandbiinks of the north great 
numbers of Terns and Gulls breed ; eggs of the Slender- 
billed Grull (Lams f/elastes) were ol)tained at Arabat. The 
Great Black-headed Gull (Larus irhtlujaetus) was fi'equentl}' 
seen flving; over the Putrid Sea. Other birds noted in the 
marshes were the Avocet, Lapwing, Gargauey, and a 
species of Harrier which was nesting near Djankoi. 

I was given some Eagle's eggs taken on 20. iv. 20 by 
Lieut. Martino, who had assigned them to " the form of 
Imperial Eagle without a white marking on the shoulder.^' 
It appears possible that they are eggs of the Steppe Eagle. 
The nest was in a tree some 30 feet from the ground in a 
valley of the Mackenzie Heights, and the birds had built 
in the same locality for several years. The chief food of 
the Eagle was described as consisting of " sushliks," the 
common rodents of the steppes. 

Eggs were also obtained of the following : — Greenfinch, 
Chaffinch, Red-backed Shrike, ('alandra Lark, White-winged 
Lark, Jay, Hooded Crow, Starling, Blackbird, Song- Thrush, 
Magpie, Mistle-Thrush, Blue Tit, Longtailed Tit. 

In conclusion, I may perhaps be permitted to set down a 
note from my diary which throws a gleam of light on ancient 
days. Falconry appears to be a lost art in the Crimea, but 
it was once a favourite pastime of the Tartar Khan, whose 
palace is still to be seen in good repair at Bahkchi-Serai, 
The following story was related to me by the Circassian 
Sergeant — a fine tall fellow, distinguished by his long and 
fierce moustache and bright scarlet breeches — who was chief 
of the body-guard of a Russian General to whose staff" I was 
attached for some time. One of his ancestors was the Khan's 
Cbief Falconer. In the royal mews was a pair of rare and 
valued Falcons of exceeding courage and swiftness of flight, 
which the Khan had procured at great trouble and expense 
from an eastern land. It came to pass that, one morning, 



1921.] On IT Auhcntons ^'- Mamicode a Bo\iquets.''' 465 

the ('hief F'alconer, on his rounds, tliscovered in the cage of: 
these Falcons an egg remarkable for the beauty ot its 
colourino-. This e^g he furtively concealed in the folds of 
his dress and carried off to his quarters. Subsequently he 
presented it, for hatching, to a neighbouring prince, who 
vied with the Khan in his love of Falcons, and in exchange, 
he received a damsel of surpassing loveliness Avhom he had 
long desired to add to the number of his wives. Unfortu- 
nately for. him, the Khan discovered the misdemeanour of his 
Falconer, who fell into disfavour and had to flee for his life 
across the sea to Circassia, where, perchance, some wandering 
ornithologist may again hear this stoiy from the lips of one 
of his numerous descendants. 



XXV.- — Oti the correct name of D^ Auheiiton s '"''Manucode 
a Bouquets.'''' By Lord Rothschild. 

When looking up Birds-of-Paradise in connection with the 
" Plumage Bill/' Mr. T. Iredale drew my attention to 
the statement by Mr. Ogilvie-Grant on page 24 of the 
Jubilee Supplement of this journal, with regard to the syno- 
nym}' of a species of U'lphyllodes, that Dr. Hartert and I 
had agreed that his synonymy of this bird was correct. 
I w'ish here to put this synonymy right, and at the same 
time say I had not agreed to Mr. Grant's view. 

Mr. Grant adopts Boddaert's name, changing his speccosa 
into speciosa, as being the author's intention. This he does 
because the name speccosa dates from 1781, whereas he 
asserted Pennant's name of macjnipca in Forster's Indian 
Zoology dated only from 1795. 

This is erroneous, as Pennant's name dates from the first 
German edition, viz. '' Indische Zoologie, &c.'' herausgeoeben 
von Joliann Reinhold Forster, Halle 1781, not from the 
2nd and 3rd English editions of 1790 and 1795. Therefore 
the correct name of D'Aubenton's bird (PL Enl. pi. 631) is 
DipliyUodes mac/nifica (Penn.) and not IJ. speccosa (Bodd.). 
Moreover, according to the International Rules speciosa is 
inadmissible, as only author's corrections in the current 
volume are valid. 



466 Dr. A. L. Thomson : Results of a Studj/ of [Ibis. 

XXVI. — liesuUs of a Stiulj/ of liinl-Mirtration bij the 
Mavkimj Method. By A. Landsborough Thomson, 
O.B.E.,^M.A., D.Sc. 

CONTKNTS. 

1. lutroductioii : — I'age 

The Aberdteu University Eird-Jligratiou Inquiry . . 466 

Tlie Purposes of Bird-Marking- 468 

Historical Survey of Bird-Marking- 471 

Methods of the Aberdeen University Inquiry ...'... 475 

The Interpretation of Results 477 

The Numbers of Birds marked during the Aberdeen 

University Inquiry 481 

II. The Lapwing- : analysis of records 484 

III. The Woodcock : analysis of records 492 

LV. The Herring-Gull : analysis of records 495 

V. The Black-headed Gull : analysis of records 499 

VI. The Mallard : analysis of records '. 500 

^^11. The Starling : analysis of records 502 

VIII. The Song-Thrush : analysis of records 506 

IX. The Hedge-Sparrow : analysis of records 509 

X. Summaries of records regarding other species : — 

Swallow ; Greenfinch ; Goldfinch ; Chaffinch ; House- 
Sparrow ; Great Titmouse; Blue Titmouse; Mistle- 
Thrush; Blackbird; Redbreast; Spotted Flycatcher ; 
Meadow-Pipit ; Swift ; Cuckoo; Barn-Owl ; Heron ; 
Sheld-Duck ; Teal ; Wigeon ; Wood-Pigeon ; Golden 
Plover; Ringed Plover ; Dunlin; Curlew; Oyster- 
catcher ; Snipe ; Common Tern ; Little Tern ; 
Common Gull ; Guillemot ; Corncrake ; Moorhen ; 

Red Grouse ; Partridge; etc 511 

XL Conclusions regarding Bird-Migration 521 

XII. Conclusions regarding the value of the method of Bird- 
Marking 524 

XIII. References 526 

I.— INTRODUCTION. 

The Aberdeen University Bird-Migration 

Inquiry. 

This paper embodies the main results of the Aberdeen 

University Bird-Migration Inquiry, which was set on foot 

in 1909 for tho purpose of exploiting the method of study 



1 92 1.] Bird-Migration h/ the Marling Method; 467 

afforded by tho device of " bird-marking " and camo to a 
gradual end during tli(> war. Two interim reports have 
ah-eiu]y been ])ublished : the first (19)* gave full details of 
all results obtained up to the summer of 1912, without any 
attempt to draw conclusions therefrom, and it may be of 
value as giving a fair sample of the kind of data obtainable 
by this mdtliod, although publication of the remaining results 
in such bulky form has been considered unnecessary. The 
second report (20) gave only brief notes on such further 
records, up to the spring of 1915, as were of pa